Bone mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium induces the upregulation of Smad6, which inhibits the BMP-4/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway.


OBJECTIVES:In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) conditioned medium on BMP4-induced activation of the Smad signaling pathway during the process of neural stem cells differentiation. METHODS:We designed four experimental groups: (A) control group, (B) BMP-4 treatment group, (C) BMSC-CM group, and (D) BMSC-CM (BMSC-conditioned medium) combined with BMP-4 group. The expression of microtube-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) detected by immunocytochemical staining and western blot. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and BMP receptors (BMPRII and BMPRIa) was determined by western blot, while SMAD1/5/8 and SMAD6 mRNA expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). RESULTS:We found that the expression of microtube-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) increased in group B compared to group A. In group C, the expression of GFAP was increased and the expression of MAP-2 was decreased compared to group A. This phenomenon was weaker in group D. We also demonstrated that BMSC-CM could inhibit the activation of BMP signaling by downregulating the expression of BMPRII and BMPRIa proteins. Moreover, BMSC-CM could upregulate the expression of Smad6 mRNA and inhibit the activation of Smad1/5/8 mRNA. CONCLUSION:These observations suggest that BMSC-CM could neutralize the effect of BMP-4 on the differentiation of NSCs by upregulating the expression of Smad6 and decrease the expression of GFAP by inhibiting the BMP-4-SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway, conversely increasing the generation of neurons.


Neurol Res


Neurological research


Fang H,Song P,Shen C,Liu X,Li H




Has Abstract


2016-11-01 00:00:00












  • Multiparametric monitoring of brain oxygen balance under experimental and clinical conditions.

    abstract::In order to evaluate the relationship between brain oxygen supply and demand (O2 balance) in real time, it is necessary to use a multiparametric monitoring approach. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a representative parameter of O2 supply. The extracellular level of K+ is a reliable indicator of O2 demand since more than ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayevsky A,Meilin S,Manor T,Ornstein E,Zarchin N,Sonn J

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Near infrared technology in neuroscience: past, present and future.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To review past, present and future applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical neuroscience. METHODS:The literature and personal experience of the authors were critically reviewed in order to provide a balanced overview of the basic principles, clinical validation, previous experience and c...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Calderon-Arnulphi M,Alaraj A,Slavin KV

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • The deafferented nonhuman primate is not a reliable model of intractable pain.

    abstract::Before extending the application of motor cortex stimulation it is important to investigate the intimate mechanisms by which it alleviates intractable pain and to consider possible side effects. Self-mutilation in animals following extensive neurectomy or posterior rhizotomy of a limb is thought to reveal severe dyses...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pioli EY,Gross CE,Meissner W,Bioulac BH,Bezard E

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Coma of vascular aetiology: evaluation and prognosis.

    abstract::The authors have done a revision of 450 patients admitted during the last 3 years to the emergency service of the Hospital de S. José with the diagnosis of CVA. In this retrospective study were included the patients of greater than or equal to 3 degree of the RLS/85 coma scale, the diagnostic being confirmed by CAT, a...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Costa B,Candido J,Girbal A,Afonso L,Ribeiro J,Gonçalves V,Luis V,Antunes J

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in the cerebellum of inferior olive destroyed rat brain.

    abstract::To study the pathophysiology of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), we destroyed inferior olive nuclei of male Wistar rats using 3-acetyl pyridine (3-AP) + harmaline + niacinamide. These rats showed a sluggish and ataxic gait. To elucidate the relationship between thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in the Purkinje c...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adachi K,Rhue BN,Li M,Izumi M,Osano H,Mitsuma T

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrogen gas protects against delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning in a rat model.

    abstract::Objective: The protective effects of 2%-4% hydrogen gas in delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) have been previously reported. This study aimed to assess the neuroprotective effects of high concentration hydrogen (HCH) on DEACMP.Methods: A total of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divi...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shen M,Zheng Y,Zhu K,Cai Z,Liu W,Sun X,Liu J,Zhu D

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro evidence supporting two mechanisms of action for the anion transport inhibitor L-644,711 in cerebral ischaemia.

    abstract::L-644,711 is a novel anion channel inhibitor which has previously been shown to decrease brain injury in two related rabbit models of cerebral ischaemia. We hypothesize two mechanisms of action of L-644,711 for its salutary effects on cerebral ischaemia: inhibition of neutrophil function and prevention of excitotoxin ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bednar MM,Kohut JJ,Kimelberg HK,Gross JJ,Gross CE

