Determinants of high blood pressure and barriers to diagnosis and treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


OBJECTIVES:We assessed the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure (BP), and barriers to diagnosis and treatment, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS:We surveyed and screened 2174 community-dwelling adults aged at least 40 years in 2014 and conducted a follow-up after 1 year. RESULTS:Median BP was 131/81 mmHg, and hypertension prevalence was 37%. Mean adjusted difference in SBP was 4.0 mmHg for overweight, 6.3 mmHg for obese class I, and 10.5 mmHg for obese class II/III compared with normal weight participants. Those who were physically inactive had 4.8 mmHg higher SBP compared with those with more than 24 h of moderate or vigorous activity per week. Drinkers of at least 10 g of alcohol per day had 4.5 mmHg higher SBP than did nondrinkers. Among hypertensive participants, 48% were previously diagnosed, 22% were treated, and 10% were controlled. Hypertensive participants without health insurance were 12% less likely to have been previously diagnosed than insured hypertensive participants. Of referred participants, 68% sought care, but only 27% were on treatment and 8% had controlled BP at follow-up. Reasons for not seeking care included lack of symptoms, cost of visit, and lack of time. Reasons for not being on treatment included lack of symptoms, not being prescribed treatment, and having finished one course of treatment. CONCLUSION:Major risk factors for hypertension in Dar es Salaam are overweight, obesity, inadequate physical activity, and limited access to quality medical care. Increased insurance coverage and community-based screening, along with quality medical care and patient education, may help control this burgeoning epidemic.


J Hypertens


Journal of hypertension


Zack RM,Irema K,Kazonda P,Leyna GH,Liu E,Spiegelman D,Fawzi W,Njelekela M,Killewo J,Danaei G




Has Abstract


2016-12-01 00:00:00












  • Impact of the European and American guidelines on hypertension prevalence, treatment, and cardiometabolic goals.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Unlike the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) guideline, the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline has recommended a shift in hypertension definition from blood pressure (BP) 140/90-130/80 mmHg. Further, they proposed so...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gijón-Conde T,Sánchez-Martínez M,Graciani A,Cruz JJ,López-García E,Ortolá R,Rodríguez-Artalejo F,Banegas JR

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacogenomics of blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:PURPOSE IDENTIFICATION: Inter-individual variability in blood pressure response to treatment is well documented, but a clinically useful means to distinguish responders from non-responders has been elusive. With the advent of new technologies and genomic knowledge, more investigators are seeking to identify ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mellen PB,Herrington DM

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Polymorphism of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene is apparently not related to high blood pressure: Dutch Hypertension and Offspring Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Studies in genetically hypertensive rats and their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rats have revealed a linkage of a chromosomal region containing the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene with blood pressure. This led to the hypothesis that ACE is a possible candidate gene for primary hypertension in hu...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt S,van Hooft IM,Grobbee DE,Ganten D,Ritz E

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Elderly Algerian women lose their sex-advantage in terms of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular profile.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Several studies have shown lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) levels in women compared to men, a difference that could partially explain the increased longevity in women. However, these studies have been performed in industrial countries while few data are available in emerging populations. We...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Temmar M,Watfa G,Joly L,Kearney-Schwartz A,Youcef M,Bensalah S,Mustapha Y,Salvi P,Gautier S,Safar M,Labat C,Benetos A

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antihypertensive drug classes and the risk of hip fracture: results from the Swedish primary care cardiovascular database.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Hypertension and fractures related to osteoporosis are major public health problems that often coexist. This study examined the associations between exposure to different antihypertensive drug classes and the risk of hip fracture in hypertensive patients. METHOD:We included 59 246 individuals, 50 years and o...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bokrantz T,Schiöler L,Boström KB,Kahan T,Mellström D,Ljungman C,Hjerpe P,Hasselström J,Manhem K

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Microalbuminuria screening by reagent strip predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertension.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We tested the hypothesis that qualitative microalbuminuria (MAU) screening in a practice setting would identify non-diabetic hypertensive patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. DESIGN:We enrolled general practitioners throughout Germany, who obtained histories, physical examinations, and...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agrawal B,Berger A,Wolf K,Luft FC

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Home device-monitored sleep blood pressure reflects large artery stiffness: the Nagahama study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:High sleep blood pressure (BP) has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the applicability of sleep BP measured using a timer-equipped home device, we investigated the association between home device-measured sleep BP and large artery stiffness. METHODS:We pe...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tabara Y,Matsumoto T,Murase K,Setoh K,Kawaguchi T,Kosugi S,Nakayama T,Hirai T,Wakamura T,Chin K,Matsuda F,Nagahama study group.

