Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins: occurrence, dietary intake and pharmacological effects.


:Tannins are a heterogeneous group of high MW, water-soluble, polyphenolic compounds, naturally present in cereals, leguminous seeds and, predominantly, in many fruits and vegetables, where they provide protection against a wide range of biotic and abiotic stressors. Tannins exert several pharmacological effects, including antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as well as antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-nutritional and cardio-protective properties. They also seem to exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and prevent the onset of several oxidative stress-related diseases. Although the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic data for these phytochemicals are still sparse, gut absorption of these compounds seems to be inversely correlated with the degree of polymerization. Further studies are mandatory to better clarify how these molecules and their metabolites are able to cross the intestinal barrier in order to exert their biological properties. This review summarizes the current literature on tannins, focusing on the main, recently proposed mechanisms of action that underlie their pharmacological and disease-prevention properties, as well as their bioavailability, safety and toxicology. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit


Br J Pharmacol


Smeriglio A,Barreca D,Bellocco E,Trombetta D




Has Abstract


2017-06-01 00:00:00












  • Histamine H1-receptor-mediated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in DDT1MF-2 cells: agonist and antagonist properties.

    abstract::1. The effect of histamine H1-receptor stimulation on inositol phospholipid hydrolysis has been investigated in the hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line, DDT1MF-2. 2. Histamine (EC50 = 27 microM) stimulated the accumulation of [3H]-inositol phosphates in DDT1MF-2 cells prelabelled with [3H]-myo-inositol. 2-Thi...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White TE,Dickenson JM,Hill SJ

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of hypertension on nitric oxide synthase expression and vascular effects of lipopolysaccharide in rat mesenteric arteries.

    abstract::1. Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on noradrenaline (NA) responses and on NOS activity and its expression in intact mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR)...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Briones AM,Alonso MJ,Marín J,Balfagón G,Salaices M

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide biosynthesis and cyclic GMP formation on nerve-evoked relaxation of human cavernosal smooth muscle.

    abstract::1. The inhibitory transmission in isolated preparations of cavernosal smooth muscle from human penis has been studied. 2. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 2-64 pulses/train, 0.8 ms pulse duration, 10 Hz) evoked relaxation of preparations treated with guanethidine (50 microM). The EFS-evoked relaxations were atropine...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pickard RS,Powell PH,Zar MA

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00

  • Methylene blue inhibits function of the 5-HT transporter.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Methylene blue (MB) is commonly employed as a treatment for methaemoglobinaemia, malaria and vasoplegic shock. An increasing number of studies indicate that MB can cause 5-HT toxicity when administered with a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. MB is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidases, but other targe...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oz M,Isaev D,Lorke DE,Hasan M,Petroianu G,Shippenberg TS

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hydroxocobalamin and carboxy-PTIO on nitrergic transmission in porcine anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles.

    abstract::The effects of carboxy-PTIO and hydroxocobalamin were studied on nitrergic transmission in anococcygeus and retractor penis muscles taken during post mortem examination from young male pigs. In both muscles under resting conditions, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused contractions that were sensitive to tetrodot...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li CG,Rand MJ

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in mechanisms of arterial stiffness.

    abstract::Arterial stiffness progressively increases with aging and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Evidence supports that there are sex differences in the time course of aging-related arterial stiffness and the associated CVD risk, which increases disproportionately in postmenopausal women. Th...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: DuPont JJ,Kenney RM,Patel AR,Jaffe IZ

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the inhibitory effects of sodium nitroprusside, pinacidil and nifedipine on pressor response to NG-nitro-L-arginine.

    abstract::1. The inhibitory effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (NO synthase inhibitor), angiotensin II (AII) and noradrenaline (NA) were compared with those of pinacidil (KATP channel opener) and nifedipine (L-type calcium an...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang YX,Zhou T,Pang CC

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Developing cell therapies as drug products.

    abstract::In the last 20 years, the global regulatory frameworks for drug assessment have been managing the challenges posed by using cellular products as new therapeutic tools. Currently, they are defined as "Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products", comprising a large group of cellular types that either alone or in combination wi...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ciccocioppo R,Comoli P,Astori G,Del Bufalo F,Prapa M,Dominici M,Locatelli F

    更新日期:2020-11-03 00:00:00

  • Identification of a D1 dopamine receptor, not linked to adenylate cyclase, on lactotroph cells.

    abstract::1. We studied the lactotroph cells of the rat by both in vivo and in vitro pharmacological techniques for the presence of D1-receptors. Both approaches revealed the presence of D2-receptor, stimulated by quinpirole (resulting in an inhibition of prolactin secretion) and blocked by domperidone. 2. Administration of fen...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schoors DF,Vauquelin GP,De Vos H,Smets G,Velkeniers B,Vanhaelst L,Dupont AG

