Employment and health after retirement in Japanese men.

Abstract:

Objective:To estimate the average treatment effect of working past the current retirement age on the health of Japanese men. Methods:We used publicly available data from the National Survey of Japanese Elderly, extracting a sample of 1288 men who were 60 years or older. Survey respondents were followed-up for at most 15 years for the onset of four health outcomes: death, cognitive decline, stroke and diabetes. By using the propensity score method, we adjusted for the healthy worker effect by incorporating economic, sociodemographic and health data in the form of independent variables. By calculating the differences in times to a health outcome between those in employment and those not employed, we estimated the average treatment effects on health of being in paid work past retirement age. Findings:Compared with those not employed, those in employment lived 1.91 years longer (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.70 to 3.11), had an additional 2.22 years (95% CI: 0.27 to 4.17) before experiencing cognitive decline, and had a longer period before the onset of diabetes and stroke of 6.05 years (95% CI: 4.44 to 7.65) and 3.35 years (95% CI: 1.42 to 5.28), respectively. We also observed differences between employees and the self-employed: the self-employed had longer life expectancies than employees. In terms of years to onset of diabetes or stroke, however, we only observed significant benefits to health of being an employee but not self-employed. Conclusion:Our study found that being in employment past the current age of retirement had a positive impact on health. Objectif:Estimer l'effet moyen du traitement « Travailler après l'âge actuel de la retraite » sur la santé des hommes japonais. Méthodes:Nous avons utilisé les données publiquement disponibles d'une enquête nationale menée auprès de personnes âgées japonaises, en extrayant un échantillon de 1 288 hommes de 60 ans ou plus. Les personnes ayant participé à cette enquête ont été suivies pendant au maximum 15 ans pour détecter la survenue de quatre événements de santé: décès, déclin cognitif, incident ischémique et diabète. En utilisant la méthode du score de propension, nous avons procédé à un ajustement pour compenser l'effet du travailleur en bonne santé, en incorporant des données économiques, sociodémographiques et des données de santé, sous la forme de variables indépendantes. En calculant les différences constatées -entre les hommes qui travaillaient et ceux qui ne travaillaient pas- dans les délais d'apparition de ces événements de santé, nous avons fait une estimation des effets moyens sur la santé du fait d'avoir un travail rémunéré après l'âge de la retraite. Résultats:Comparativement aux hommes qui ne travaillaient pas, les hommes qui avaient un travail ont vécu 1,91 année de plus (intervalle de confiance -IC- à 95%: de 0,70 à 3,11), ils ont bénéficié de 2,22 années supplémentaires avant de connaître un déclin cognitif (IC à 95%: de 0,27 à 4,17) et ils ont bénéficié d'une différence de délai encore plus importante avant l'apparition de problèmes de diabète ou d'incidents ischémiques, à savoir 6,05 années (IC à 95%: de 4,44 à 7,65) et 3,35 années (IC à 95%: de 1,42 à 5,28) respectivement. Nous avons également constaté des différences entre les personnes salariées et les travailleurs indépendants, avec une espérance de vie plus élevée chez les travailleurs indépendants. Néanmoins, concernant le délai d'apparition du diabète ou d'incidents ischémiques, nous avons uniquement observé des avantages significatifs pour la santé au fait d’être salarié, mais pas au fait d’être travailleur indépendant. Conclusion:Notre étude révèle que le fait de travailler après l'âge de la retraite actuellement en vigueur a un impact positif sur la santé. Objetivo:Estimar el efecto medio del tratamiento de trabajar después de la edad de jubilación actual en la salud de los hombres japoneses. Métodos:Se utilizaron los datos disponibles públicamente de la Encuesta Nacional a la Tercera edad de Japón, de donde se obtuvo una muestra de 1288 hombres de 60 años o más. A los encuestados se les realizó un seguimiento durante un máximo de 15 años de la aparición de cuatro resultados de salud: muerte, deterioro cognitivo, accidentes cerebrovasculares y diabetes. Mediante el uso del método de puntuación de propensión, se ajustó el efecto del trabajador sano mediante la incorporación de datos económicos, sociodemográficos y de salud en forma de variables independientes. Mediante el cálculo de las diferencias temporales hasta un resultado de salud entre los que trabajan y los que no, se estimaron los efectos del tratamiento promedio sobre la salud de estar en un trabajo remunerado después de la edad de