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Magnesium sulfate suppresses L-type calcium currents on the basilar artery smooth muscle cells in rabbits.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Although magnesium is a well-known treatment for vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage, its mechanism of action for cerebral vascular relaxation is not clear. In addition, it is known that L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels play a pivotal role in smooth muscle contraction. To investigate the role of L-t...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma N,Cho DH,Kim SY,Bhattarai JP,Hwang PH,Han SK

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • A model of global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in the awake rat.

    abstract::Anesthesia is an essential element during the induction of ischemia/reperfusion and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in most animal models. Cerebral neuroprotection and intrinsic effects on CBF afforded by anesthetics are confounding variables in those models. A new model of global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melgar MA,Park H,Rafols JA,Diaz FG

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cerebrovascular autoregulation and CO2 reactivity in experimental localized brainstem infarction.

    abstract::Using the previously reported method of experimental localized brainstem infarct in dogs, we designed this study to elucidate sequential changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in three separate regions of the central nervous system: the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and midbrain. The data obtained were referred t...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsumoto S,Kuwabara S,Moritake K

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Positron emission tomographic evaluation of histological malignancy in gliomas using oxygen-15 and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose.

    abstract::HEADTOME III, a high resolution PET, has been employed using 15O and 18F labelled pharmaceuticals to evaluate histological malignancy of gliomas preoperatively. PET study was applied on eighteen preoperative gliomas including two recurrent cases. Haemocirculatory and metabolic indices of regional cerebral blood flow (...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mineura K,Yasuda T,Kowada M,Shishido F,Ogawa T,Uemura K

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Outcome after severe head injury: an analysis of prediction based upon comparison of neural network versus logistic regression analysis.

    abstract::More reliable prediction of outcome would be helpful for clinicians who treat severely head-injured patients. To determine if neural network modeling would improve outcome prediction compared with standard logistic regression analysis and to determine if data available 24 h after severe head injury allows better predi...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lang EW,Pitts LH,Damron SL,Rutledge R

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development of surgical confocal scanning microscope for intra-operative imaging of brain tumors using near infrared fluorescence: technical note.

    abstract::We developed a confocal laser scanning microscope for intra-operative imaging of brain tumors using near infrared fluorescence. The quality of near infrared images of Indocyanine Green (ICG) was compared with the surgical confocal scanning (SCS) microscope and a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera; we comp...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakatani K,Kashiwasake-Jibu M,Terada H,Zuo H

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Nitric oxide does not act as a mediator coupling cerebral blood flow to neural activity following somatosensory stimuli in rats.

    abstract::The possible role of nitric oxide (NO) on vibrissa-stimulated increase of regional cerebral cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) was investigated in conscious Wistar rats by using an inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG) at a concentration of 30 mg/kg. In vivo aut...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Q,Kjaer T,Jørgensen MB,Paulson OB,Lassen NA,Diemer NH,Lou HC

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Early combined cranioplasty and programmable shunt in patients with skull bone defects and CSF-circulation disorders.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study assesses the clinical outcome after early combined cranioplasty (own frozen bone) and shunt implantation (Codman-Medos programmable VP shunt) in patients with skull bone defects and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disorders. METHOD:Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for the last 1...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carvi Y Nievas MN,Höllerhage HG

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Smear technique in the intra-operative brain tumor diagnosis: its advantages and limitations.

    abstract::The role of intra-operative pathological diagnosis increases along with a development of minimally invasive neurosurgery, especially stereotactic and endoscopic techniques. The authors present their own experience with the cytological method and evaluate its usefulness in intra-operative diagnosis of brain tumors. Bra...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Slowiński J,Harabin-Slowińska M,Mrówka R

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • P300 as an index of implicit self-esteem.

    abstract::OBJECTIVE: To explore the neural substrates of implicit self-esteem in university students. METHODS: The subjects comprised four females and six males (aged 20-25 years). They were asked to finish the implicit association test (IAT) for implicit self-esteem while brain electrical activity was recorded at 64 scalp site...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang J,Zhang Q

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Haemodynamic study of arteriovenous malformations using a hydraulic model.

    abstract::Despite the accumulation of intraoperative data on arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), details of the haemodynamics have not yet been elucidated. A hydraulic model was constructed from silicone and glass tubes to simulate a high-flow AVM. During stepwise obliteration of the nidus, haemodynamic changes were continuousl...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagasawa S,Kawanishi M,Tanaka H,Ohta T,Nagayasu S,Kikuchi H

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial and temporal characteristics of visual motion perception involving V5 visual cortex.

    abstract::The anatomical substrates of the perception of motion have not yet been established in a detailed way on an individual level. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic procedure for mapping the visual cortex using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The results showed that such an individual and detailed ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: d'Alfonso AA,van Honk J,Schutter DJ,Caffé AR,Postma A,de Haan EH

