Choroidal imaging biomarkers.


:The choroid is the vascular coat of the eye, and its role has been studied in multiple chorioretinal disorders. Recent advancements in choroidal imaging techniques, including enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, swept source optical coherence tomography, en face optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography have facilitated an in-depth analysis of the choroid. The gradual shift from manual to automated segmentation and binarization methods have led to precise and reproducible measurements of choroidal parameters. These qualitative and quantitative parameters, called choroidal imaging biomarkers, have evolved over the past decade from a simple linear subfoveal choroidal thickness to more complex 3D choroidal reconstruction, thus widening the spectrum encompassing multiple parameters. These biomarkers have provided a better understanding of the pathogenesis, are helpful in diagnostic dilemmas, and, in the future may also help to devise treatment options. The lack of normative data, absence of standardized parameters, and limitations of the imaging techniques, however, have led to ambiguity and difficulty in the interpretation of these variables. We attempt to address these lacunae in the literature and provide a basic understanding of the choroid in both health and disease using these choroidal biomarkers.


Surv Ophthalmol


Survey of ophthalmology


Singh SR,Vupparaboina KK,Goud A,Dansingani KK,Chhablani J




Has Abstract


2019-01-01 00:00:00














  • New developments in giant cell arteritis.

    abstract::Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a medium-to-large vessel vasculitis with potentially sight- and life- threatening complications. Our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of GCA has advanced rapidly in recent times. The validity of using the American College of Rheumatology guidelines for diagnosis...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Frohman L,Wong AB,Matheos K,Leon-Alvarado LG,Danesh-Meyer HV

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • The amniotic membrane in ophthalmology.

    abstract::The amniotic membrane is the innermost of the three layers forming the fetal membranes. It was first used in 1910 in skin transplantation. Thereafter it has been used in surgical procedures related to the genito-urinary tract, skin, brain, and head and neck, among others. The first documented ophthalmological applicat...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dua HS,Gomes JA,King AJ,Maharajan VS

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Serum vitamin D and age-related macular degeneration: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Vitamin D may be implicated in the pathophysiology of several ocular diseases, but its role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains uncertain. We sought to review systematically the existing evidence to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels and AMD. A four-database search ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferreira A,Silva N,Furtado MJ,Carneiro Â,Lume M,Andrade JP

    更新日期:2020-08-05 00:00:00

  • Unilateral headache and ptosis in a 30-year-old woman.

    abstract::A 30-year-old woman developed left-sided headaches and ipsilateral oculosympathetic paresis (Horner's syndrome) secondary to carotid dissection. Although she initially denied preceding trauma, further questioning revealed a pattern of physical abuse by her boyfriend, including an attempted strangulation shortly before...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Purvin V

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Solar radiation and age-related macular degeneration.

    abstract::Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves a progressive impairment of the outer layers in the center of the retina. Experimental studies have demonstrated that bright light preferentially damages precisely the region that degenerates in AMD. The evidence that solar radiation is responsible for some of the deteri...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Young RW

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rubeosis iridis in "pseudogliomas".

    abstract::A total of 85 eyes (75 patients) with pseudogliomas (i.e., certain conditions which simulate retinoblastoma, were examined histopathologically to determine the incidence of rubeosis iridis. Neovascularization of the anterior surface of the iris was found in 70 eyes (82%). The principal associated changes in these eyes...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moazed K,Albert D,Smith TR

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00

  • Heavy eye syndrome: Myopia-induced strabismus.

    abstract::Heavy eye syndrome is an important type of myopia-induced strabismus. We provide an overview of heavy eye syndrome, from its history to its most salient features. The theory of the orbital and rectus muscle pulley system as it relates to heavy eye syndrome and the prevailing theories on the pathophysiology of heavy ey...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hennein L,Robbins SL

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension).

    abstract::This review focuses on the features of pseudotumor cerebri in the pediatric age group. There is no sex predilection in children, and obesity does not appear to be an important factor. Infants and young children may present with irritability, apathy, or somnolence, rather than headache. Dizziness and ataxia may also oc...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lessell S

