The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury.


:Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p < 0.05) omnibus z-scores, z-score cutoffs were ineffective in discriminating abnormal malingerers from control participants with abnormal scores. In contrast, four malingering indices (recognition scores, primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall, both patient groups performed within the normal range, although significant performance deficits were seen in some patients. The BAVLT improves the speed and replicability of verbal learning assessments while providing comprehensive measures of retrieval timing, semantic organization, and primacy/recency effects that clarify the nature of performance.


Front Hum Neurosci


Woods DL,Wyma JM,Herron TJ,Yund EW




Has Abstract


2017-01-12 00:00:00








  • Facial Attractiveness of Chinese College Students With Different Sexual Orientation and Sex Roles.

    abstract::Facial attractiveness refers to a positive and joyful emotional experience induced by the face of a target person and the extent to which other people are driven to be close to their wishes. Since the 1970s, face attractiveness has gradually emerged in western psychological research, but most of the studies were confi...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou J,Sui L,Jiang X,Han C,Chen Q

    更新日期:2019-04-30 00:00:00

  • Contributions of Sensory Coding and Attentional Control to Individual Differences in Performance in Spatial Auditory Selective Attention Tasks.

    abstract::Listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) differ in their ability to steer attention to whatever sound source is important. This ability depends on top-down executive control, which modulates the sensory representation of sound in the cortex. Yet, this sensory representation also depends on the coding fidelity o...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai L,Shinn-Cunningham BG

    更新日期:2016-10-20 00:00:00

  • Alteration of Basal Ganglia and Right Frontoparietal Network in Early Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease during Heat Pain Stimuli and Resting State.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The symptoms and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are complicated and an accurate diagnosis of PD is difficult, particularly in early-stage. Because functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is non-invasive and is characterized by the integration of different brain areas in terms of functional con...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan Y,Tan J,Deng J,Cui W,He H,Yang F,Deng H,Xiao R,Huang Z,Zhang X,Tan R,Shen X,Liu T,Wang X,Yao D,Luo C

    更新日期:2015-08-24 00:00:00

  • Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    abstract::Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippo...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuras YI,Assaf N,Thoma MV,Gianferante D,Hanlin L,Chen X,Fiksdal A,Rohleder N

    更新日期:2017-11-28 00:00:00

  • Neural Activity and Decoding of Action Observation Using Combined EEG and fNIRS Measurement.

    abstract::In a social world, observing the actions of others is fundamental to understanding what they are doing, as well as their intentions and feelings. Studies of the neural basis and decoding of action observation are important for understanding action-related processes and have implications for cognitive, social neuroscie...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ge S,Wang P,Liu H,Lin P,Gao J,Wang R,Iramina K,Zhang Q,Zheng W

    更新日期:2019-10-15 00:00:00

  • The functional significance of cortical reorganization and the parallel development of CI therapy.

    abstract::For the nineteenth and the better part of the twentieth centuries two correlative beliefs were strongly held by almost all neuroscientists and practitioners in the field of neurorehabilitation. The first was that after maturity the adult CNS was hardwired and fixed, and second that in the chronic phase after CNS injur...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taub E,Uswatte G,Mark VW

    更新日期:2014-06-27 00:00:00

  • Somatosensory evoked field in response to visuotactile stimulation in 3- to 4-year-old children.

    abstract::A child-customized magnetoencephalography system was used to investigate somatosensory evoked field (SEF) in 3- to 4-year-old children. Three stimulus conditions were used in which the children received tactile-only stimulation to their left index finger or visuotactile stimulation. In the two visuotactile conditions,...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Remijn GB,Kikuchi M,Shitamichi K,Ueno S,Yoshimura Y,Nagao K,Tsubokawa T,Kojima H,Higashida H,Minabe Y

    更新日期:2014-03-24 00:00:00

  • Effects of the 2-Repeat Allele of the DRD4 Gene on Neural Networks Associated With the Prefrontal Cortex in Children With ADHD.

    abstract::Objective: Genetic variation, especially polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), has been linked to deficits in self-regulation and executive functions and to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is related to the structural and functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN), the ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qian A,Tao J,Wang X,Liu H,Ji L,Yang C,Ye Q,Chen C,Li J,Cheng J,Wang M,Zhao K

    更新日期:2018-07-12 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum "fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review".

    abstract::[This corrects the article on p. 3 in vol. 9, PMID: 25674060.]. ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Naseer N,Hong KS

    更新日期:2015-03-26 00:00:00

  • Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias.

    abstract::It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)-an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christensen JF,Gaigg SB,Gomila A,Oke P,Calvo-Merino B

    更新日期:2014-10-06 00:00:00

  • Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Its Clinical Translation.

    abstract::This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurof...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rubia K

    更新日期:2018-03-29 00:00:00

  • Behind the Scenes of Developmental Language Disorder: Time to Call Neuropsychology Back on Stage.

    abstract::Although the Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), also known as Specific Language Impairment in children has been the focus of unceasing scientific attention for decades, the nature and mechanisms of this disorder remain unclear. Most importantly, we still cannot reliably identify children requiring urgent intervent...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tomas E,Vissers C

    更新日期:2019-01-09 00:00:00

  • Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.

    abstract::In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedel E,Koch SP,Wendt J,Heinz A,Deserno L,Schlagenhauf F

    更新日期:2014-08-04 00:00:00

  • Age and Race-Related Differences in Sleep Discontinuity Linked to Associative Memory Performance and Its Neural Underpinnings.