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the chemoreceptor trigger zone in cyclopropane induced emesis in dogs.

    abstract::Inhalation of cyclopropane in dogs, by the closed circuit method, for a fixed period, produced an emetic response during recovery from anaesthesia. Bilateral surgical ablation of the emetic chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema rendered the dogs refractory to several times (3-6) the threshold emetic dose of ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Badola RP,Bhargava KP,Dixit KS,Ratra CK

    更新日期:1971-09-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-arrhythmic activities of opioid agonists and antagonists and their stereoisomers.

    abstract::1. A series of opioid agonists, antagonists and their (+)-stereoisomers were tested for antiarrhythmic activity in the rat coronary artery occlusion model. 2. Naloxone (0.01-2 mg kg-1) significantly reduced the incidence and severity of cardiac arrhythmias, in accordance with previous published studies. 3. The non-opi...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarne Y,Flitstein A,Oppenheimer E

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Nitric oxide is not just blowing in the wind.

    abstract:LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Nitric Oxide 20 Years from the 1998 Nobel Prize. To view the other articles in this section visit ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Ignarro LJ

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of NO and cytochrome P450 to the vasodilator effect of bradykinin in the rat kidney.

    abstract::1. Inhibition of nitric oxide generation with Nw-nitro-L-arginine (nitroarginine) reduced vasodilator responses to bradykinin and acetylcholine and enhanced those to nitroprusside in the rat isolated perfused kidney, preconstricted with phenylephrine. 2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase with indomethacin, decreased the v...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fulton D,McGiff JC,Quilley J

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Passage of intravenously administered tubocurarine into the liquor space in man and dog.

    abstract::1. In anaesthetized patients under controlled respiration, samples of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid were withdrawn 15 and 60 min after an intravenous injection of 30 mg tubocurarine. When tested on the frog rectus muscle preparation contracted by acetylcholine, they exerted curare-like activity which corresponded to betw...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Devasankaraiah G,Haranath PS,Krishnamurty A

    更新日期:1973-04-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid on ionic currents in rat isolated type I carotid body cells.

    abstract::1. The effects of the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the ionic currents of rat carotid body type I cells were investigated by use of whole-cell and outside-out patch clamp techniques. 2. NDGA (5-50 microM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of whole-cell K+ currents at all activa...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hatton CJ,Peers C

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • A cerebral nitrergic pathway modulates endotoxin-induced changes in gastric motility.

    abstract::1. This study analyses the neural pathway involved in the modulation of gastric motor function by stress. 2. Systemic administration of low doses of endotoxin (40 microg kg(-1), i.v.) prevents the increase in gastric tone induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (200 mg kg(-1), i.v., 2-DG) in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 3. Funct...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quintana E,García-Zaragozá E,Martínez-Cuesta MA,Calatayud S,Esplugues JV,Barrachina MD

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of PAC(1) and VPAC receptor subtypes elicits differential physiological responses from sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the anaesthetized rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neuropeptide with central and peripheral cardiovascular actions. Intrathecal PACAP increases splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, but not mean arterial pressure (MAP). We hypothesize that the three PACAP ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inglott MA,Lerner EA,Pilowsky PM,Farnham MM

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor-mediated pathway by ginsenoside Rg1.

    abstract::Ginsenoside Rg1, an active ingredient in ginseng, was previously shown to be a novel class of potent phytoestrogen. The present study aims at investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating its actions in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Rg1 (1 pM) stimulates cell proliferation (P<0.01) and estrogen-res...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen WF,Lau WS,Cheung PY,Guo DA,Wong MS

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • EP1- and FP-mediated cross-desensitization of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor.

    abstract::1. Heterologous desensitization or intermolecular cross-talk plays a critical role in regulating intracellular signalling by diverse members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. We have previously established that the alpha and beta isoforms of the human thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) undergo differential de...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kelley-Hickie LP,Kinsella BT

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • G-protein-coupled receptor heteromers: function and ligand pharmacology.

    abstract::Almost all existing models for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are based on the occurrence of monomers. Recent studies show that many GPCRs are dimers. Therefore for some receptors dimers and not monomers are the main species interacting with hormones/neurotransmitters/drugs. There are reasons for equivocal interp...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Franco R,Casadó V,Cortés A,Mallol J,Ciruela F,Ferré S,Lluis C,Canela EI

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Real-time analysis of dopamine: antagonist interactions at recombinant human D2long receptor upon modulation of its activation state.

