Locational Relationship between the Lateral Border of the Frontalis Muscle and the Superior Temporal Line.


BACKGROUND:The frontalis is a representative target muscle for botulinum neurotoxin type A injections aimed at treating horizontal wrinkles in the forehead region. However, a lack of information regarding the shape and thickness of the frontalis may lead to unexpected side effects. METHODS:This study dissected hemifaces of 44 embalmed Korean and Thai cadavers and performed ultrasound examinations on 20 Korean volunteers. Two anatomical types were identified: (1) the lateral portion of the frontalis covered the superior temporal line in type I, and (2) the lateral border of the frontalis and the superior temporal line almost coincided in type II. A horizontal line was drawn laterally from the midpoint between the metopion and the glabella, and landmarks F1, F2, and F3 were defined as points where this horizontal reference line intersected with vertical lines from the midpoint of the pupil, the lateral canthus, and the lateral orbital rim, respectively. RESULTS:Type I was more common than type II [84 percent (37 of 44) versus 16 percent (seven of 44)]. When the lateral border of the frontalis ran along the border, there were no cases in which the superior temporal line was not visible. The mean minimum distance in type I was 10.53 mm. The muscle thicknesses at F1, F2, and F3 were 1.80 ± 0.44 mm (mean ± SD), 1.61 ± 0.37 mm, and 0.11 ± 0.04 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This study yielded data on the location and thickness of the lateral border of the frontalis. An anatomical study-based, ultrasound-guided injection technique can achieve reliable results when noninvasive treatment is applied to the forehead area.


Plast Reconstr Surg


Lee KL,Choi YJ,Gil YC,Hu KS,Tansatit T,Kim HJ




Has Abstract


2019-02-01 00:00:00














  • The anatomy and clinical implications of perioral submuscular fat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:One of the goals of lip augmentation is to recreate the natural shape and contour of the lips. The literature describes numerous fillers and multiple techniques for this procedure. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the anatomy of the fat layers of the upper and lower lips. While prosecting...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rohrich RJ,Pessa JE

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activation in coronal sutures undergoing fusion ex vivo.

    abstract::Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of dura mater in the normal development and regeneration of the cranium and its sutures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of dura mater on the metabolism of bone during the process of premature suture fusion. Previously, coronal sutures of fetal rats...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winograd JM,Im MJ,Vander Kolk CA

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Does the Use of Incisional Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy Prevent Mastectomy Flap Necrosis in Immediate Expander-Based Breast Reconstruction?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mastectomy flap necrosis is one of the most common and significant complications in immediate expander-based breast reconstruction. Negative-pressure wound therapy is widely used for open wounds but is not commonly used for closed incisional wounds. However, the postoperative use of incisional negative-press...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim DY,Park SJ,Bang SI,Mun GH,Pyon JK

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Transfer of vascularized extensor tendons from the foot to the hand with a dorsalis pedis flap.

    abstract::The use of the dorsalis pedis flap with vascularized extensor tendons was presented. An anatomic study has been carried out that has shown that the vascularization of the foot extensor tendons can be exclusively dependent on the blood contribution coming from the dorsalis pedis artery. In two cases that are presented ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vila-Rovira R,Ferreira BJ,Guinot A

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bioactive glass hydroxyapatite in fronto-orbital defect reconstruction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Synthetic bioactive ceramics and glasses have osteoconductive properties. These materials are capable of chemically bonding to the bone tissue. In addition, special bioactive glasses do not favor microbial growth. In this study, the clinical outcome of bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in head and neck surg...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aitasalo KMJ,Peltola MJ

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Pakistan Comprehensive Fistula Classification: A Novel Scheme and Algorithm for Management of Palatal Fistula/Dehiscence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It is not easy to find a management-based classification of palatal fistula in the literature. A few attempts have been made to classify the wide variety of fistulae that do not describe the fistula details comprehensively and guide toward its management. The authors have come across a wide variety of fistul...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fayyaz GQ,Gill NA,Ishaq I,Aslam M,Chaudry A,Ganatra MA,Obaid O,Tarar MN,Chen PK,Laub DR

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vascular anatomy of the upper extremity muscles.

    abstract::This study delineates the vascular anatomy of the upper extremity with particular attention toward the size, location, and number of vascular pedicles supplying each muscle. Ten cadaver upper extremities were dissected. A total of 440 muscles and 2209 pedicles were identified. The major "named" arterial source, number...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parry SW,Ward JW,Mathes SJ

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • The importance of a skin bridge in peripheral tissue perfusion in perforator flaps.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Perforator flaps are increasingly used in reconstructive surgery. However, the microvascular perfusion pattern within these flaps remains essentially unknown. In perforator flaps, the importance of preserving the skin bridge at the base is still an object of debate. The authors hypothesized that dividing the...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mešić H,Kirkebøen KA,Bains R

