Advances in the cytologic diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.


:Two-thirds of neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in the human body originate from the gastrointestinal system or pancreas. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are heterogeneous, comprising both well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). The clinical presentation, molecular characteristics, and behavior are distinct for NETs and NECs. Fine-needle aspiration is an important modality for the primary diagnosis and staging of these neoplasms and can provide information of prognostic and therapeutic significance. Our evolving understanding of neuroendocrine neoplasm biology has led to several iterations of classification. In this review, new concepts and issues most relevant to cytology diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are discussed, such as newer detection methods that aid in diagnosis and staging, recent changes in World Health Organization classification, practical issues related to grading these neoplasms on cytology, guidelines for diagnostic reporting, and panels of immunohistochemical stains for the diagnosis of metastasis. The current understanding of genetic and epigenetic events related to tumor development and potential applications for cytology also are presented as they relate to prognostication and recent therapeutic advances.


Cancer Cytopathol


Cancer cytopathology


Sigel CS




Has Abstract


2018-12-01 00:00:00












  • Optimal antigen retrieval for ethanol-fixed cytologic smears.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Antigen retrieval, a crucial technique for immunostaining, is often carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. The role of antigen retrieval in immunostaining of ethanol-fixed smears remains unclear. The authors evaluated the effects of 2 common antigen retrieval procedures, hea...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Denda T,Kamoshida S,Kawamura J,Harada K,Kawai K,Kuwao S

    更新日期:2012-06-25 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of urovysion and cytology for bladder cancer detection: a study of 1835 paired urine samples with clinical and histologic correlation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Urine cytology has been used for screening of bladder cancer but has been limited by its low sensitivity. UroVysion is a multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay that detects common chromosome abnormalities in bladder cancers. For this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of multi...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dimashkieh H,Wolff DJ,Smith TM,Houser PM,Nietert PJ,Yang J

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Wilms tumor 1/cytokeratin dual-color immunostaining reveals distinctive staining patterns in metastatic melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, and mesothelial cells in pleural fluids: an effective first-line test for the workup of malignant effusions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The workup of a malignant effusion usually requires immunostaining with a panel of markers. Although nuclear Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) expression is widely used to detect tumors of ovarian and mesothelial origin, it is less well known that WT1 is also expressed in the cytoplasm of melanomas and mesenchymal tumors....

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conner JR,Cibas ES,Hornick JL,Qian X

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • HPV infection and p16 promoter methylation as predictors of ASC-US/LSIL progression.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although patients found to have atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) on Papanicolaou (Pap) testing are treated conservatively, 5.2% to 18.8% of them progress to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). The objective o...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee H,Lee EJ

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Should "suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma" and "positive for high-grade urothelial carcinoma" remain separate categories?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Paris System (TPS) for Reporting Urinary Cytology aims to standardize urine cytology reporting. Per TPS, the diagnosis of "suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (SHGUC)" is applied in cases that have few urothelial cells with severe atypia but are quantitatively insufficient for a diagnosis of "...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen L,Nilforoushan N,Krane JF,Bose S,Bakkar R

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Different qualifiers of AUS/FLUS thyroid FNA have distinct BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARg alterations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) includes fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that cannot straightforwardly be classified as benign or malignant. To determine whether morphologi...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bellevicine C,Sgariglia R,Migliatico I,Vigliar E,D'Anna M,Nacchio MA,Serra N,Malapelle U,Bongiovanni M,Troncone G

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interobserver reproducibility of cytologic p16INK4a /Ki-67 dual immunostaining in human papillomavirus-positive women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16ink4a ) protein in a cell is associated with neoplastic progression in precancerous cervical lesions. Dual staining for p16ink4a and Ki-67 has been proposed as a triage test in cervical cancer screening for women who test positive for human papillo...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benevolo M,Allia E,Gustinucci D,Rollo F,Bulletti S,Cesarini E,Passamonti B,Giovagnoli MR,Carico E,Carozzi FM,Mongia A,Fantacci G,Confortini M,Rubino T,Fodero C,Prandi S,Marchi N,Farruggio A,Coccia A,Macrì L,Ghirin

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cytologic and cystoscopic predictors of recurrence and progression in patients with low-grade urothelial carcinoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC) are at risk of recurrence and must undergo lifelong surveillance. To date, cytology and cystoscopy are the gold standard for the detection of de novo and recurrent LGUC. The objective of the current study was is to further characterize the role of cytology ...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jackson J,Barkan GA,Kapur U,Wojcik EM

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Subtyping salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential based on cell type demonstrates differential risk of malignancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The newly unveiled Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology (MSRSGC) has proposed salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (SUMP) as an indeterminate category. The category is reserved for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases that are diagnostic of a salivary gland neoplasm but c...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hang JF,Alruwaii F,Zeng BR,Lai CR,Wu HH

