Why do we have the kidney allocation system we have today? A history of the 2014 kidney allocation system.


:"Those who do not know the past are destined to repeat it". The current system for the allocation of deceased donor kidneys that was implemented in December 2014 (termed the kidney allocation system (KAS)) was the culmination of a decade-long process. Thus, many people involved in transplantation today may not be aware of the underlying concepts and early debates that resulted in KAS. Others who were involved might not remember the details (or have chosen to forget). The goal of this manuscript is to outline the history of the process in order to shed light on why KAS has its current format.


Hum Immunol


Human immunology


Stegall MD,Stock PG,Andreoni K,Friedewald JJ,Leichtman AB




Has Abstract


2017-01-01 00:00:00














  • Association of HLA-DR and -DQ genes with Graves disease in Koreans.

    abstract::Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3 and DQA1*0501 in Caucasians. However, the association of HLA with GD is less clear-cut in East Asian populations. We analyzed HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 associations with GD in 198 Korean patients compared with 200 he...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park MH,Park YJ,Song EY,Park H,Kim TY,Park DJ,Park KS,Cho BY

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • TCRBV12 genes are polymorphic but the protein products encoded by each gene are conserved.

    abstract::The human TCRBV gene complex contains three BV12 genes and all are polymorphic. There are two alleles of BV12S4; one allele contains a stop codon in the coding region which precludes its expression. There are four alleles of BV12S2 and two alleles of BV12S3 genes; however, the substitutions present in both genes are c...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deulofeut H,Wilderson JL,Barron KS,Robinson MA

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of human leukocyte antigen-G in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relation with interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. The study included 50 female SLE patients and 59 healthy female donors. HLA-G expression in peripheral blood and cuta...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosado S,Perez-Chacon G,Mellor-Pita S,Sanchez-Vegazo I,Bellas-Menendez C,Citores MJ,Losada-Fernandez I,Martin-Donaire T,Rebolleda N,Perez-Aciego P

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Large-scale preparation of human anti-third-party veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes depleted of graft-versus-host reactivity: a new source for graft facilitating cells in bone marrow transplantation.

    abstract::Induction of donor type chimerism in mildly prepared hosts without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a most desirable goal in bone morrow transplantation. We have recently demonstrated in a mouse model that donor veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can facilitate the induction of donor type chimerism in sublethally ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aviner S,Yao X,Krauthgamer R,Gan Y,Goren-Arbel R,Klein T,Tabilio A,McMannis JD,Champlin R,Martelli MF,Bachar-Lustig E,Reisner Y

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune system genes and their association with clinical symptoms persistence in dengue-infected persons.

    abstract::This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue clinical symptom persistence during 60days of disease follow up, in patients of Espírito Santo state (ES)-Brazil and to evaluate the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRIIa, CD209, VDR, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes with symptom ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dettogni RS,Tristão-Sá R,Dos Santos M,da Silva FF,Louro ID

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Human HLA-DQ beta chain presents minor lymphocyte stimulating locus gene products and clonally deletes TCR V beta 6+, V beta 8.1+ T cells in single transgenic mice.

    abstract::Minor lymphocyte stimulating locus (Mls) gene products in association with mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are known to determine the repertoire of T-cell receptor (TCR) in mature T cells. In order to test whether human class II molecules can present mouse Mls, HLA-DQ beta transgenic mi...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou P,Anderson GD,Savarirayan S,Inoko H,David CS

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of monocyte/macrophage function by human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    abstract::The suppressive effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) on T cells have been well documented. Here we investigated whether human CD4+CD25+ Tregs can inhibit the proinflammatory properties of monocytes/macrophages. Monocytes and T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers by magnetic cell ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taams LS,van Amelsfort JM,Tiemessen MM,Jacobs KM,de Jong EC,Akbar AN,Bijlsma JW,Lafeber FP

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of HLA-DQ molecules with a monoclonal antibody detecting a DQ polymorphism absent from DQW1 homozygous cells.

    abstract::We have produced a monoclonal antibody detecting an HLA class II determinant absent from DR1,2,W6, and W10 (DQW1) homozygous B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL). The antibody, SFR16-PI.2, immunoprecipitates molecules with electrophoretic mobilities of DQ (DS/DC) molecules from DR7 homozygous cell lines. SFR16-PI.2 bind...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Radka SF,Stewart SJ,Smith SA

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • [C4d]FlowPRA screening--a specific assay for selective detection of complement-activating anti-HLA alloantibodies.

