Imagining the soul: Thomas Willis (1621-1675) on the anatomy of the brain and nerves.

Abstract:

:During the 1660s and 1670s, Thomas Willis (1621-1675) pursued an ambitious program of brain science. Instead of the speculative approach favored by René Descartes (1596-1659), Willis used comparative anatomy to figure out the workings of the brain and nerves. As a result, Willis is still cited by science writers as the "founder" of the modern neurosciences. This chapter, by contrast, builds on a wealth of scholarship showing that Willis in fact had aims that few scientists would recognize. One of his key objectives, for instance, was to work out how much influence the immaterial, immortal soul had over the mechanisms of the human body. Despite his empiricism, moreover, Willis relied to a large extent on the imagination in his efforts to hypothesize mechanisms for complex cognitive and neurological processes. For the most part, scholars have argued that Willis used such strategies because of an unfortunate tendency to frame hypotheses even when the evidence was lacking. In this chapter, however, I show that the imagination played a surprisingly important role in the neurosciences of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, thereby challenging modern assumptions about the shape and causes of progress in brain research.

journal_name

Prog Brain Res

authors

Wragge-Morley A

doi

10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.009

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-01-01 00:00:00

pages

55-73

eissn

0079-6123

issn

1875-7855

pii

S0079-6123(18)30147-X

journal_volume

243

pub_type

传,历史文章,杂志文章
  • Human brain plasticity: evidence from sensory deprivation and altered language experience.

    abstract::The results from the language studies taken as a whole point to different developmental time courses and developmental vulnerabilities of aspects of grammatical and semantic/lexical processing. They thus provide support for conceptions of language that distinguish these subprocesses within language. Similarly, followi...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(02)38078-6

    authors: Neville H,Bavelier D

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo imaging of the integration and function of nigral grafts in clinical trials.

    abstract::In vivo functional imaging has provided objective evidence for the integration and function of nigral grafts in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials with the use of positron emission tomography have shown that transplants of human dopamine-rich fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue can survive...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59575-1.00009-0

    authors: Politis M,Piccini P

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Consciousness and epilepsy: why are complex-partial seizures complex?

    abstract::Why do complex-partial seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cause a loss of consciousness? Abnormal function of the medial temporal lobe is expected to cause memory loss, but it is unclear why profoundly impaired consciousness is so common in temporal lobe seizures. Recent exciting advances in behavioral, electrop...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(09)17711-7

    authors: Englot DJ,Blumenfeld H

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of an embryonic repair graft on recovery from spinal cord injury.

    abstract::It is widely believed that mammalian CNS axons have little regenerative capacity because their environment is non-permissive to regrowth. This viewpoint is based, in large part, on the fact that in virtually all previous studies on regeneration following spinal cord injury, regenerated axonal projections have been few...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(03)43015-X

    authors: Kawaguchi S,Iseda T,Nishio T

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • John Bell (1763-1820): brother artist and anatomist.

    abstract::John Bell, brother-surgeon of Charles Bell, was, like Charles, an outstanding surgeon and a good artist. John was one of the few who illustrated his work with their own drawings in the days before audiovisual aids were available and without the benefit of reliable drawing aids, photography and computer-aided design. C...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-62730-8.00006-2

    authors: Gardner-Thorpe C

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of brain mechanisms for visual global processing and object segmentation.

    abstract::Objects have specific cognitive attributes, elicit particular visuo-motor responses, and require visual processes beyond primary visual cortex to combine information over extended regions as a basis for the segmentation and integration of visual objects. As well as segmentation, the assignment of region boundaries to ...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)64008-4

    authors: Braddick O,Atkinson J

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cyclovergence evoked by up-down acceleration along longitudinal axis in humans.

    abstract::We present results of a study of torsional eye movements evoked by earth-vertical accelerations along the subject's longitudinal axis. The earth-vertical stimulus leads to a gravito-inertial acceleration vector that changes magnitude but not direction. It can therefore be viewed as a dynamic change of the gravity leve...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00646-8

    authors: Olasagasti I,Bockisch CJ,Zee DS,Straumann D

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Orexin and natural reward: feeding, maternal, and male sexual behavior.

    abstract::Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important for mediation of arousal and sleep as well as feeding and energy homeostasis. Recent studies have indicated that orexin also plays a key role regulating motivation and reward associated with food intake and with drugs of abuse. Based on those f...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59489-1.00006-9

    authors: Di Sebastiano AR,Coolen LM

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamics of thalamo-cortical network oscillations and human perception.