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) C-344T polymorphism, plasma aldosterone, renin activity and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aldosterone synthase gene (CYP1B2) locus is a candidate region involved in the development of hypertension. OBJECTIVE:To study the relationship between the C-344T CYP1B2 polymorphism, plasma aldosterone, renin activity and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic population. DESIGN:Population-based, cross-sect...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barbato A,Russo P,Siani A,Folkerd EJ,Miller MA,Venezia A,Grimaldi C,Strazzullo P,Cappuccio FP

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Angiotensinogen T174M and M235T variants, sodium intake and hypertension among non-drinking, lean Japanese men and women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the interaction of sodium intake with genetic variations of the angiotensinogen gene and hypertension. DESIGN:A community-based case-reference study. SETTING:Two rural Japanese communities. PARTICIPANTS:Non-overweight and non-drinking Japanese men and women: 229 hypertensives and 229 age-, sex- ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iso H,Harada S,Shimamoto T,Sato S,Kitamura A,Sankai T,Tanigawa T,Iida M,Komachi Y

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Sodium transport kinetics in erythrocytes and inside-out vesicles from Milan rats.

    abstract::This paper describes the kinetics of the Na(+)-K+ pump and the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- cotransport in sodium-loaded erythrocytes and of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- cotransport in erythrocyte inside-out vesicles (IOV) from Milan hypertensive (MHS) and normotensive (MNS) rats in order to evaluate the possible role of intracellular factor...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferrari P,Torielli L,Cirillo M,Salardi S,Bianchi G

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic and regional haemodynamic effects of renal denervation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    abstract::Systemic and regional haemodynamic effects of renal denervation were evaluated in adult (six-month-old) male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) using the Fick procedure and electromagnetic flowmetry technique. Renal denervation (bilateral, 10% phenol in ethanol), performed five to eight days before the experiment, ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee JY,Walsh GM

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic and renal effects of a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, in essential hypertension.

    abstract::Seventeen essential hypertensive patients with normal renal function were treated with a new non-sulphydryl orally active angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, benazepril, 10 mg given once or twice daily, according to diastolic blood pressure levels, for 6 weeks. In all patients, changes in blood pressure, sy...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valvo E,Casagrande P,Bedogna V,Antiga L,Alberti D,Zamboni M,Perobelli L,Dal Santo F,Maschio G

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in blood pressure after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Evidence about sex differences in blood pressure (BP) at the time of acute stroke presentation is scarce. We aimed to summarize available data on sex differences in BP at the time of acute stroke presentation, including stratification by prior history of hypertension and stroke subtype. METHODS:We performed...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Li J,Yang SC,Moullaali TJ,Chen R,Woodward M,Carcel C,Delcourt C,Sandset EC,Anderson C,Chen G,Wang X

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Blood pressure and the global burden of disease 2000. Part II: estimates of attributable burden.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To provide estimates of the global burden of disease attributable to non-optimal blood pressure by age and sex for adults aged > or = 30 years, by WHO subregion. METHODS:Estimates of attributable burden were made using population impact fractions, which used data on mean systolic blood pressure levels, dise...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lawes CM,Vander Hoorn S,Law MR,Elliott P,MacMahon S,Rodgers A

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Increased vascular reactivity induced by essential fatty acid deficiency in rat autoperfused hindquarters.

    abstract::The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) on vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor stimuli were studied in rat autoperfused hindquarters. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 21 days) were fed diets containing 8% (weight/weight) of stearax plus 2% safflower oil (control diet) or 10% stearax (EFAD diet)...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kudo K,Dusting GJ,Loiacono RE,Sinclair AJ

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Failure of alleles at the Na+, K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 locus to cosegregate with blood pressure in Dahl rats.

    abstract::A previously described Pst I restriction fragment length polymorphism in Dahl rats at the Na+, K(+)-adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha 1 isoform locus was tested for cosegregation with blood pressure in segregating populations. Inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and inbred Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats were crossed...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rapp JP,Dene H

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Reduction of blood pressure variability by combination therapy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that combination therapy might be a powerful tool to reduce blood pressure variability (BPV) in the treatment of hypertension. METHODS:In chronic studies, male spontaneously hypertensive rats were given drugs in their rat chow for 18 weeks (n = 9 or 10 for each group of rats). Doses we...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie HH,Shen FM,Xu LP,Han P,Miao CY,Su DF

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between baroreflex sensitivity, renin suppression and natriuresis in salt-sensitive rabbits.

    abstract::This study determined the influence of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) on the rate of urinary sodium excretion and plasma renin activity (PRA) in response to a saline infusion in conscious male rabbits specifically bred for high (Group I; n = 7) and low (Group II; n = 10) BRS and in seven control animals. Only Group II s...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinstock M,Borosh M,Kafri O,Kaczmarczyk G