    abstract::There is a strong relationship between sleep and memory for the details of past events. In old age, both episodic memory performance and related neural activity decline. These changes occur in parallel to age-related decreases in sleep quality. Thus, poor sleep quality may be an explanatory factor for poor memory in o...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hokett E,Duarte A

    更新日期:2019-06-04 00:00:00

  • The relative contributions of frontal and parietal cortex for generalized quantifier comprehension.

    abstract::Quantifiers, like "some" or "few," are frequent in daily language. Linguists posit at least three distinct classes of quantifiers: cardinal quantifiers that rely on numerosity, majority quantifiers that additionally depend on executive resources, and logical quantifiers that rely on perceptual attention. We used BOLD ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olm CA,McMillan CT,Spotorno N,Clark R,Grossman M

    更新日期:2014-08-07 00:00:00

  • Semantic Processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated With the Timing of Language Acquisition: A Magnetoencephalographic Study.

    abstract::Individuals with autism show difficulties in using sentence context to identify the correct meaning of ambiguous words, such as homonyms. In this study, the brain basis of sentence context effects on word understanding during reading was examined in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical development (TD) using mag...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahtam B,Braeutigam S,Bailey A

    更新日期:2020-07-10 00:00:00

  • Fronto-Parietal Contributions to Phonological Processes in Successful Artificial Grammar Learning.

    abstract::Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the function...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goranskaya D,Kreitewolf J,Mueller JL,Friederici AD,Hartwigsen G

    更新日期:2016-11-08 00:00:00

  • Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating binocular rivalry: the role of adaptation in inhibition.

    abstract::Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR) compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view, competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry, and ope...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Theodoni P,Panagiotaropoulos TI,Kapoor V,Logothetis NK,Deco G

    更新日期:2011-11-28 00:00:00

  • Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency.

    abstract::This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during process...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Ettinger-Veenstra H,McAllister A,Lundberg P,Karlsson T,Engström M

    更新日期:2016-03-11 00:00:00

  • Evaluating the relationship between change in performance on training tasks and on untrained outcomes.

    abstract::Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training an...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zelinski EM,Peters KD,Hindin S,Petway KT 2nd,Kennison RF

    更新日期:2014-08-13 00:00:00

  • Experimental and clinical usefulness of crossmodal paradigms in psychiatry: an illustration from emotional processing in alcohol-dependence.

    abstract::Crossmodal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs) constitutes a crucial ability in humans' everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, a...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maurage P,Campanella S

    更新日期:2013-07-25 00:00:00

  • Masking reveals parallel form systems in the visual brain.

    abstract::It is generally supposed that there is a single, hierarchically organized pathway dedicated to form processing, in which complex forms are elaborated from simpler ones, beginning with the orientation-selective cells of V1. In this psychophysical study, we undertook to test another hypothesis, namely that the brain's v...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lo YT,Zeki S

    更新日期:2014-07-25 00:00:00

  • Interpreting Prefrontal Recruitment During Walking After Stroke: Influence of Individual Differences in Mobility and Cognitive Function.

    abstract::Background: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a valuable neuroimaging approach for studying cortical contributions to walking function. Recruitment of prefrontal cortex during walking has been a particular area of focus in the literature. The present study investigated whether task-related change in pre...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chatterjee SA,Fox EJ,Daly JJ,Rose DK,Wu SS,Christou EA,Hawkins KA,Otzel DM,Butera KA,Skinner JW,Clark DJ

    更新日期:2019-06-18 00:00:00

  • Representation of Perceptual Evidence in the Human Brain Assessed by Fast, Within-Trial Dynamic Stimuli.

    abstract::In perceptual decision making the brain extracts and accumulates decision evidence from a stimulus over time and eventually makes a decision based on the accumulated evidence. Several characteristics of this process have been observed in human electrophysiological experiments, especially an average build-up of motor-r...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bitzer S,Park H,Maess B,von Kriegstein K,Kiebel SJ

    更新日期:2020-02-04 00:00:00

  • A review of visual perspective taking in autism spectrum disorder.

    abstract::Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use o...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pearson A,Ropar D,de C Hamilton AF

    更新日期:2013-10-08 00:00:00

  • Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions.

    abstract::The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-indu...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreau D,Kirk IJ,Waldie KE

    更新日期:2016-04-14 00:00:00

  • Corrigendum: Cognitive Function Impairments Linked to Alcohol and Cannabis Use During Adolescence: A Study of Gender Differences.

    abstract::[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00095.]. ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Noorbakhsh S,Afzali MH,Boers E,Conrod PJ

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Discrete Scale Invariance of Human Large EEG Voltage Deflections is More Prominent in Waking than Sleep Stage 2.

    abstract::Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically viewed through the lens of spectral analysis. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that the underlying neuronal dynamics are characterized by scale-free avalanches. These results suggest that techniques from statistical physics may be used to analyze EEG sign...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zorick T,Mandelkern MA

    更新日期:2015-12-02 00:00:00

  • Sex Differences in Categorical Adaptation for Faces and Chinese Characters during Early Perceptual Processing.

    abstract::Previous event-related potential studies support sex differences in the N170 response during face and word processing; however, it remains unclear whether N170 categorical adaptation for faces and words is different between women and men. Using an adaptation paradigm, in which an adaptor and subsequent test stimulus a...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu C,Ma X,Ji L,Chen S,Cao X

    更新日期:2018-01-12 00:00:00

  • The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy.

    abstract::A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the ce...

    journal_title:Frontiers in human neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marcoux LA,Michon PE,Voisin JI,Lemelin S,Vachon-Presseau E,Jackson PL

    更新日期:2013-06-19 00:00:00