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Total Face, Eyelids, Ears, Scalp, and Skeletal Subunit Transplant Cadaver Simulation: The Culmination of Aesthetic, Craniofacial, and Microsurgery Principles.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The application of aesthetic, craniofacial, and microsurgical principles in the execution of face transplantation may improve outcomes. Optimal soft-tissue face transplantation can be achieved by incorporating subunit facial skeletal replacement and subsequent tissue resuspension. The purpose of this study w...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sosin M,Ceradini DJ,Hazen A,Levine JP,Staffenberg DA,Saadeh PB,Flores RL,Brecht LE,Bernstein GL,Rodriguez ED

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • The disruptive physician: righteous Maverick or dangerous Pariah?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:"Disruptive physician" is a term appearing more frequently in many hospital bylaws. It has significant negative implications that can lead to loss of privileges for plastic surgeons. METHODS:Exploring the various definitions of disruptive physician reveals palpable differences between those of the Joint Com...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zbar RIS,Taylor LD,Canady JW

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Correction of lower eyelid ptosis in the anophthalmic orbit: a long-term follow-up.

    abstract::We describe a 10-year review of 53 patients having had correction of lower eyelid ptosis using fascia lata sling suspension by the operation first described in 1973. The overall conclusion is that this continues to be a reliable procedure with a low complication rate. Four major changes relating to operative technique...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nolan WB 3rd,Vistnes LM

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nasal reconstruction after malignant tumor resection: an algorithm for treatment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Seventy-five percent of nonmelanoma skin cancers are located in the head and neck area, of which 30 percent occur on the nose (225,000 new cases per year). The aim of this study was to develop a nasal reconstruction algorithm for nasal defects, based on experience with 788 consecutive nasal reconstructions p...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moolenburgh SE,McLennan L,Levendag PC,Munte K,Scholtemeijer M,Hofer SOP,Mureau MAM

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic value of intravenous heparin in microvascular surgery: an experimental vascular thrombosis study.

    abstract::In an attempt to decrease a 10 to 15 percent vascular thrombosis rate leading to graft occlusion, low-dose human-grade heparin was studied to determine if carefully monitored intravenous therapy would increase 7-day patency in a known potent thrombosis model. In New Zealand white rabbits, the type of infusate administ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenberg BM,Masem M,May JW Jr

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Revascularization of cranial versus iliac crest bone grafts in the rat.

    abstract::Full-thickness cranial (membranous) and split-thickness iliac crest (endochondral) onlay bone grafts were placed subperiosteally without fixation onto the snout (membranous) and tibia (endochondral) in 30 rats. The animals had been divided into three equal groups in which the bone grafts had been demineralized, autocl...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sullivan WG,Szwajkun PR

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Rhinoplasty: the retractable roof.

    abstract::A new operative technique is described in which the natural curved nasal dorsum is retained in a modified fashion. Specifically, the nasal dorsum is elevated, the nasal height is reduced, and then the newly designed roof is lowered. Based on a minimum 1-year follow-up of 14 patients and a total experience of 28 patien...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daniel RK

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Forehead Fat Grafting: Asian Facial Contouring and Augmentation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Aesthetic facial contouring procedures, particularly forehead augmentation, continue to increase in popularity in the Asian population. However, there are very few reports in the literature specifically examining the long-term outcomes of forehead fat grafting. In the present study, the authors aimed to obje...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li X,Kubiak CA,Yang X,Kemp SWP,Cederna PS,Ma J

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • A Treatment Algorithm for Patients Presenting with Sagittal Craniosynostosis after the Age of 1 Year.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sagittal craniosynostosis typically presents shortly after birth, with a scaphocephalic head shape, and is addressed surgically for functional and aesthetic concerns. This study highlights the authors' experience with a challenging patient population: those with phenotypically mild, missed, and late-developi...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruane EJ,Garland CB,Camison L,Fenton RA,Nischal KK,Pollack IF,Tamber MS,Grunwaldt LJ,Losee JE,Goldstein JA

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • SMAD6 Genotype Predicts Neurodevelopment in Nonsyndromic Craniosynostosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:De novo or rare transmitted mutations in the SMAD6 gene affect 7 percent of midline nonsyndromic synostosis patients. This study aimed to determine the neurocognitive sequelae of SMAD6 synostosis. METHODS:Nonsyndromic synostosis patients 6 years or older with SMAD6 mutations and non-SMAD6 nonsyndromic synos...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu RT,Timberlake AT,Abraham PF,Gabrick KS,Lu X,Peck CJ,Sawh-Martinez RF,Steinbacher DM,Alperovich MA,Persing JA

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • The national utilization of immediate and early delayed breast reconstruction and the effect of sociodemographic factors.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to identify important sociodemographic factors affecting the utilization of immediate and early delayed postmastectomy breast reconstruction in the United States. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, all cases of mastectomy-treated breast cancer that were ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alderman AK,McMahon L Jr,Wilkins EG

