A retrospective study on the long-term efficacy of clozapine in 96 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients during a 13-year period.


:The effect of long-term treatment with clozapine in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a retrospective study comprising 96 patients treated with the drug during the period 1974-1986 at the Psychiatric Research Center in Uppsala. All patients had previously been treated with different kinds of antipsychotic drugs but with insufficient clinical effect or distressing extrapyramidal side effects. When clozapine treatment was initiated, the mean duration of the illness was 8 years and 9 months. In 36% of the patients clozapine treatment was discontinued, the main reasons being lack of efficacy, poor compliance or temporary withdrawal from the market in 1975. Clinical evaluation of the effect revealed that 85% of the patients could be discharged from the hospital within a year and that 43% of the patients were significantly and 38% moderately improved compared to previous treatments. Of those patients who were still on clozapine 2 years after the treatment was initiated, 39% had employment compared to only 3% before clozapine. In ten patients a transient decrement in white blood cells (WBC) was noted but normalized during ongoing treatment. One patient developed leukopenia and one agranulocytosis, none with fatal outcome. Common side effects were sedation, hypersalivation, weight gain and obstipation. In one patient clozapine treatment was stopped because of grand mal seizures. No extrapyramidal side effects were observed or reported during clozapine treatment. It is concluded that clozapine offers particular advantages for many "therapy-resistant" schizophrenic patients when compared to classical neuroleptics.




Lindström LH




Has Abstract


1989-01-01 00:00:00








99 Suppl


  • The relationships between clinical response, psychophysiological variables and plasma levels of amitriptyline and diazepam in neurotic outpatients.

    abstract::In a 4 week study of the response of neurotic outpatients to treatment with amitriptyline, diazepam, amitriptyline and diazepam, or placebo clinical and psychophysiological variables and plasma levels of the drug were assessed. Clinical improvements were substantial in all treatment groups but clear relationships betw...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Johnstone EC,Bourne RC,Crow TJ,Frith CD,Gamble S,Lofthouse R,Owen F,Owens DG,Robinson J,Stevens M

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • An organoselenium compound improves behavioral, endocrinal and neurochemical changes induced by corticosterone in mice.

    abstract:RATIONALE:3-(4-Fluorophenylselenyl)-2,5-diphenylselenophene (F-DPS) is a promising organoselenium compound that shows antidepressant-like properties related to interaction with the serotonergic system. OBJECTIVES:In this study, a mouse model of anxiety/depressant-like behavior induced by long-term corticosterone treat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gai BM,Bortolatto CF,Heck SO,Stein AL,Duarte MM,Zeni G,Nogueira CW

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological modification of DDT-induced tremor and hyperthermia in rats: distributional factors.

    abstract::Pretreatment of rats with hydantoin (75 mg/kg, PO, an anticonvulsant), trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, SC, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), or piperonyl butoxide (500 mg/kg, PO, a metabolic inhibitor) had no effect on the whole blood or brain tissue levels of orally administered DDT (75 mg/kg) or its metabolites DDD a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herr DW,Hong JS,Chen P,Tilson HA,Harry GJ

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Experiential constraints on the development of tolerance to amphetamine hypophagia following sensitization of stereotypy: instrumental contingencies regulate the expression of sensitization.

    abstract::In previous research, sensitization of stereotypy induced by injections of 2.5 mg/kg amphetamine did not interfere with subsequent tolerance development to the hypophagic effect of 2 mg/kg. This study examined the effect of a higher sensitizing dose. Rats given intermittent injections of 5 mg/kg amphetamine and then c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hughes KM,Popi L,Wolgin DL

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of lithium carbonate on memory processes of bipolar affectively ill patients.

    abstract::The effect of long-term lithium carbonate treatment on parameters of immediate, short-, and long-term memory was examined in a group of bipolar affectively ill patients. The lithium treatment group recalled significantly fewer words across trials on a verbal learning task than a group of bipolar affectively ill patien...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reus VI,Targum SD,Weingartner H,Post RM

    更新日期:1979-05-08 00:00:00

  • Effects of haloperidol in a response-reinstatement model of heroin relapse.

    abstract::The present study employed an animal model of drug relapse in which previously extinguished heroin self-administration behavior was reinstated following a single reinforced trial. Male albino rats were trained to traverse a straight-alley for a reinforcer consisting of a single IV injection of 0.06 mg/kg diacetylmorph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ettenberg A,MacConell LA,Geist TD

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Age-related changes in serotonin 5HT2 receptors on human blood platelets.

    abstract::Serotonin receptors of the 5HT2 type were labeled on platelet membranes using tritiated ketanserin. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord of newborns and venous samples were collected from 6-year-old children as well as junior-high and high school students (ages 13 through 18) to determine age-related changes in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Biegon A,Greuner N