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • A nonNMDA antagonist, GYKI 52466 improves microscopic O2 balance in the cortex during focal cerebral ischemia.

    abstract::This study was performed to test whether GYKI 52466, a nonNMDA receptor antagonist, would improve microregional oxygen supply and consumption balance in the focal cerebral ischemic area. Rats were anesthetized with 1.4% isoflurane. For the GYKI Group (n = 8), 10 min before middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, a bol...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chi OZ,Chang Q,Wang G,Liu X,Weiss HR

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    abstract::The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open cr...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Surdell DL Jr,Bhattacharjee S,Loftus CM

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium dye with light microscopic evaluation in a rabbit model of acute cerebral ischaemia.

    abstract::The present study was performed to compare brain infarct size assessment by routine histology (haematoxylin and eosin) and by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining techniques. New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to autologous clot embolization to the anterior circulation of the brain. After a study period ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bednar MM,Fanburg JC,Anderson ML,Raymond SJ,Dooley RH,Gross CE

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Atherosclerotic plaque burden of middle cerebral artery and extracranial carotid artery characterized by MRI in patients with acute ischemic stroke in China: association and clinical relevance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to compare the atherosclerotic plaque burden between middle cerebral artery (MCA) and extracranial carotid artery (ECA) in ischemic stroke patients using high-resolution, black-blood (HR BB) MRI and to investigate the relationship between plaque burden found in both arteries and stroke seve...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cao Y,Sun Y,Zhou B,Zhao H,Zhu Y,Xu J,Liu X

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombolysis with rhPro-UK 3 to 6 hours after embolic stroke in rat.

    abstract::Objectives: To investigate the thrombolysis with recombinant human prourokinase (rhPro-UK) on thromboembolic stroke in rats at different therapeutic time windows (TTW). Methods: Rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. RhPro-UK and positive control drugs rt-PA,UK were administered 3 h, 4.5 h, 6...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hao CH,Ding WX,Sun Q,Li XX,Wang WT,Zhao ZY,Tang LD

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Augmentation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury associated with comorbid type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for ischemic stroke and is reported to aggravate the ischemic brain damage in different experimental models as well as clinical situations. However, the mechanisms underlying the exacerbated ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain injury associated with comorbid diabetes ar...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Srinivasan K,Sharma SS

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Combination of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres on brain perfusion SPECT predicts 5-year outcome in patients with symptomatic unilateral major cerebral artery occlusion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Misery perfusion increases the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with symptomatic major cerebral artery occlusion. The ratio of brain perfusion contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to brain perfusion affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere ...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nomura J,Ogasawara K,Saito H,Terasaki K,Matsumoto Y,Takahashi Y,Ogasawara Y,Saura H,Yoshida K,Sato Y,Kubo Y,Ogawa A

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Brain endothelial HSP-70 stress response coincides with endothelial and pericyte death after brain trauma.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to characterize the heat shock response (HSR) in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to determine the association of HSR to cell death. METHODS:We used immunofluorescent detection of HSP-70 to characterize HSR and TUNEL labeling to determine the pattern of cell death. RESULTS:HSP-...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeGracia DJ,Kreipke CW,Kayali FM,Rafols JA

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of the pre-treatment of intravenous nimodipine on Na(+)-K+/Mg+2 ATPase, Ca+2/Mg+2 ATPase, lipid peroxidation and early ultrastructural findings following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    abstract::Excessive calcium influx has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic cerebral damage. The effects of nimodipine, a calcium antagonist, on the Na(+)-K+/MG+2 ATPase activity, Ca+2/Mg+2 ATPase, lipid peroxidation, and early ultrastructural findings were examined at the acute stage of ischemia in the rat brain....

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ildan F,Göçer AI,Tuna M,Polat S,Kaya M,Isbir T,Cetinalp E

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamical levels of plasma F(1+2) and D-dimer in patients with acute cerebral infarction during intravenous urokinase thrombolysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To explore the value of dynamically monitored levels of plasma prothrombin fragment(1+2) (F(1+2)) and D-dimer in the process of thrombolysis with urokinase. METHODS:Blood samples were collected at baseline and at hours 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 after urokinase infusion finished. The levels of plasma...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meng R,Ji X,Li B,Zhou J,Li W,Ding Y

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and positron emission tomography using a three-dimensional template of the middle cerebral artery.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measures blood flow velocities (BFV) and is an indirect method of assessing cerebral blood flow (CBF). Positron emission tomography (PET) is a direct method to measure CBF. This study evaluates the correlations between TCD and PET findings Methods: Nine patients with a symptomatic c...

    journal_title:Neurological research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rijbroek A,Boellaard R,Vriens EM,Lammertsma AA,Rauwerda JA

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00