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Repair of a recurrent urethrovaginal fistula with an island bulbocavernous musculocutaneous flap.

    abstract::This paper describes a case of recurrent postpartum urethrovaginal fistula. The extent of the vaginal tissue loss and the perilesional scarring made direct closure of the defect not practicable. After suturing of the urethra, the anterior vaginal wall was reconstructed with an island bulbocavernous musculocutaneous fl...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Candiani P,Austoni E,Campiglio GL,Ceresoli A,Zanetti G,Colombo F

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • A cost-utility analysis of the use of preoperative computed tomographic angiography in abdomen-based perforator flap breast reconstruction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Computed tomographic angiography is a diagnostic tool increasingly used for preoperative vascular mapping in abdomen-based perforator flap breast reconstruction. This study compared the use of computed tomographic angiography and the conventional practice of Doppler ultrasonography only in postmastectomy rec...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Offodile AC 2nd,Chatterjee A,Vallejo S,Fisher CS,Tchou JC,Guo L

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • The use of epidurals in abdominal wall reconstruction: an analysis of outcomes and cost.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ventral hernias are a common, challenging, and expensive problem for general and reconstructive surgeons. The authors assessed the impact of epidurals on morbidity following abdominal wall reconstruction for hernia. METHODS:A retrospective review of abdominal wall reconstruction patients operated on between...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fischer JP,Nelson JA,Wes AM,Wink JD,Yan C,Braslow BM,Chen L,Kovach SJ

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Anatomical localization of the umbilicus: an Indian study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The umbilicus is essential to the aesthetic appearance of the abdomen. However, very little has been written about the exact location of the aesthetically pleasing umbilicus as far as the Indian cosmopolitan population is concerned. Although a variety of reconstructive methods are available, no real standard...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abhyankar SV,Rajguru AG,Patil PA

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Scarless fetal wounds are associated with an increased matrix metalloproteinase-to-tissue-derived inhibitor of metalloproteinase ratio.

    abstract::In contrast to adult cutaneous wounds, early fetal wounds heal scarlessly. Fetal rat skin transitions from scarless repair to healing, with scar formation between days 16.5 (E16) and 18.5 (E18) of gestation. Term gestation is 21.5 days. The composition of the extracellular matrix in fetal skin and wounds differs from ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dang CM,Beanes SR,Lee H,Zhang X,Soo C,Ting K

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Management of High-Output Chyle Leak after Harvesting of Vascularized Supraclavicular Lymph Nodes.

    abstract::Vascularized lymph node transfer is a physiologic microsurgical technique used for the treatment of lymphedema. As vascularized lymph node transfer is becoming more common, it is essential that one is aware of all potential complications associated with vascularized lymph node transfer and know how to avoid and manage...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teven CM,Hunter CL,Chang DW

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Myxoma of the maxilla: surgical treatment of an unusual case in a child.

    abstract::A case of unusual myxoma in a 2-year-old child is reported with its surgical treatment and postoperative outcome. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies such as mucocele and sarcoma is discussed. ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caleffi E,Toschi S,Bocchi A

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Correction of pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum assisted by the endoscope.

    abstract::Six patients with pectus excavatum and two patients with pectus carinatum had their conditions corrected by a partial costal cartilage resection with a sternal osteotomy through a 2.5-cm to 4-cm skin incision located just above the xyphoid process assisted by an endoscope. In addition to the incision, stab wounds of l...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kobayashi S,Yoza S,Komuro Y,Sakai Y,Ohmori K

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • A custom-made nasal implant: prefabrication from curing of silicone adhesive.

    abstract::When nasal augmentation is performed with implants fashioned from a piece of solid silicone block or commercially available prefabricated implants, the precise sculpturing of the ventral surface of the implant in order to conform to the convex contour of the nose is often difficult to achieve, increasing the possibili...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han K,Kang J

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Platelet-Rich Plasma Influences Expansion and Paracrine Function of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells in a Dose-Dependent Fashion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lipofilling is a treatment modality to restore tissue volume. Both platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived stromal cells have been reported to augment the efficacy of lipofilling, yet results are not conclusive. The authors hypothesized that the variation reported in literature is caused by a dose-dependent...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willemsen JCN,Spiekman M,Stevens HPJ,van der Lei B,Harmsen MC

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of Dupuytren disease in fingers: studying correlations with a multivariate ordinal logit model.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dupuytren disease affects fingers in a variable fashion. Knowledge about specific disease patterns (phenotype) based on location and severity of the disease is lacking. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, 344 primary affected hands with Dupuytren disease were physically examined. The Pearson correlation ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lanting R,Nooraee N,Werker PMN,van den Heuvel ER

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00