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic value of metabolic phenotypes in malignant pleural effusions: expression of GLUT1 and CAIX by immunocytochemistry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The sensitivity of conventional cytology for the detection of malignant cells in pleural effusion is insufficient. GLUT1 and CAIX are the hallmarks of metabolic change in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of GLUT1 and CAIX expression to the detection of cancer cells in pleura...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liao ND,Shieh JM,Lee WY

    更新日期:2011-10-25 00:00:00

  • FNA of epithelioid sarcoma: Curie Institute experience and critical review of the literature.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that is divided into 2 types: classic and proximal. To the authors' knowledge, ES has been poorly studied in cytology, with fewer than 50 cases reported to date. The objective of the current study was to analyze the cytological and immunohistochemical info...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gajdzis P,Laé M,Klijanienko J

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fine-needle cytology of cutaneous juvenile xanthogranuloma and langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In pediatric patients, a cutaneous nodule is usually diagnosed by performing an excisional biopsy, but fine-needle cytology (FNC) is a safer and noninvasive diagnostic method widely used to obtain diagnostic specimens with little stress to the patient. The authors compared the ability of FNC and biopsy to di...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fassina A,Olivotto A,Cappellesso R,Vendraminelli R,Fassan M

    更新日期:2011-04-25 00:00:00

  • Risk stratification in follicular neoplasm: a cytological assessment using the modified Bethesda classification.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The 2007 Bethesda classification for thyroid cytology defines follicular neoplasm as a category of cases with cellular specimens demonstrating abundant follicular cells arranged in a microfollicular pattern with little or no colloid. The current recommendation for the management of these cases is diagnostic ...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ustun B,Chhieng D,Van Dyke A,Carling T,Holt E,Udelsman R,Adeniran AJ

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology: performance data of neoplastic and malignant cases as identified from 1558 responses in the ASCP Non-GYN Assessment program thyroid fine-needle performance data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid is a common procedure, with an established role in reducing unnecessary thyroid surgery and identifying neoplasms and malignancies. METHODS:The study evaluated 1558 responses in the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Non-GYN Assessment program of aspirates o...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eilers SG,LaPolice P,Mukunyadzi P,Kapur U,Wendel Spiczka A,Shah A,Saleh H,Adeniran A,Nunez A,Balachandran I,Clark JJ,Lemon L

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Anal cancer and cervical cancer screening: key differences.

    abstract::Cervical cancer and anal cancer share many similarities including causation by oncogenic human papillomaviruses; however, significant differences exist in their epidemiology, risk factors, biologic behavior, management, and treatment. Although rare, the incidence of anal cancer is alarmingly high and continues to incr...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Darragh TM,Winkler B

    更新日期:2011-02-25 00:00:00

  • Digitized microscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: analysis of >3000 cases during a 7-month period.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of urine samples has proven to be a valuable adjunctive test to urine cytology for both diagnosis and monitoring recurrence of urothelial carcinoma. Automated FISH analysis has the potential to improve laboratory efficiency and to reduce interobserver and int...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marganski WA,El-Sirgany Costa V,Kilpatrick MW,Tafas T,Yim J,Matthews M

    更新日期:2011-08-25 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic predictive value of the Bladder EpiCheck test in the follow-up of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Bladder EpiCheck test in the follow-up of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and to compare it with the accuracy of urinary cytology, cystoscopy, and/or histology. METHODS:In total, 243 patients were enrolled in...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trenti E,D'Elia C,Mian C,Schwienbacher C,Hanspeter E,Pycha A,Kafka M,Degener S,Danuser H,Roth S,Pycha A

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Urine cytology suspicious for urothelial carcinoma: Prospective follow-up of cases using cytology and urine biomarker-based ancillary techniques.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Urine cytology results that are suspicious for urothelial carcinoma (UC) are challenging. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinical significance of such results in patients who have a negative cystoscopy. METHODS:In this prospective study, 83 patients who had urine cytology that was suspicio...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montalbo R,Izquierdo L,Ingelmo-Torres M,Galve P,Solé M,Franco A,Ribal MJ,Alcaraz A,Mengual L

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Focus on technology: How important is resolution in telecytopathology?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The authors conducted an analysis of 2 telepathology systems with different resolutions to determine how resolution affects the pathologists' ability to provide preliminary diagnoses for fine-needle aspirations (FNA). METHODS:FNA cases evaluated by telepathology between February 1, 2011 and January 18, 2012...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McMahon RQ,McCarthy EE,Hetzel SJ,Das K,Stewart J 3rd