    abstract::On waiting lists, transplant candidates are routinely screened for potentially harmful complement-fixing alloantibodies using complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) panel-reactive antibody (PRA) testing. We have recently developed a novel cell-independent assay for assessment of complement-activating panel reactivity...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wahrmann M,Exner M,Haidbauer B,Schillinger M,Regele H,Körmöczi G,Böhmig GA

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Innate immune receptors in solid organ transplantation.

    abstract::The discovery of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) followed by that of their role in the early detection of pathogens and the ignition of the innate immune response has been a formidable progress for immunological research in the past 15years. This has massively fueled investigations aiming at developing better str...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Georgel P

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of HLA class I specific antibodies by ELISA using solubilized antigen targets: I. Evaluation of the GTI QuikID assay and analysis of antibody patterns.

    abstract::The development of solid phase immunoassays using solubilized HLA molecules as targets has provided a means of detecting HLA-specific antibodies that overcomes many of the shortcomings of lymphocyte based assays. We have evaluated a commercially available assay, the GTI QuikID (QID), that uses solubilized class I mole...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zachary AA,Delaney NL,Lucas DP,Leffell MS

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Association of osteopontin regulatory polymorphisms with systemic sclerosis.

    abstract::To test the involvement of osteopontin gene (OPN) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility, two OPN single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, namely -156G/GG (proximal promoter) and +1239A/C (3' untranslated region (UTR)), were tested in 357 Italian patie...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barizzone N,Marchini M,Cappiello F,Chiocchetti A,Orilieri E,Ferrante D,Corrado L,Mellone S,Scorza R,Dianzani U,D'Alfonso S

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • The clinician's guide to the anti-vaccinationists' galaxy.

    abstract::In this paper we briefly review three common immunological misconceptions that feature prominently among anti-vaccinationists, and in turn, fuel patient and parental concerns, questions, and fears about vaccines. In particular, this Perspective covers a brief history of the anti-vaccine movement, and three common fals...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Poland GA,Jacobson RM

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Transmission of HLA-DP variants from parents to children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: log-linear analysis using the case-parent design.

    abstract::Childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is usually initiated in utero and is thought to progress to overt leukemia under the influence of delayed exposure to a common infection. Based on the hypothesis that polymorphic HLA-DP variants can restrict T-cell responses to infection, we previously ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor M,Bergemann TL,Hussain A,Thompson PD,Spector L

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Clonal diversity of the T-cell population responding to a dominant HLA-A2 epitope of HER-2/neu after active immunization in an ovarian cancer patient.

    abstract::Natural antigen processing and presentation of antigen is thought to be important for the generation of a broad functional repertoire of antigen-specific T cells. In this study, the T-cell repertoire to an immunodominant human leukocyte antigen A2 (HLA-A2) binding peptide epitope of HER-2/neu, p369-377, was examined i...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knutson KL,Disis ML

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Variable clinical phenotypes of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome in China: Report of five cases with three novel mutations and review of the literature.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Rapid recognition and definitive diagnosis are critical to improve the prognosis and survival of patients with XLP. Nowadays, little is known about patients with XLP in China. METHODS:We report the characterization of five Chine...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jin YY,Zhou W,Tian ZQ,Chen TX

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • The genetic structure of Mexican Mestizos of different locations: tracking back their origins through MHC genes, blood group systems, and microsatellites.

    abstract::Mexican Mestizos, who are the result of the admixture of Spanish, Indian, and Black genes, were analyzed for different systems. Three populations from geographical distinct areas were studied: the north (State of Nuevo Leon ), the center (State of Guanajuato), and the highlands (mainly Mexico City). Ten blood group sy...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gorodezky C,Alaez C,Vázquez-García MN,de la Rosa G,Infante E,Balladares S,Toribio R,Pérez-Luque E,Muñoz L

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bone marrow transplantation in Brazil.

    abstract::The first program of bone marrow transplantation in Latin America was started 5 years ago at the Federal University Hospital, Curitiba, Paraná. The results of 62 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation are presented and discussed. ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferreira E,Dulley FL,Morsoletto F,Neto JZ,Pasquini R

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Multidrug resistance activity in human lymphocytes.

    abstract::The multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) is a member of the recently described ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Family members include: (1) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene; (2) the hlyB gene of bacteria, and (3) the histocompatibility antigen modifier (HAM) gene. The lev...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coon JS,Wang YZ,Bines SD,Markham PN,Chong AS,Gebel HM

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Requirements for lysis of activated T cells by class-II-restricted cytolytic T-lymphocytes.

    abstract::In the present study, we explored the specific requirements for lysis of human activated T cells by CD4+ CTLs. This was achieved by using human CD4+ T cell lines or clones specific for a peptidic fragment of influenza virus as both CTL effectors and target T cells (TTCs). Our results further establish that human activ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eljaafari A,Dorval I,Zeliszewski D,Le Gac S,Sterkers G