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in response to the aversive properties and activity effects of low dose ethanol in LAS and HAS selectively bred rats.

    abstract::Rats selectively bred for high alcohol sleep times (HAS) and those that are less affected (LAS) by hypnotic doses (3.0-3.6 g/kg) of ethanol were tested for differential responses to the aversive effects of 1.0 g/kg ethanol in a conditioned place preference task. Likewise, the effects of 0.3-1.0 g/kg ethanol on spontan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schechter MD,Krimmer EC

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Levodopa impairs probabilistic reversal learning in healthy young adults.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Dopaminergic therapy improves some cognitive functions and worsens others in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These paradoxical effects are explained by the dopamine overdose hypothesis, which proposes that effects of dopaminergic therapy on a cognitive function is determined by the baseline dopamine l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vo A,Seergobin KN,Morrow SA,MacDonald PA

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of carbamazepine on cerebrospinal fluid somatostatin.

    abstract::This paper reports the reduction of the concentration of the neuropeptide somatostatin in the CSF of patients with affective illness during treatment with the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. None of the other psychotropic agents used in this study similarly affected CSF somatostatin, although zimelidine appeared to incr...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Rubinow DR,Post RM,Gold PW,Ballenger JC,Reichlin S

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol increases inattentional blindness when cognitive resources are not consumed by ongoing task demands.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Inattentional blindness (IB) is the inability to detect a salient yet unexpected task irrelevant stimulus in one's visual field when attention is engaged in an ongoing primary task. The present study is the first to examine the impact of both task difficulty and alcohol consumption on IB and primary task perf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harvey AJ,Bayless SJ,Hyams G

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic effects of ethosuximide, phenytoin, clonazepam, and valproic acid on the delayed-matching-to-sample performance of pigeons.

    abstract::Acute and chronic effects of ethosuximide (40, 80, and 120 mg/kg), phenytoin (2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg/kg), and valproic acid (40, 80, and 120 mg/kg) were examined in pigeons performing under a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure. Acute administration of clonazepam or valproic acid p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poling A,Picker M,Vande Polder D,Clark R

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of chronic administration and withdrawal of (+)-amphetamine on seizure threshold and endogenous catecholamine concentrations and their rates of biosynthesis in mice.

    abstract::The i.v. pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold was increased by 2.5 mg/kg and decreased by 15 mg/kg of a single (+)-amphetamine dose. After 7 consecutive days of amphetamine administration, tolerance developed to the decrease but not to the increase in seizure threshold. At 12--48 h after the last dose of 2.5 mg/kg seiz...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Riffee WH,Gerald MC

    更新日期:1977-01-31 00:00:00

  • Antinociceptive effect of chronic nicotine and nociceptive effect of its withdrawal measured by hot-plate and tail-flick in rats.

    abstract::Nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously via Alzet osmotic pumps to rats for 28 days. Nociception was measured by the hot-plate and tail-flick methods. A significant antinociceptive effect was demonstrated during the first week of the treatment; after that tolerance developed, lasting for the remaining p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang CY,Wu WH,Zbuzek VK

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors on working memory in rats.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide ra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Panlilio LV,Thorndike EB,Nikas SP,Alapafuja SO,Bandiera T,Cravatt BF,Makriyannis A,Piomelli D,Goldberg SR,Justinova Z

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • GABA(A) ρ receptor mechanisms in the rat amygdala and its role in the modulation of fear and anxiety.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Accumulating evidence for the presence of GABA(A) ρ receptors within the amygdala which differ from other members of the GABA(A) receptor family in both subunit composition and functional properties has been recently obtained. OBJECTIVES:This work was conducted to study whether GABA(A) ρ receptors may have a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flores-Gracia C,Nuche-Bricaire A,Crespo-Ramírez M,Miledi R,Fuxe K,Pérez de la Mora M

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Premature responses in the five-choice serial reaction time task reflect rodents' temporal strategies: evidence from no-light and pharmacological challenges.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is regularly used to study attention and impulsivity. In the 5-CSRTT, rodents initiate a trial, then after an inter-trial interval (ITI), a light appears in one of five holes. Responding in the lit vs. unlit hole reflects attention (accuracy), while respondi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cope ZA,Halberstadt AL,van Enkhuizen J,Flynn AD,Breier M,Swerdlow NR,Geyer MA,Young JW

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effect of ritanserin on the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated cortisol, ACTH and prolactin secretion in humans.

    abstract::Oral administration of the serotonin (5-HT) precursor L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 200 mg, significantly increased plasma cortisol levels in man. L-5-HTP had no significant effect on the plasma prolactin levels. A borderline effect of 5-HTP on plasma ACTH levels was found. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2/5-HT1c antagoni...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee MA,Nash JF,Barnes M,Meltzer HY