jubilación. Resultados:En comparación con los que no trabajan, los trabajadores vivían 1,91 años más (95 % intervalo de confianza, IC: 0,70 a 3,11), tenían 2,22 años adicionales (IC del 95 %: 0,27 a 4,17) antes de experimentar un declive cognitivo y un periodo más largo antes de la aparición de diabetes y accidentes cerebrovasculares de 6,05 (IC del 95 %: 4,44 a 7,65) y 3,35 años (IC del 95 %: 1,42 a 5,28), respectivamente. También se observaron diferencias entre los trabajadores por cuenta ajena y por cuenta propia: los últimos tenían una esperanza de vida más larga que los primeros. Sin embargo, en términos de años hasta la aparición de diabetes o accidentes cerebrovasculares, solo se observaron beneficios significativos para la salud en trabajar por cuenta ajena, pero no por cuenta propia. Conclusión:El estudio concluyó que tener trabajo después de la edad de jubilación actual tuvo un impacto positivo en la salud. الغرض:تقدير ​​التأثير المتوسط للعلاج بعد سن التقاعد الحالي على صحة الرجال اليابانيين. الطريقة:اعتمدنا على البيانات المتاحة للعامة من المسح الوطني للمسنين اليابانيين، حيث استخرجنا عينة من 1288 رجلاً تبلغ أعمارهم 60 عامًا أو أكثر. وتمت متابعة المشاركين في المسح لمدة 15 سنة على الأكثر لمتابعة ظهور أربع نتائج صحية: الموت، والتدهور الإدراكي، والسكتة الدماغية، والسكري. وباستخدام طريقة النزعة الطبيعية، قمنا بتعديل تأثير العامل الصحي من خلال دمج البيانات الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسكانية والصحية في شكل متغيرات مستقلة. وباحتساب الاختلافات في أوقات النتيجة صحية بين أولئك الذين مازالوا يعملون، وأولئك الذين لا يعملون، فقد قمنا بتقدير التأثير المتوسط للعلاج على الصحة في العمل المدفوع الأجر بعد سن التقاعد. النتائج:مقارنة مع أولئك الذين لا يعملون، عاش الذين يعملون فترة أطول بـ 1.91 سنة (فاصل الثقة 95%: 0.70 إلى 3.11)، ومر عليهم 2.22 سنة إضافية (فاصل الثقة 95%: 0.27 إلى 4.17) قبل أن يتعرضوا للتدهور الإدراكي، كما كان لديهم فترة أطول قبل ظهور مرض السكري والسكتة الدماغية وهي 6.05 سنوات (فاصل الثقة 95%: 4.44 إلى 7.65)، و3.35 سنوات (فاصل الثقة 95%: 1.42 إلى 5.28) على الترتيب. كما لاحظنا أيضا الاختلافات بين الموظفين وأصحاب المهن الحرة: حيث كان لدى أصحاب المهن الحرة متوسط ​​حياة أطول من الموظفين. إلا أنه فيما يتعلق بسنوات الإصابة بمرض السكري أو السكتة الدماغية، لاحظنا فقط مزايا ملموسة لدى الموظفين وليس لدى أصحاب المهن الحرة. الاستنتاج:وجدت دراستنا أن التواجد في العمل بعد سن التقاعد الحالي كان له تأثير إيجابي على الصحة. 目的:旨在评估日本男性在当前退休年龄后参与就业对健康的平均疗效。. 方法:我们采用日本老年人全国性调查 (National Survey of the Japanese Elderly) 的公开数据,提取了由 1288 名 60 岁或以上男性组成的样本。对参与调查的受访者的四种健康结果,即死亡、认知能力下降、中风和糖尿病,进行了至多 15 年的随访。我们使用倾向性评分法,以独立变量的形式纳入经济、社会人口统计学和健康数据,对健康工人效应进行调整。通过计算就业者与未就业者健康结果之间的时间差异,我们估算了当前退休年龄后参与有偿工作对健康的平均疗效。. 结果:与未就业者相比,就业者的寿命延长了 1.91 年(95% 置信区间,CI:0.70 至 3.11),认知能力下降推迟了 2.22 年(95% 置信区间,CI:0.27 至 4.17),糖尿病和中风推迟的时间更久,分别推迟了 6.05 年(95% 置信区间,CI:4.44 至 7.65)和 3.35 年(95% 置信区间,CI:1.42 至 5.28)。我们还观察到雇员与自雇者之间的差异:自雇者的预期寿命比雇员更长。然而,我们仅发现雇员较自雇者在糖尿病或中风发病年限上有显著优势。. 结论:研究发现,在当前退休年龄后参与就业对健康产生了积极影响。. Цель:Оценить полезное влияние трудовой занятости после достижения текущего пенсионного возраста на здоровье японских мужчин. Методы:Использовались общедоступные данные Национального исследования пожилых японцев, в ходе которого была получена выборка из 1288 мужчин в возрасте 60 лет и старше. Участники исследования наблюдались на протяжении максимум 15 лет до наступления четырех исходов в отношении здоровья: смерти, снижения когнитивных способностей, инсульта и диабета. Используя метод оценки предрасположенности, исследователи скорректировали производительность здорового работника с учетом экономических, социально-демографических и медицинских показателей в виде независимых переменных. Путем вычисления разницы во времени до наступления исходов в отношении здоровья между работающими и неработающими пенсионерами авторы оценили полезное влияние трудовой занятости на здоровье после достижения пенсионного возраста. Результаты:В сравнении с неработающими пенсионерами продолжительность жизни работающих пенсионеров составила на 1,91 года больше (95%-й ДИ: 0,70–3,11), начало снижения когнитивных способностей наступало на 2,22 года позже (95%-й ДИ: 0,27–4,17), у них был более длительный период до развития диабета и инсульта — 6,05 года (95%-й ДИ: 4,44–7,65) и 3,35 года (95%-й ДИ: 1,42–5,28) соответственно. Исследователи также наблюдали различия между работающими по найму и самостоятельно занятыми пенсионерами: у самостоятельно занятых была большая продолжительность жизни, чем у работающих по найму. Тем не менее пенсионеры, работающие по найму, продемонстрировали лучшие результаты в отношении количества лет до развития диабета или инсульта по сравнению с самостоятельно занятыми пенсионерами. Вывод:Исследование показало, что сохранение трудовой занятости после достижения текущего пенсионного возраста оказывает положительное влияние на здоровье.