    abstract::1. Antipsychotic drugs may mediate their therapeutic effects not only by preventing the binding of dopamine but also by decreasing the propensity of the dopamine receptor to assume an active R* state. Ligand-mediated activation and blockade of the recombinant human D(2long) receptor was investigated in CHO-K1 cells up...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pauwels PJ,Tardif S,Wurch T,Colpaert FC

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Role of protein kinase C in desensitization of spinal delta-opioid-mediated antinociception in the mouse.

    abstract::1. Receptor phosphorylation and down-regulation by protein kinases may be a key event initiating desensitization. The present studies were designed to investigate the effect of a potent protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), on antinociception induced by intrathecal (i.t.) administration of...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Narita M,Mizoguchi H,Kampine JP,Tseng LF

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological study of SR 42641, a novel aminopyridazine derivative of GABA: antagonist properties and receptor selectivity of GABAA versus GABAB responses.

    abstract::A new arylamino-pyridazine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, SR 42641, has been tested for its ability to antagonize the actions of GABA on mammalian sensory neurones. SR 42641 and bicuculline reversibly decreased GABAA-induced depolarizations and currents recorded intracellularly from dorsal root ganglion ne...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desarmenien M,Desaulles E,Feltz P,Hamann M

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase and relaxes rat thoracic aorta by releasing nitric oxide.

    abstract::1. The signal transduction pathway for vasorelaxation induced by human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (human alpha-CGRP) was studied in rat thoracic aortic rings preconstricted with noradrenaline (10(-7) M). 2. Vasorelaxation by human alpha-CGRP was inhibited by haemoglobin (10(-6) M) and methylene blue (10(-5)...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray DW,Marshall I

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of soluble factors from nerve and muscle on alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in isolated sarcolemmal membranes of the rat.

    abstract::1. Sarcolemmal membranes were isolated from normal and from denervated muscles and the specific binding of [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to the membranes was determined. 2. Cytosol prepared from either slow (soleus) or fast (extensor digitorum longus) muscle increased the toxin binding. Similar effects were seen with cyto...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harborne AJ,Smith ME

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of adenosine and some of its structural analogues on the conductance of NMDA receptor channels in a subset of rat neostriatal neurones.

    abstract::1. In order to investigate the modulatory effects of adenosine on excitatory amino acid projections onto striatal medium spiny neurons, whole-cell patch clamp experiments were carried out in rat brain slices. The effects of various agonists for P1 (adenosine) and P2 (ATP) purinoceptors and their antagonists were inves...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nörenberg W,Wirkner K,Illes P

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Further analysis of the mechanisms underlying the tracheal relaxant action of SCA40.

    abstract::1. SCA40 (1nM-10 microM), isoprenaline (1-300 nM) and levcromakalim (100 nM-10 microM) each produced concentration-dependent suppression of the spontaneous tone of guinea-pig isolated trachea. Propranolol (1 microM) markedly (approximately 150 fold) antagonized isoprenaline but did not antagonize SCA40. The tracheal r...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cook SJ,Archer K,Martin A,Buchheit KH,Fozard JR,Müller T,Miller AJ,Elliott KR,Foster RW,Small RC

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Superoxide from NADPH oxidase upregulates type 5 phosphodiesterase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: inhibition with iloprost and NONOate.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:To determine whether there is an association between vascular NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide, the small GTPase Rac(1) and PDE type 5 (PDE5) in human vascular smooth muscle cell (hVSMCs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:hVSMCs were incubated with xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO; a superoxide generating sy...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muzaffar S,Shukla N,Bond M,Sala-Newby GB,Newby AC,Angelini GD,Jeremy JY

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • The electromechanical window is no better than QT prolongation to assess risk of Torsade de Pointes in the complete atrioventricular block model in dogs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The electromechanical window (EMW), the interval between the end of the T-wave and the end of the left ventricular pressure (LVP) curve, has recently been proposed as a predictor of risk of Torsade de Pointes (TdP) in healthy animals, whereby a negative EMW (mechanical relaxation earlier than rep...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stams TR,Bourgonje VJ,Beekman HD,Schoenmakers M,van der Nagel R,Oosterhoff P,van Opstal JM,Vos MA

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of myocardial Ca2+ channels by three dihydropyridines with different structural features: potential-dependent blockade by Ro 18-3981.

    abstract::Inhibition of myocardial Ca2+ channels was investigated for three dihydropyridines with different structural features: Ro 18-3981, darodipine (PY 108-068) and nifedipine. Ro 18-3981 contains a sulphamoyl acetyl side-chain. In voltage-clamps experiments with isolated cardiac myocytes of guinea-pig, Ro 18-3981 caused a ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holck M,Osterrieder W

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00