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Opposing neural effects of naltrexone on food reward and aversion: implications for the treatment of obesity.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Opioid antagonism reduces the consumption of palatable foods in humans but the neural substrates implicated in these effects are less well understood. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on neural response to rewarding and aversive sight an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Murray E,Brouwer S,McCutcheon R,Harmer CJ,Cowen PJ,McCabe C

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • High-dose methadone produces superior opioid blockade and comparable withdrawal suppression to lower doses in opioid-dependent humans.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The efficacy of methadone for treating heroin dependence derives, in part, from suppression of opiate withdrawal and attenuation of the effects of heroin. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this double-blind, within-subject, inpatient study was to determine whether larger doses of methadone, which are more effective ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donny EC,Walsh SL,Bigelow GE,Eissenberg T,Stitzer ML

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on cognition in rhesus monkeys.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Nicotine and other agonists of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) have been shown to improve performance in specific memory domains in rodents and monkeys. Such beneficial effects are observed in preclinical models of age-related cognitive decline, stimulating interest in nAChR ligands as possible therap...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Katner SN,Davis SA,Kirsten AJ,Taffe MA

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative efficacy and safety of bupropion and placebo in the treatment of depression.

    abstract::This was a 4-week, three-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of bupropion in hospitalized depressed patients. Results from 27 placebo and 48 bupropion-treated patients were analyzed for efficacy and safety. Assessments of efficacy and safety were made at...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Zung WW,Brodie HK,Fabre L,McLendon D,Garver D

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • A neurotoxic regimen of MDMA suppresses behavioral, thermal and neurochemical responses to subsequent MDMA administration.

    abstract:RATIONALE:3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a long-term depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in the rat brain; this depletion may have some functional consequences. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of MDMA on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and 5-HT, body t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shankaran M,Gudelsky GA

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative effects of the alpha7 nicotinic partial agonist, S 24795, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, against aging-related deficits in declarative and working memory in mice.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The comparative effects of a newly described specific alpha7 nAChR partial agonist, S 24795, and a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, currently used as a symptomatic Alzheimer's disease treatment were studied in two mouse models of aging-related memory deficits. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We employed radial ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marighetto A,Valerio S,Desmedt A,Philippin JN,Trocmé-Thibierge C,Morain P

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Caffeine intake and cognitive functions in children.

    abstract:RATIONALE:There is a growing concern over excessive caffeine use and development of caffeine use disorder in children. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to identify the association between caffeine intake and cognitive functioning in children. METHODS:This study included 11,718 youths aged 9-10 years with cognitive and caf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang H,Lee ZX,Qiu A

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Metformin attenuates antipsychotic-induced metabolic dysfunctions in MK801-induced schizophrenia-like rats.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Second-generation antipsychotics are the first-line medications prescribed for schizophrenic patients; however, some of them, such as olanzapine and risperidone, may induce metabolic dysfunctions during short-term treatment. Metformin is an effective adjuvant that attenuates antipsychotic-induced metabolic dy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luo C,Wang X,Mao X,Huang H,Liu Y,Zhao J,Zhou H,Liu Z,Li X

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Absence of central effects in man of the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788.

    abstract::The benzodiazepines are typified by a profile of side effects which includes drowsiness, ataxia and incoordination. Ro 15-1788, an imidazodiazepine derivative, exhibits marked antagonism of the behavioural and biochemical effects of the benzodiazepines in animals and man. It is devoid of any behavioural activity in an...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Darragh A,Lambe R,O'Boyle C,Kenny M,Brick I

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Predictive validity of the extinction/reinstatement model of drug craving.

    abstract::The effects of chronic desmethylimipramine (DMI) treatment on measures of incentive motivation for cocaine were assessed in order to investigate the predictive validity of the extinction/reinstatement model of drug craving. Rats were trained to respond for cocaine infusions (0.75 mg/kg per 0.1 ml i.v.) or received yok...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fuchs RA,Tran-Nguyen LT,Specio SE,Groff RS,Neisewander JL

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal AZT or 3TC and mouse development of locomotor activity and hot-plate responding upon administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) are nucleoside analogues administered prenatally in clinical practice, separately or in combination, as antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission by inhibiting viral reverse transcriptase. In animal studies pre- and/or perinatal exposure to AZT and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ricceri L,Venerosi A,Valanzano A,Sorace A,Alleva E

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Limited stimulus generalization between delta 9-THC and diazepam in pigeons and gerbils.

    abstract::Pigeons trained to discriminate between the presence and absence of delta 9-THC (0.56 mg/kg, IM, intramuscularly) were tested with diazepam (5.6-30 mg/kg), administered IG (intragastrically), and were found to generalize the response associated with the THC training to the diazepam treatment only to a limited extent. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Järbe TU,Hiltunen AJ

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00