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Jules Gonin. Inventor of the surgical treatment for retinal detachment.

    abstract::Jules Gonin's former student presents a personal and historical biography of the Swiss ophthalmologist, who, between 1902 and 1921, explored and illustrated the many unknown aspects of retinal detachment, defined its pathogenesis, and developed the method of reattachment by ignipuncture and thermocautery. ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Rumpf J

    更新日期:1976-11-01 00:00:00

  • Willard Parker's 1841 orbital operation.

    abstract::There are few records detailing the techniques and tribulations of early American surgeons who dared venture into the treacherous recess of the human orbit. The authors present a recently discovered letter written by a young woman who in 1841 underwent an orbital operation performed by the prominent New York City surg...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Khan JA,Albert DM

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Prospects for epidermal growth factor in the management of corneal disorders.

    abstract::Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a naturally occurring mitogen which, in its recombinant form, is under intensive investigation for therapeutic use. Receptor activation by EGF induces up-regulation of synthesis of specific proteins as well as proliferation and differentiation of the corneal epithelium, keratocytes, an...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tripathi RC,Raja SC,Tripathi BJ

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Targeting outflow facility in glaucoma management.

    abstract::Glaucoma is often characterized by decreased pressure-sensitive aqueous outflow through the trabecular meshwork. This defect in pressure-sensitive aqueous outflow is evident from the low tonographic facility of outflow ("C") measured in many patients. The impairment in outflow facility causes the high intraocular pres...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brubaker RF

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • The neuro-ophthalmology of mitochondrial disease.

    abstract::Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Because of the predilection of mitochondrial disorders to involve the optic nerves, extraocular muscles, retina, and even the retrochiasmal visual pathways, the ophthalmologist is often the first physician to be consulted. Disorders ca...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fraser JA,Biousse V,Newman NJ

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Minor trauma, disastrous results.

    abstract::An 81-year-old-woman developed a right facial palsy and orbital cellulitis following an apparently innocuous puncture injury of the right lower eyelid. Generalized tetanus ensued which proved fatal despite aggressive treatment including use of tetanus immune globulin, wound debridement, and neuromuscular blockade with...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Searl SS

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Laser-assisted Corneal Transplantation Surgery.

    abstract::Corneal transplant surgeries have a broad range of indications with outcomes largely dependent on surgeon experience. Traditional manual techniques have certain limitations pertaining to the preparation of donor tissue and the recipient bed that might affect the predictability of visual outcomes. Use of lasers for ker...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deshmukh R,Stevenson LJ,Vajpayee RB

    更新日期:2021-01-29 00:00:00

  • Caught by a masquerade: sclerosing orbital inflammation.

    abstract::Idiopathic sclerosing inflammation of the orbit is a distinct form of orbital inflammatory disease characterized by slow and relentless involvement of orbital structures. It is this insidious and relentless course that makes distinction from neoplastic lesions clinically difficult. We report the case of a patient with...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thorne JE,Volpe NJ,Wulc AE,Galetta SL

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hypertensive retinopathy mimicking neuroretinitis in a twelve-year-old girl.

    abstract::Bilateral disk swelling and marked peripapillary and macular exudates were found on routine ophthalmologic examination in a 12 1/2-year-old girl. Eleven months later, with persistent findings, her blood pressure was found to be extremely elevated. She had an Ask-Upmark kidney, a rare form of segmental renal hypoplasia...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leavitt JA,Pruthi S,Morgenstern BZ

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Orbital inflammation: Biopsy first.

    abstract::Orbital inflammation is a response of the immune system and not a diagnosis in itself. Exposing the underlying disease introduces a labyrynthine challenge owing to the broad array of possible causes ranging from infectious, structural, autoimmune, idiopathic to neoplastic origin. In this regard, and despite its unkown...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mombaerts I,Rose GE,Garrity JA

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • The blood-ocular barriers.

