CGRP Antibodies as Prophylaxis in Migraine.


:Monoclonal antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor (CLR + RAMP1) offer considerable improvements over existing drugs in migraine prophylaxis and are the first designed to act on the trigeminal pain system. Erenumab is approved by the FDA and EMA and has reached the market since May 2018. Two antibodies, fremanezumab and galcanezumab, directed towards the CGRP ligand, were approved by the FDA in September 2018. To view this Bench to Bedside, open or download the PDF.






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  • Substrate selectivity APPLies to Akt.

    abstract::The protein kinase Akt occupies a central position in multiple signaling pathways. Although numerous Akt substrates have been identified, less is known about the factors that regulate specific cellular responses to Akt signaling. In this issue, Schenck et al. (2008) demonstrate that the endosomal protein Appl1 modulat...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Zhao S,Guan KL

    更新日期:2008-05-02 00:00:00

  • A SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodeling complex, E-RC1, is required for tissue-specific transcriptional regulation by EKLF in vitro.

    abstract::Erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) is necessary for stage-specific expression of the human beta-globin gene. We show that EKLF requires a SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodeling complex, EKLF coactivator-remodeling complex 1 (E-RC1), to generate a DNase I hypersensitive, transcriptionally active beta-globin promoter on...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Armstrong JA,Bieker JJ,Emerson BM

    更新日期:1998-10-02 00:00:00

  • The herpes simplex virus amplicon: a new eucaryotic defective-virus cloning-amplifying vector.

    abstract::We have employed repeat units of herpes simplex virus (HSV) defective genomes to derive a cloning-amplifying vector (amplicon) that can replicate in eucaryotic cells in the presence of standard HSV helper virus. The design of the HSV amplicon system is based on the previous observation that cotransfection of cells wit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spaete RR,Frenkel N

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00

  • Single-Cell Chromatin Modification Profiling Reveals Increased Epigenetic Variations with Aging.

    abstract::Post-translational modifications of histone proteins and exchanges of histone variants of chromatin are central to the regulation of nearly all DNA-templated biological processes. However, the degree and variability of chromatin modifications in specific human immune cells remain largely unknown. Here, we employ a hig...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheung P,Vallania F,Warsinske HC,Donato M,Schaffert S,Chang SE,Dvorak M,Dekker CL,Davis MM,Utz PJ,Khatri P,Kuo AJ

    更新日期:2018-05-31 00:00:00

  • Confinement and low adhesion induce fast amoeboid migration of slow mesenchymal cells.

    abstract::The mesenchymal-amoeboid transition (MAT) was proposed as a mechanism for cancer cells to adapt their migration mode to their environment. While the molecular pathways involved in this transition are well documented, the role of the microenvironment in the MAT is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated how conf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu YJ,Le Berre M,Lautenschlaeger F,Maiuri P,Callan-Jones A,Heuzé M,Takaki T,Voituriez R,Piel M

    更新日期:2015-02-12 00:00:00

  • Allele-Specific HLA Loss and Immune Escape in Lung Cancer Evolution.

    abstract::Immune evasion is a hallmark of cancer. Losing the ability to present neoantigens through human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loss may facilitate immune evasion. However, the polymorphic nature of the locus has precluded accurate HLA copy-number analysis. Here, we present loss of heterozygosity in human leukocyte antigen (L...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McGranahan N,Rosenthal R,Hiley CT,Rowan AJ,Watkins TBK,Wilson GA,Birkbak NJ,Veeriah S,Van Loo P,Herrero J,Swanton C,TRACERx Consortium.

    更新日期:2017-11-30 00:00:00

  • Progressive loss of shape-responsive metabolic controls in cells with increasingly transformed phenotype.

    abstract::The modulation of cell metabolism by cell shape and external surface contact has been studied by suspension culture of anchorage-dependent fibroblasts. The suspended cells shut down protein synthesis and nuclear RNA metabolism and cease replicating DNA. However, these responses to suspension are lost or modified as ce...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wittelsberger SC,Kleene K,Penman S

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro translation of Drosophila heat-shock and non--heat-shock mRNAs in heterologous and homologous cell-free systems.

    abstract::Upon heat shock, Drosophila Kc cells still contain normal cellular messenger RNAs in the cytoplasm. The distribution of these 25 degrees C mRNAs between polysomes and the postpolysomal fraction of heat-shocked cells appears unaltered as compared with control cells. The translatability of these normal cellular messages...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krüger C,Benecke BJ

    更新日期:1981-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differential antisense transcription from the Dictyostelium EB4 gene locus: implications on antisense-mediated regulation of mRNA stability.

    abstract::The 2.2 kb mRNA of the Dictyostelium discoideum prespore gene EB4-PSV is constitutively transcribed during growth and development, but the message is only accumulated when cells form aggregates and establish the prespore-prestalk pattern. Disruption of the pattern by mechanical disaggregation results in a rapid loss o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hildebrandt M,Nellen W