    abstract::There is increasing evidence that human cognitive functions can be addressed from a robust neuroscience perspective. In particular, the distributed coherent electrical properties of central neuronal ensembles are considered to be a promising avenue of inquiry concerning global brain functions. The intrinsic oscillator...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(05)50010-4

    authors: Ribary U

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • When the auditory cortex turns visual.

    abstract::We studied visually guided behavior and the visual response properties of single auditory cortex (A1) neurons in neonatally operated hamsters with surgically induced, permanent, ectopic retinal projections to auditory thalamic nuclei and to visual thalamic nuclei which normally receive little direct retinal input. The...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(01)34029-3

    authors: Ptito M,Giguère JF,Boire D,Frost DO,Casanova C

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Spinal cord neural organization controlling the urinary bladder and striated sphincter.

    abstract::The storage and elimination of urine requires the coordination of activity between the autonomic nervous system (thoracolumbar sympathetic and sacral parasympathetic divisions) controlling the urinary bladder and urethra and the lumbosacral somatic motoneurons innervating the striated sphincter and pelvic floor muscle...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(02)37008-0

    authors: Shefchyk SJ

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antidepressants for treatment of tinnitus.

    abstract::Antidepressants are commonly prescribed for tinnitus. Research thus far provides some support for that treatment, but the literature also raises concerns because tinnitus is a side effect of antidepressant medication. In this chapter, four published double blind placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for tinnitu...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)66024-5

    authors: Robinson S

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intrathecal administration of GABA agonists in the vegetative state.

    abstract::Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitor neurotransmitter that plays many important roles in the central nervous system. Because the half-life time of GABA is very short in vivo, GABA itself is not used for clinical practice. An analogue of GABA, baclofen, is an agonist of GABA-B receptor, and has very strong an...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(09)17721-X

    authors: Taira T

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cortical and brainstem control of locomotion.

    abstract::While a basic locomotor rhythm is centrally generated by spinal circuits, descending pathways are critical for ensuring appropriate anticipatory modifications of gait to accommodate uneven terrain. Neurons in the motor cortex command the changes in muscle activity required to modify limb trajectory when stepping over ...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(03)43025-2

    authors: Drew T,Prentice S,Schepens B

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The distribution of orally administered (-)-deprenyl-propynyl-14C and (-)-deprenyl-phenyl-3H in rat brain.

    abstract::Using alternatively labelled (-)-deprenyl (3H label in the ring and 14C in the propargyl group) the distribution of the compound was studied in 15 brain regions and the plasma of rats over a period of 96 h, after oral administration of 1.5 mg/kg of (-)-deprenyl. The compound is rapidly absorbed (within 15-30 min) from...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)61211-x

    authors: Magyar K,Lengyel J,Szatmári I,Gaál J

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • The development of topographically-aligned maps of visual and auditory space in the superior colliculus.

    abstract::The role of the superior colliculus in attending and orienting to sensory stimuli is facilitated by the presence within this midbrain nucleus of superimposed maps of different sensory modalities. We have studied the steps involved in the development of topographically-aligned maps of visual and auditory space in the f...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)63340-3

    authors: King AJ,Schnupp JW,Carlile S,Smith AL,Thompson ID

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rebound nystagmus, a window into the oculomotor integrator.

    abstract::Rebound nystagmus, a common cerebellar sign, is a transient nystagmus that appears on returning to straight-ahead gaze after prolonged eccentric gaze. The slow phases of rebound nystagmus are in the direction of prior eccentric gaze. After eccentric gaze, healthy subjects also show rebound nystagmus when fixation is r...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.04.040

    authors: Otero-Millan J,Colpak AI,Kheradmand A,Zee DS

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenesis of ganglion "cell death" in glaucoma and neuroprotection: focus on ganglion cell axonal mitochondria.

    abstract::Retinal ganglion cell axons within the globe are functionally specialized being richly provided with many mitochondria. The mitochondria produce the high energy requirement for nerve conduction in the unmyelinated part of the ganglion cell axons. We have proposed that in the initiation of glaucoma, an alteration in th...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)01124-2

    authors: Osborne NN

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The cardinal exercise stopper: Muscle fatigue, muscle pain or perception of effort?

    abstract::The capacity to sustain high-intensity aerobic exercise is essential for endurance performance. Therefore, it is important to understand what is the factor limiting time to exhaustion (TTE) in healthy and fit adults. In Study 1, maximal voluntary cycling power (MVCP) was measured in 11 volunteers before and immediatel...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.09.012

    authors: Staiano W,Bosio A,de Morree HM,Rampinini E,Marcora S

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular genetic approaches to puerperal psychosis.