    abstract::The introduction of the concept of blood-ocular barriers in the ophthalmic literature is briefly reviewed. Two main blood-ocular barriers are proposed: the blood-aqueous barrier and the blood-retinal barrier. The blood-aqueous barrier is formed by an epithelial barrier located in the nonpigmented layer of the ciliary ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cunha-Vaz J

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • Corneal cross-linking.

    abstract::Since its inception in the late 1990s, corneal cross-linking has grown from an interesting concept to a primary treatment for corneal ectatic disease worldwide. Using a combination of ultraviolet-A light and a chromophore (vitamin B2, riboflavin), the cornea can be stiffened, usually with a single application, and pro...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Randleman JB,Khandelwal SS,Hafezi F

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tonometry through the ages.

    abstract::The definition of glaucoma has changed over the decades from a simple ocular pressure disease to a systemic disorder of multivariate etiology. Glaucoma may be defined for the individual eye as a chronic ocular disease with various underlying pathophysiologic disorders. However, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is s...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kniestedt C,Punjabi O,Lin S,Stamper RL

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical ophthalmology instruction for medical students.

    abstract::A ten-day ophthalmology clerkship for third-year medical students is described. The curriculum, detailed in a day-by-day syllabus, sets specific student goals, evaluates attainment of the goals by a pre-post test, utilizes a student-oriented study guide keyed to major textbrooks as core material with slide-tape and vi...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waring GO 3rd,Harris R,Walters RF,Berris C

    更新日期:1977-09-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies in the management of open-globe injuries involving the posterior segment.

    abstract::There are numerous unresolved issues and controversies regarding the management of open-globe injuries involving the posterior segment. These areas include, but are not limited to, the following issues. Although vitrectomy has been shown to improve visual outcomes and allow retention of the eye in many cases, the exte...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mittra RA,Mieler WF

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • The optics of aphakic and pseudophakic eyes in childhood.

    abstract::The growth of the eye results in a myopic shift in aphakic and pseudophakic eyes during childhood. Cataract surgery after the age of 6 months, with or without lens implantation, appears to have little effect on the rate of refractive growth. Most children with pseudophakia have a large amount of myopic shift. This myo...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McClatchey SK,Hofmeister EM

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of calcium-activated protease calpain in experimental retinal pathology.

    abstract::The purpose of this review is to present the recent evidence linking the family of ubiquitous proteases called calpains (EC to neuropathologies of the retina. The hypothesis being tested in such studies is that over-activation of calpains by elevated intracellular calcium contributes to retinal cell death p...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Azuma M,Shearer TR

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Commonly used intracameral antibiotics for endophthalmitis prophylaxis: A literature review.

    abstract::Endophthalmitis is a serious complication of cataract surgery that occurs in thousands of patients each year. To decrease the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, many surgeons inject intracameral antibiotics (cefuroxime, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin) routinely at the end of surgery. A large number of recently ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Grzybowski A,Brona P,Zeman L,Stewart MW

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    abstract::Acanthamoeba species are an important cause of microbial keratitis that may cause severe ocular inflammation and visual loss. The first cases were recognized in 1973, but the disease remained very rare until the 1980s, when an increase in incidence mainly associated with contact lens wear was reported. There is an inc...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Illingworth CD,Cook SD

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Big data and ophthalmic research.

    abstract::Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, he...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clark A,Ng JQ,Morlet N,Semmens JB

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Methylprednisolone therapy for retinal laser injury.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Laser photocoagulation treatment of the posterior pole of the retina is often complicated by immediate visual impairment, which is caused by the unavoidable laser-induced destruction of the normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. A neuroprotective therapy aimed at salvaging this normal tissue might enhance the ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solberg Y,Dubinski G,Tchirkov M,Belkin M,Rosner M

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Neurofibromatosis and neural crest neoplasms: primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva.

    abstract::With an occurrence of approximately 1 in 3000 births, von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF) is one of the most common inherited human disorders. NF is considered a neurocristopathy, a disorder of neural crest derived cells. One of the complications of NF is the development of neural crest derived malignancies such...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: To KW,Rabinowitz SM,Friedman AH,Merker C,Cavanaugh CP

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00