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differential migration behavior and chemokine production by myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    abstract::The existence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets is firmly established, but their trafficking properties are still largely unknown. We have indicated that myeloid dendritic cells (M-DCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (P-DCs) isolated from human blood differ widely in the capacity to migrate to chemotactic stimuli. The ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Penna G,Vulcano M,Sozzani S,Adorini L

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • A comprehensive polymerase chain reaction-oligonucleotide typing system for the HLA class I A locus.

    abstract::A comprehensive system for genetic typing of the HLA class I A locus is described, based on PCR amplification and typing with nonradioactively labeled SSO probes. Exons 1-3 of the A locus are amplified and typing is performed with a set of 30 nonradioactively labeled oligonucleotide probes. This system resolves 34 of ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen M,Liu L,Gyllensten U

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to severe early childhood caries.

    abstract::Our purpose was to investigate a possible relationship between severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and polymorphism of the mannose binding lectin gene and investigate the role of allele variant as a possible factor in the susceptibility to S-ECC. Sixty-two Chinese children with S-ECC and 68 caries-free control child...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Y,Wang W,Qin M

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • The 4H84 monoclonal antibody detecting beta2m free nonclassical HLA-G molecules also binds to free heavy chains of classical HLA class I antigens present on activated lymphocytes.

    abstract::We have found that 4H84 monoclonal antibody (mAb) used for detection of beta2m free HLA-G molecules also binds to free heavy chains of classical HLA class I antigens generated on the cell surface by mild acid treatment. Here we demonstrate that beta2m free classical HLA class I molecules induced on the surface of acti...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poláková K,Kuba D,Russ G

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Homozygous deletions that simultaneously eliminate expressions of class I and class II antigens of EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells. I. Reduced proliferative responses of autologous and allogeneic T cells to mutant cells that have decreased expressi

    abstract::Mutant human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines, 721.174 and 721.180, that have greatly reduced expressions of known class I and class II HLA antigens were produced by two cycles of gamma-ray mutagenesis followed by selection for HLA antigen loss. Residual binding of monoclonal antibodies directed against class II antigens w...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: DeMars R,Chang CC,Shaw S,Reitnauer PJ,Sondel PM

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-1RN gene polymorphisms in elderly patients with rheumatic inflammatory chronic conditions: Association of IL-1RN*2/2 genotype with polymyalgia rheumatica.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between IL1RN polymorphism and disease susceptibility for three age-related inflammatory conditions: polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), giant cell arteritis (GCA), and elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA). A tandem-repeat polymorphism withi...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alvarez-Rodriguez L,Carrasco-Marin E,Lopez-Hoyos M,Mata C,Fernandez-Prieto L,Ruiz-Soto M,Calvo J,Rodriguez-Valverde V,Ruiz T,Blanco R,Corrales A,Martinez-Taboada VM

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro model for the activation of CD4 and CD8 T cell receptors.

    abstract::Previously, most models that sought to explain the misregulation of immune cell function assumed molecular similarities between the disease-causing pathogens and the host's proteins. In recent time several different models have been proposed and in this study, these concepts are compared to a new hypothesis proposing ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arneth BM

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of phorbol ester and calcium ionophore on human thymocytes.

    abstract::Positive selection of immature thymocytes is a developmental process in which TCR ligation with low avidity induces generation of mature T cells. In mouse thymocytes, CD4(+)8(+) double-positive (DP) cells which were treated with a proper combination of calcium ionophore ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (P...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanahashi M,Yokoyama T,Kobayashi Y,Yamakawa Y,Maeda M,Fujii Y

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • TCRBV CDR3 diversity of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected individuals.

    abstract::TCRBV CDR3 repertoire diversity was analyzed in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected individuals by CDR3 fingerprinting/spectratyping and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Most TCRBV families were detected in CD4+ cells of HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ranging from 35 to 1103. In patients with...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raaphorst FM,Schelonka RL,Rusnak J,Infante AJ,Teale JM

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • T-cell receptor V beta selectivity in T-cell clones alloreactive to HLA-Dw14.

    abstract::The HLA-DR4 subtypes Dw14 and Dw4 are T-cell-defined allospecificities encoded by the DRB1*0404 and DRB1*0401 genes, respectively. Although these allelic subtypes differ in only two amino acids, allorecognition between Dw14 and Dw4-positive individuals is brisk. This provides an opportunity to analyze T-cell receptor ...

    journal_title:Human immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamanaka K,Kwok WW,Mickelson EM,Masewicz S,Nepom GT

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00