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • BRAF mutation detection in indeterminate thyroid cytology specimens: underlying cytologic, molecular, and pathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:BRAF mutations are highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and many cytology specimens with BRAF mutations are expected to demonstrate cytologic features typical of PTC. However, indeterminate thyroid cytology cases are inevitable and understanding the significance of the BRAF mutation within t...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohori NP,Singhal R,Nikiforova MN,Yip L,Schoedel KE,Coyne C,McCoy KL,LeBeau SO,Hodak SP,Carty SE,Nikiforov YE

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative bronchial cytology for the assessment of tumor spread through air spaces in lung adenocarcinoma resection specimens.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS), a significant prognostic indicator, has been described recently as a pattern of invasion in pulmonary carcinomas. However, questions remain regarding preoperative identification of STAS and whether it represents an in vivo phenomenon versus an ex vivo artifact. METHOD...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Medina MA,Onken AM,de Margerie-Mellon C,Heidinger BH,Chen Y,Bankier AA,VanderLaan PA

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • FNA cytology of postoperative pseudotumoral lesions induced by oxidized cellulose hemostatic agents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The use of topically applied hemostatic substances during surgery has become a common practice. In some cases, the material is not absorbed or induces a granulomatous reaction resulting in a pseudotumoral lesion. With imaging studies, it is not possible to differentiate this from a tumor recurrence or absces...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hernández-Bonilla S,Rodríguez-García AM,Jiménez-Heffernan JA,Muñoz-Hernández P,Palacios-Lázaro E,López-Ferrer P,González-Peramato P,Vicandi B

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • p16(INK4a) is superior to high-risk human papillomavirus testing in cervical cytology for the prediction of underlying high-grade dysplasia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The primary goal of this study was to compare the clinical performance of an optimized and rigorously controlled immunocytochemical (ICC) assay for p16(INK4a) to high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as diagnostic adjuncts for cytology specimens from colposcop...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Samarawardana P,Dehn DL,Singh M,Franquemont D,Thompson C,Gaido L,Torkko KC,Homer P,Burke S,Titmus MA,Nayi V,Shroyer KR

    更新日期:2010-06-25 00:00:00

  • Detection of carbonic anhydrase IX protein in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hallmark of metabolic change in cancer cells. The aim was to evaluate the utility of CAIX expression for the detection of malignant pleural effusions by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry. METHODS:A total of 97 pleural effusions including 54 b...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liao ND,Lee WY

    更新日期:2012-08-25 00:00:00

  • The utility of napsin-A in the identification of primary and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma among cytologically poorly differentiated carcinomas.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:New developments in the treatment of lung cancer have necessitated the further histologic and cytologic subtyping of nonsmall cell lung carcinomas. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) long has served as the predominant marker for demonstrating lung origin. However, it is also expressed in a variety of oth...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stoll LM,Johnson MW,Gabrielson E,Askin F,Clark DP,Li QK

    更新日期:2010-12-25 00:00:00

  • The role of the Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology: A 5-year institutional experience.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is widely accepted in the preoperative management of salivary gland lesions. The proposed Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology (MSRSGC) aims to standardize reporting terminology. Studies regarding the risk of malignancy (ROM) for the proposed categories continu...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Viswanathan K,Sung S,Scognamiglio T,Yang GCH,Siddiqui MT,Rao RA

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • The diagnostic value of cell block as an adjunct to liquid-based cytology of bronchial washing specimens in the diagnosis and subclassification of pulmonary neoplasms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To the authors' knowledge, the diagnostic value of cell block (CB) as an adjunct to ThinPrep liquid-based cytology (LBC) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection and subclassification of pulmonary neoplasms has not been well evaluated. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic ...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Collins GR,Thomas J,Joshi N,Zhang S

    更新日期:2012-04-25 00:00:00

  • Cytomorphologic features of thyroid disease in patients with DICER1 mutations: A report of cytology-histopathology correlation in 7 patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 have been identified in various types of neoplastic lesions, with germline DICER1 mutation being linked to autosomal dominant hereditary pleiotropic tumor syndrome (DICER1 syndrome). Patients with DICER1 syndrome are at increased risk of developing thyroid disease, in...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darbinyan A,Morotti R,Cai G,Prasad ML,Christison-Lagay E,Dinauer C,Adeniran AJ

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ancillary studies in fine needle aspiration of the kidney.

    abstract::An increasing number of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) require ancillary studies for diagnosis. The majority of renal fine needle aspirates do not require ancillary studies. Among the most common useful stains are cytokeratin 7 (separating clear cell RCC [negative] from papillary RCC, clear cell papillary RCC, and multi...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Renshaw AA,Gould EW

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • GATA3: a promising marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The usefulness of GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3 to DNA sequence [A/T]GATA[A/G]) as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens was investigated. METHODS:Cell block sections from 74 serous effusion specimens (32 ascitic, 2 pericardial, and 40 pleural fluids) were stained with an ant...

    journal_title:Cancer cytopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shield PW,Papadimos DJ,Walsh MD

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00