    abstract::Puerperal psychosis, an episode of mania or psychosis precipitated by childbirth follows approximately one in 1000 deliveries. The evidence of clinical, outcome and genetic studies supports the hypothesis that the majority of puerperal psychotic episodes are manifestations of an affective disorder diathesis with a pue...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(01)33024-8

    authors: Jones I,Lendon C,Coyle N,Robertson E,Brockington I,Craddock N

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neurological phenotypes for Down syndrome across the life span.

    abstract::This chapter reviews the neurological phenotype of Down syndrome (DS) in early development, childhood, and aging. Neuroanatomic abnormalities in DS are manifested as aberrations in gross brain structure as well as characteristic microdysgenetic changes. As the result of these morphological abnormalities, brain circuit...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-54299-1.00006-6

    authors: Lott IT

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chapter 5 - Development of iron chelator-nanoparticle conjugates as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer disease.

    abstract::Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in the initiation and promotion of the neurodegeneration that characterizes the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). An accumulation of redox active transition metals, including iron and copper, is likely a major generator of reactive oxidative species and other free rad...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)80005-2

    authors: Liu G,Men P,Perry G,Smith MA

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chapter 2--the spinal generation of phases and cycle duration.

    abstract::During walking, an increase in speed is accompanied by a decrease in the stance phase duration while the swing phase remains relatively invariant. By definition, the rhythm generator in the lumbar spinal cord controls cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions. Our first aim was to determine if this asymmetr...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53825-3.00007-3

    authors: Gossard JP,Sirois J,Noué P,Côté MP,Ménard A,Leblond H,Frigon A

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of myelin proteolipid protein in oligodendrocytes and transfected cells.

    abstract::The data presented in this paper show that the appropriate tools are now available to study the behavior of PLP and DM20 transcripts engineered with either point mutations or deletion of specific domains. Such studies should begin to provide new insights into the functions of PLP and DM20 and their role in relation to...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)63307-5

    authors: Lees MB,Smith FI,Dyer CA,Greer JM,Pakaski M

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prodromal PD: A new nosological entity.

    abstract::Recent years have brought a rapid growth in knowledge of the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is now clear that the clinical phase of PD is preceded by a phase of progressing neurodegeneration lasting many years. This involves not only central nervous system structures outside the substantia nigra and n...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2020.01.003

    authors: Schaeffer E,Postuma RB,Berg D

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Current approaches and future directions to understanding control of head movement.

    abstract::This chapter reviews four key issues that must be addressed to advance our knowledge of control of head movement by the central nervous system (CNS). (1) Researchers must consider how the CNS utilizes the multiple muscle patterns that can produce the same head movement in carrying out tasks in an optimal way. (2) More...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(03)43035-5

    authors: Peterson BW

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Individual differences in children's mathematics achievement: The roles of symbolic numerical magnitude processing and domain-general cognitive functions.

    abstract::This contribution reviewed the available evidence on the domain-specific and domain-general neurocognitive determinants of children's arithmetic development, other than nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing, which might have been overemphasized as a core factor of individual differences in mathematics and dyscalc...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.04.001

    authors: Vanbinst K,De Smedt B

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of refractory Parkinson's disease with adrenal medullary autografts utilizing two-stage surgery.

    abstract::Treatment of refractory PD with autologous adrenal medullary implants utilizing two-stage surgery warrants further investigation. This transplantation technique is associated with prolonged transplant area BBB disruption which may require a change in medical treatment strategies including the withdrawal of peripheral ...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)62658-8

    authors: Petruk KC,Wilson AF,Schindel DR,Witt NJ,McLean DR,McFarland PA,Johnston RG,McPhee MS,Martin WR,Calne DB

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Repair of connections in injured neonatal and embryonic spinal cord in vitro.

    abstract::A remarkable preparation for studying development and repair is the CNS of the newborn opossum which, removed in its entirety, survives in culture for more than 1 week. In suitable medium, cells continue to divide, mature and reflex activity is maintained. Moreover, nerve fibers grow rapidly, reliably and extensively ...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(08)61141-3

    authors: Nicholls JG,Vischer H,Varga Z,Erulkar S,Saunders NR

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Schwann cell transplantation: a repair strategy for spinal cord injury?

    abstract::Schwann cells (SCs), when implanted in the injured spinal cord, support regeneration of axons, myelinate or ensheathe regenerated axons in a normal way, reduce cyst formation in the injured tissue, reduce secondary damage of tissue around the initial injury site, and modestly improve limb movements. If SC transplantat...

    journal_title:Progress in brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59544-7.00014-7

    authors: Wiliams RR,Bunge MB

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00