Prenatal and postnatal growth and development of the foot and ankle.


:The intent of this article is to present a detailed overview of the normal prenatal and postnatal development and growth of the lower limb with special emphasis on the ankle-foot complex. The effects of physiologic load and its components of duration, timing, and direction are discussed. The results of abnormal amount, timing, duration, or direction of load on the prenatal and postnatal human are discussed with examples of foot deformity provided for clarification. Principles of therapeutic force application for the reversal of deformity are formulated.


Phys Ther


Physical therapy


Bernhardt DB




Has Abstract


1988-12-01 00:00:00












  • Early detection of scoliosis. A neurological approach using the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) and the occurrence of scoliosis in healthy children. One hundred eighty-four children, between the ages of 10 years, 5 months to 13 years, 10 months, who attended a rural elementary school were selected for th...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Connolly BH,Michael BT

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement for curriculum building for multiply handicapped children.

    abstract::Quantitative longitudinal tracking of objectively defined motor behaviors can be used with severely multiply handicapped infants and children to develop treatment curricula and assess the changes occurring as a result of stimulation programs. The frequency or duration of clearly defined motor behaviors can be observed...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitney PL

    更新日期:1978-04-01 00:00:00

  • Association of body mass index with self-report and performance-based measures of balance and mobility.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The incidence of obesity is increasing in older adults, with associated worsening in the burden of disability. Little is known about the impact of body mass index (BMI) on self-report and performance-based balance and mobility measures in older adults. OBJECTIVE:The purposes of this study were (1) to examin...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hergenroeder AL,Wert DM,Hile ES,Studenski SA,Brach JS

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Facial pain associated with fibromyalgia can be marked by abnormal neuromuscular control: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) development in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is not yet fully understood, but altered neuromuscular control in FMS may play a role in triggering TMD. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to verify the association between neuromuscular control and chronic facial pain in grou...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gui MS,Pedroni CR,Aquino LM,Pimentel MJ,Alves MC,Rossini S,Reimão R,Berzin F,Marques AP,Rizzatti-Barbosa CM

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Using health-related quality of life measures in physical therapy outcomes research.

    abstract::This review article is meant to introduce the physical therapist to the concept of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for outcomes research. Reasons for the recent growth of interest in measuring HRQL outcomes are reviewed. Working definitions of overall quality of life and narrower concept of HRQL are offered, and...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jette AM

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Validity and reliability testing of the Scoliometer.

    abstract::This study was designed to evaluate the Scoliometer, an instrument that measures axial trunk rotation in individuals with scoliosis. The objectives included determining 1) the Scoliometer's screening capability and validity and 2) the intrarater and interrater reliability of Scoliometer measurements. Scoliometer measu...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amendt LE,Ause-Ellias KL,Eybers JL,Wadsworth CT,Nielsen DH,Weinstein SL

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of Downstream Health Care Utilization, Costs, and Long-Term Opioid Use: Physical Therapist Management Versus Opioid Therapy Management After Arthroscopic Hip Surgery.

    abstract:Background:Physical therapy and opioid prescriptions are common after hip surgery, but are sometimes delayed or not used. Objective:The objective of this study was to compare downstream health care utilization and opioid use following hip surgery for different patterns of physical therapy and prescription opioids. De...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rhon DI,Snodgrass SJ,Cleland JA,Greenlee TA,Sissel CD,Cook CE

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Participants' perspectives on the feasibility of a novel, intensive, task-specific intervention for individuals with chronic stroke: a qualitative analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Evidence-based practice promotes patient-centered care, yet the majority of rehabilitative research fails to take patient perspectives into consideration. Qualitative research provides a unique opportunity for patients to express opinions and provide valuable insight on intervention processes. OBJECTIVE:The...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merlo AR,Goodman A,McClenaghan BA,Fritz SL

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a Parent-Administered Exercise Program in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Dose Does Matter-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the risk of delayed motor development in infants born preterm, knowledge about interventions in the neonatal intensive care unitt (NICU) and the effects of dosing is sparse. OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to examine the effectiveness of a parent-administered exercise program in the NICU...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Øberg GK,Girolami GL,Campbell SK,Ustad T,Heuch I,Jacobsen BK,Kaaresen PI,Aulie VS,Jørgensen L

    更新日期:2020-05-18 00:00:00

  • Estimates of weight that subjects can lift frequently in functional capacity evaluations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:This study was designed to determine whether the maximum weight that can be lifted during 33% to 67% of a workday (weight lifted frequently) can be accurately predicted from other data gathered during a functional capacity evaluation (FCE). The best equations for estimating weight lifted frequent...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saunders RL,Beissner KL,McManis BG

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Perspectives on Spinal Precautions in Patients Who Have Cancer and Spinal Metastasis.

    abstract::Bones are the third most common site for cancer metastases, and the axial skeleton is the most frequent skeletal location. In a postmortem study, bone metastases were reported in 70% of breast and prostate cancer patients. Bone metastases from breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, and kidney cancers account for 80% of all ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo Y,Ngo-Huang AT,Fu JB