    更新日期:1992-04-03 00:00:00

  • Sec18p (NSF)-driven release of Sec17p (alpha-SNAP) can precede docking and fusion of yeast vacuoles.

    abstract::S. cerevisiae inherits its vacuole by projecting vacuole-derived membrane vesicles and tubules into the bud, where they fuse to establish the daughter vacuole. This homotypic fusion event can be assayed in vitro. It requires Sec17p and Sec18p, the homologs of the mammalian alpha-SNAP and NSF, which cooperate in multip...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayer A,Wickner W,Haas A

    更新日期:1996-04-05 00:00:00

  • Cloning and expression of genes for the Oxytricha telomere-binding protein: specific subunit interactions in the telomeric complex.

    abstract::Telomeres of Oxytricha nova macronuclear chromosomes consist of a repeated T4G4 sequence, single-stranded at the 3' terminus, bound by a heterodimeric protein. The cloning of genes for the two polypeptides and their separate expression in E. coli have enabled evaluation of their individual contributions to DNA binding...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray JT,Celander DW,Price CM,Cech TR

    更新日期:1991-11-15 00:00:00

  • A deeper look into translation initiation.

    abstract::Eukaryotic translation initiation requires coordinated assembly of a remarkable array of initiation factors onto the small ribosomal subunit to select an appropriate mRNA start codon. Studies from Erzberger et al. and Hussain et al. bring new insights into this mechanism by looking at early and late initiation interme...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Korostelev AA

    更新日期:2014-10-23 00:00:00

  • Enzymatic formation and resolution of Holliday junctions in vitro.

    abstract::E. coli RecA protein promotes homologous pairing and reciprocal strand exchange reactions between duplex DNA molecules in vitro. Reaction intermediates contain Holliday junctions that are driven along the DNA at a maximal rate approaching 1000 bases per minute. T4 endonuclease VII cleaves Holliday junctions in vitro, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller B,Jones C,Kemper B,West SC

    更新日期:1990-01-26 00:00:00

  • Nucleoporins directly stimulate expression of developmental and cell-cycle genes inside the nucleoplasm.

    abstract::Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate transport across the nuclear envelope. In yeast, they also interact with active genes, attracting or retaining them at the nuclear periphery. In higher eukaryotes, some NPC components (nucleoporins) are also found in the nucleoplasm, with a so far unknown function. We have functio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalverda B,Pickersgill H,Shloma VV,Fornerod M

    更新日期:2010-02-05 00:00:00

  • The isolation and nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding the T cell surface protein T4: a new member of the immunoglobulin gene family.

    abstract::The surface glycoproteins T4 and T8 define different functional subsets of T lymphocytes and may act as recognition molecules mediating appropriate interactions between the T cell and its target. Previously we employed gene transfer and subtractive hybridization to isolate a T8 cDNA; now we have isolated and sequenced...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maddon PJ,Littman DR,Godfrey M,Maddon DE,Chess L,Axel R

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Paused RNA polymerase II as a developmental checkpoint.

    abstract::The textbook view of gene activation is that the rate-limiting step is the interaction of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the gene's promoter. However, studies in a variety of systems, including human embryonic stem cells and the early Drosophila embryo, have begun to challenge this view. There is increasing evidence ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Levine M

    更新日期:2011-05-13 00:00:00

  • Autophagy: paying Charon's toll.

    abstract::Autophagy (literally self-eating) has diverse cytoprotective functions but also is linked to programmed cell death (PCD). In this issue, Qu et al. (2007) analyze the role of autophagy in PCD during development. Unexpectedly they find that autophagy induces apoptotic cells to present a signal to ensure their clearance,...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yoshimori T

    更新日期:2007-03-09 00:00:00

  • The transcription factor titration effect dictates level of gene expression.

    abstract::Models of transcription are often built around a picture of RNA polymerase and transcription factors (TFs) acting on a single copy of a promoter. However, most TFs are shared between multiple genes with varying binding affinities. Beyond that, genes often exist at high copy number-in multiple identical copies on the c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brewster RC,Weinert FM,Garcia HG,Song D,Rydenfelt M,Phillips R

    更新日期:2014-03-13 00:00:00

  • The Viviparous-1 developmental gene of maize encodes a novel transcriptional activator.

    abstract::The Viviparous-1 (Vp1) gene of maize is specifically required for expression of the maturation program in seed development. We show that Vp1 encodes a 73,335 dalton protein with no detectable homology to known proteins. An acidic transcriptional activation sequence was identified by fusion to the GAL4 DNA-binding doma...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCarty DR,Hattori T,Carson CB,Vasil V,Lazar M,Vasil IK

    更新日期:1991-09-06 00:00:00

  • Green genes-comparative genomics of the green branch of life.

    abstract::As more plant genome sequences become available, researchers are increasingly using comparative genomics to address some of the major questions in plant biology. Such questions include the evolution of photosynthesis and multicellularity, the developmental genetic changes responsible for alterations in body plan, and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bowman JL,Floyd SK,Sakakibara K