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Persistence and adherence to antihypertensive treatment in relation to initial prescription: diuretics versus other classes of antihypertensive drugs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The use of thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension is widely considered as a first-line treatment, given the efficacy and low cost of this class of drugs. This indication is not unanimous, because thiazides can cause metabolic alterations, and other side effects that reduce compliance and persist...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Trimarco V,de Simone G,Izzo R,De Luca N,Giudice R,Marino M,Damiano S,Rozza F,Trimarco B,Di Renzo G

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Repeated administration of inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We aim to synthesize effects of repeated administration (≥3 days) of inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and arterial stiffness measures. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with at least 3 days treatment of inorganic nitrate on blood pressure and arteri...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li D,Nishi SK,Jovanovski E,Zurbau A,Komishon A,Mejia SB,Khan TA,Sievenpiper JL,Milicic D,Jenkins A,Vuksan V

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pulse pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular events in the MRC Mild Hypertension Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine whether pulse pressure is a risk factor for coronary artery disease using data from the MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension, and whether the effect of anti-hypertensive drug therapy on pulse pressure may be a determinant of outcome in treated patients. METHODS:...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Millar JA,Lever AF,Burke V

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates among Chinese adults, 1991-2015.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The upward trends in the prevalence and control of hypertension in Chinese adults have been described, but recent trends based on the most recent guidelines are unavailable. We examined recent trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Chinese adults from 1991 to 2015 bas...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ma S,Yang L,Zhao M,Magnussen CG,Xi B

    更新日期:2020-11-11 00:00:00

  • Efficacy and safety of telmisartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, compared with enalapril in elderly patients with primary hypertension. TEES Study Group.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the novel AT1 receptor antagonist, telmisartan, compared with that of enalapril in elderly patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN:A 26-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, dosage titration study. METHODS:A total of 278 patients a...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Karlberg BE,Lins LE,Hermansson K

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Arterial hypertension in urban Africa: an epidemiological study on a representative sample of Dakar inhabitants in Senegal.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the prevalence and risk markers of arterial hypertension in the context of a rapidly growing urbanization in Africa. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of inhabitants of Pikine, an urban suburb of Dakar, Senegal. METHODS:Blood pressure was measured by properly ...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Astagneau P,Lang T,Delarocque E,Jeannee E,Salem G

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Time trend in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected patients: the HIV and Hypertension Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hypertension control is often inadequate in HIV patients. In a contemporary, nationwide cohort of Italian HIV-infected adults, we assessed time trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. We also evaluated predictors of cardiovascular events and of new-onset hypertension. METHODS:M...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: De Socio GV,Ricci E,Maggi P,Parruti G,Celesia BM,Orofino G,Madeddu G,Martinelli C,Menzaghi B,Taramasso L,Bonfanti P,Pucci G,Schillaci G,CISAI study group.

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Vasopressin in circulatory control and hypertension.

    abstract::Recently, there has been an explosion of knowledge on vasopressin, including its neuro-anatomy, biochemistry and physiology. Recent work demonstrates extensive extra-hypothalamic vasopressinergic projections from the SON and PVN. Of particular importance are projections to the cardiovascular medullary centres. Convers...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnston CI

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of moxonidine on sympathetic nerve activity in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by markedly increased sympathetic outflow that contributes to increased cardiovascular mortality in these patients. The central sympatholytic drug moxonidine (MOX) has been shown to reduce muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in initial stages of chronic kid...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hausberg M,Tokmak F,Pavenstädt H,Krämer BK,Rump LC

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Mental stress and hypertension, an evolutionary framework: some historical perspectives of the 1960 World Health Organization Prague Hypertension Meeting.

    abstract::Emotional stress acutely and repetitively causing blood pressure increase or aggravating existing hypertension is usually not reflected by norepinephrine and epinephrine increase but by a sudden rise of dopamine, the third "defensive" catecholamine coping with the damaging neuropsychological and cardiovascular actions...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Kuchel O

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Prospective comparison of therapeutical attitudes in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients uncontrolled on monotherapy. A randomized trial: the EDICTA study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the anti-hypertensive effect of combination therapy versus a single drug regimen schedule (dose-titration or switching to a different drug class) in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients with inadequate blood pressure (BP) control on monotherapy. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, open-fashion, paral...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ruilope LM,de la Sierra A,Moreno E,Fernández R,Garrido J,de la Figuera M,de la Cámara AG,Coca A,Luque-Otero M

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • An association study of angiotensinogen polymorphisms with serum level and hypertension in an African-American population.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association of angiotensinogen (AGT) gene with AGT level and hypertension based on the overall genetic variation of the AGT gene in among African-Americans. METHODS:All non-rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AGT were identified by resequencing 24 individuals. Five tagging SNPs wer...

    journal_title:Journal of hypertension

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu X,Luke A,Rieder M,Lee K,Toth EJ,Nickerson D,Zhu X,Kan D,Cooper RS

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00