authors

Okamoto S,Okamura T,Komamura K

doi

10.2471/BLT.18.215764

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-12-01 00:00:00

pages

826-833

issue

12

eissn

0042-9686

issn

1564-0604

pii

BLT.18.215764

journal_volume

96

pub_type

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    authors: UEMURA K,STERNBY N,VANECEK R,VIHERT A,KAGAN A

    更新日期:1964-01-01 00:00:00

  • Costs of treating diarrhoea in a children's hospital in Mexico City.

    abstract::The treatment received by children aged under 5 years with diarrhoea was studied in the Hospital Infantil de México (Federico Goméz), Mexico City. The costs of treatment were calculated and estimates were made of how these had changed since the establishment of an oral rehydration unit in the hospital in 1985. The res...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Phillips M,Kumate-Rodríguez J,Mota-Hernández F

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Primary health screening by haemoglobinometry in a tropical community.

    abstract::The usefulness of a recently developed portable haemoglobinometer in primary health care was assessed in a survey of anaemia carried out in an isolated Indian community living in the jungles of northern Peru. This haemoglobinometer requires only one drop of blood to be added to a disposable cuvette without predilution...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Johns WL,Lewis SM

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Illness associated with "package tours": a combined Spanish-Scottish study.

    abstract::The occurrence of three deaths and substantial morbidity among members of a "package tour" who stayed at the same hotel in Benidorm, Spain, during the summer of 1973 provided an opportunity to study the experiences of persons undertaking this type of holiday and some of the factors that might affect their health. Of 2...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Reid D,Grist NR,Nájera R

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Griseofulvin in the mass treatment of tinea capitis.

    abstract::The prevalence of ringworm of the scalp in many countries, and the fact that many of the current measures to control it are inconvenient for mass use, lend particular interest to the account given in this paper of mass treatment of tinea capitis in an Arab village in Israel. A total of 446 cases were treated, on an am...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: ZIPRKOWSKI L,KRAKOWSKI A,SCHEWACH-MILLET M,BTESH S

    更新日期:1960-01-01 00:00:00

  • Global tuberculosis incidence and mortality during 1990-2000.

    abstract::Forecasts of tuberculosis morbidity and mortality are presented for the decade 1990-99. An estimated 88 million new cases of tuberculosis, of which 8 million will be attributable to HIV infection, will occur in the world during the decade; 30 million people are predicted to die of tuberculosis in the same period, incl...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Dolin PJ,Raviglione MC,Kochi A

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Control of a type 1 poliomyelitis epidemic in British Guiana, 1962-63, with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine. 1. Epidemiological aspects.

    abstract::An epidemic of poliomyelitis took place in British Guiana during the winter of 1962-63. A total of 485 paralytic cases occurred over a 10-week period, 90% in children under 5 years of age.The attack rate for the total population of more than half-a-million persons was 86.5 per 100 000. Type 1 poliovirus was isolated f...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Witte JJ,Page MI,Gelfand HM

    更新日期:1965-01-01 00:00:00

  • Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS:From 1 Dece...

    journal_title:Bulletin of the World Health Organization

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2471/blt.05.022814

    authors: Thant KZ,Oo WM,Myint TT,Shwe TN,Han AM,Aye KM,Aye KT,Moe K,Thein S,Robertson SE

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00