    更新日期:2007-04-20 00:00:00

  • Activation domains of stably bound GAL4 derivatives alleviate repression of promoters by nucleosomes.

    abstract::GAL4 derivatives containing an activation domain alleviated repression of a promoter during nucleosome assembly. A GAL4 derivative lacking an activation domain stably bound the promoter during nucleosome assembly but was not sufficient to preserve promoter function. The activation domain of GAL4 derivatives was essent...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Workman JL,Taylor IC,Kingston RE

    更新日期:1991-02-08 00:00:00

  • The IN protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus processes the viral DNA ends and accomplishes their integration in vitro.

    abstract::Retroviral DNA integration involves a coordinated set of DNA cutting and joining reactions. We find that the IN protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is the only viral protein required to accomplish these reactions in vitro. IN protein has a site-specific nuclease activity that cleaves 2 nucleotides from th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craigie R,Fujiwara T,Bushman F

    更新日期:1990-08-24 00:00:00

  • Spinning the web of cell fate.

    abstract::Spatiotemporal changes in nuclear lamina composition underlie cell-type-specific chromatin organization and cell fate, suggesting that the lamina forms a dynamic framework critical for genome function, cellular identity, and developmental potential. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Van Bortle K,Corces VG

    更新日期:2013-03-14 00:00:00

  • Recognition sequences of repressor and polymerase in the operators of bacteriophage lambda.

    abstract::Nucleotide sequences in two wild-type and six mutant operators in the DNA of phage lambda are compared. Strikingly similar 17 base pair units are found which we identify as the repressor binding sites. Each operator contains multiple repressor binding sites separated by A-T rich spacers. Elements of 2 fold rotational ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maniatis T,Ptashne M,Backman K,Kield D,Flashman S,Jeffrey A,Maurer R

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Case Study: Prolonged Infectious SARS-CoV-2 Shedding from an Asymptomatic Immunocompromised Individual with Cancer.

    abstract::Long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding was observed from the upper respiratory tract of a female immunocompromised individual with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. Shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 was observed up to 70 days, and of genomic and s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Avanzato VA,Matson MJ,Seifert SN,Pryce R,Williamson BN,Anzick SL,Barbian K,Judson SD,Fischer ER,Martens C,Bowden TA,de Wit E,Riedo FX,Munster VJ

    更新日期:2020-12-23 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of formation of pseudotypes between vesicular stomatitis virus and murine leukemia virus.

    abstract::Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), defined by their resistance to neutralization by anti-VSV antiserum, are released preferentially at early times after infection of MuLV-producing cells with VSV. At later times, after synthesis of MuLV proteins has been inhibited...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Witte ON,Baltimore D

    更新日期:1977-07-01 00:00:00

  • Two enzymes in one; two yeast peroxiredoxins display oxidative stress-dependent switching from a peroxidase to a molecular chaperone function.

    abstract::Although a great deal is known biochemically about peroxiredoxins (Prxs), little is known about their real physiological function. We show here that two cytosolic yeast Prxs, cPrxI and II, which display diversity in structure and apparent molecular weights (MW), can act alternatively as peroxidases and molecular chape...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jang HH,Lee KO,Chi YH,Jung BG,Park SK,Park JH,Lee JR,Lee SS,Moon JC,Yun JW,Choi YO,Kim WY,Kang JS,Cheong GW,Yun DJ,Rhee SG,Cho MJ,Lee SY

    更新日期:2004-05-28 00:00:00

  • Structures of P transposable elements and their sites of insertion and excision in the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    abstract::We have isolated and characterized several members of the P transposable element family from a Drosophila melanogaster P strain. Large 2.9 kb elements are present as multiple highly conserved copies together with smaller (0.5-1.6 kb), heterogeneous elements. The complete DNA sequences of the 2.9 kb element and four sm...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Hare K,Rubin GM

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical Proteomics Identifies Druggable Vulnerabilities in a Genetically Defined Cancer.

    abstract::The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bar-Peled L,Kemper EK,Suciu RM,Vinogradova EV,Backus KM,Horning BD,Paul TA,Ichu TA,Svensson RU,Olucha J,Chang MW,Kok BP,Zhu Z,Ihle NT,Dix MM,Jiang P,Hayward MM,Saez E,Shaw RJ,Cravatt BF

    更新日期:2017-10-19 00:00:00

  • Synonymous mutations frequently act as driver mutations in human cancers.

    abstract::Synonymous mutations change the sequence of a gene without directly altering the sequence of the encoded protein. Here, we present evidence that these "silent" mutations frequently contribute to human cancer. Selection on synonymous mutations in oncogenes is cancer-type specific, and although the functional consequenc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Supek F,Miñana B,Valcárcel J,Gabaldón T,Lehner B

    更新日期:2014-03-13 00:00:00