    更新日期:2020-03-10 00:00:00

  • Comparison of corridor and treadmill walking in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract::The maximal distance walked in a given time period is frequently used as a simple method to evaluate exercise tolerance in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Typically, patients walk on a treadmill or in a corridor at a self-paced speed. Little information is available about the diff...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swerts PM,Mostert R,Wouters EF

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Finding the "Right-Size" Physical Therapy Workforce: International Perspective Across 4 Countries.

    abstract::Finding the "right-size" physical therapy workforce is an increasingly important issue, but it has had limited study, particularly across nations. This perspective article provides a comprehensive examination of physical therapy workforce issues across 4 countries (United States, Singapore, Portugal, and Bangladesh), ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jesus TS,Koh G,Landry M,Ong PH,Lopes AM,Green PL,Hoenig H

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of older persons that eventually leads to disability. It is characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Progressive stages can be identified, each with unique problems. The optimal management of Parkinson's disease requires multiple pro...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cutson TM,Laub KC,Schenkman M

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in developmental movement patterns used by active versus sedentary middle-aged adults coming from a supine position to erect stance.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to further validate categories for the movement pattern of supine to standing in adults and (2) to evaluate the influence physical activity might have on the movement patterns used for rising. Seventy-two adults, between 30 and 39 years of age (mean = 34.1, SD = 2.8), perform...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green LN,Williams K

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for a patient with a cardiac pacemaker. A case report.

    abstract::Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation units used in conjunction with cardiac pacemakers have traditionally been an absolute contraindication for these patients. In this case report, a patient successfully used a TENS unit in conjunction with a temporary cardiac pacemaker. No interference was noted by the ECG rea...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shade SK

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary problems in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment.

    abstract::A number of pulmonary problems may complicate muscular dystrophy. Respiratory function, however, can be increased by instruction in diaphragmatic breathing. When patients effectively use their diaphragms during respiration, less muscular work is required for adequate ventilation. Additionally, assistive techniques suc...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegel IM

    更新日期:1975-02-01 00:00:00

  • Experiences and perspectives of physical therapists managing patients covered by workers' compensation in Queensland, Australia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Physical therapists have an active role in the rehabilitation of injured workers. However, regulations in Queensland, Australia, do not afford them the opportunity to participate in return-to-work (RTW) decisions in a standardized way. No prior research has explored the experiences and perceptions of therapi...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston V,Nielsen M,Corbière M,Franche RL

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of inherent muscle length on isometric plantar flexion torque in healthy women.

    abstract::This study investigated the relationship between inherent muscle length and torque production in 59 healthy women. We recorded nondominant ankle range-of-motion values for each subject. These values were partitioned into quartiles for two knee positions. Women with "loose" plantar flexor muscles comprised the first qu...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hornsby TM,Nicholson GG,Gossman MR,Culpepper M

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Electromyographic analysis of traditional and nontraditional abdominal exercises: implications for rehabilitation and training.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Performing nontraditional abdominal exercises with devices such as abdominal straps, the Power Wheel, and the Ab Revolutionizer has been suggested as a way to activate abdominal and extraneous (nonabdominal) musculature as effectively as more traditional abdominal exercises, such as the crunch an...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Escamilla RF,Babb E,DeWitt R,Jew P,Kelleher P,Burnham T,Busch J,D'Anna K,Mowbray R,Imamura RT

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Spasticity: its physiology and management. Part I. Neurophysiology of spasticity: classical concepts.

    abstract::Spasticity, seen so frequently in clinical situations, presents motor signs resembling those produced experimentally by transecting the brain stem of a cat at the intercollicular level. This paper reviews experimental results which elucidate the roles of different brain regions in the genesis of classical decerebrate ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bishop B

    更新日期:1977-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in career expectations of physical therapist students.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:There are some sex differences in the career activities of physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these sex differences are reflected in the career expectations of physical therapist students. SUBJECTS:Participants were 919 physical therapist students. METHODS:F...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johanson MA

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental Trajectories for the Early Clinical Assessment of Balance by Gross Motor Function Classification System Level for Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    abstract:Background:Children with cerebral palsy (CP) characteristically present with impairments in balance. Currently, the pattern and timing of the development of balance ability have not been described for children with CP of varying Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels. Objective:The purpose of this s...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: LaForme Fiss A,McCoy SW,Bartlett D,Avery L,Hanna SE,On Track Study Team.

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Selective criteria for successful long-term prosthetic use.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to identify criteria contributing to successful long-term prosthetic use in patients with an amputation secondary to vascular disease. All elderly patients with a unilateral below-knee amputation or an above-knee amputation, secondary to vascular disease, seen in our clinic between 1977 a...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mueller MJ,Delitto A

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • An image-based gait simulation study of tarsal kinematics in women with hallux valgus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although not well understood, foot kinematics are changed with hallux valgus. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to examine tarsal kinematics in women with hallux valgus deformity. DESIGN:A prospective, cross-sectional design was used. METHODS:Twenty women with (n=10) and without (n=10) deformity par...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Glasoe WM,Phadke V,Pena FA,Nuckley DJ,Ludewig PM

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • More than meets the eye: clinical reflection and evidence-based practice in an unusual case of adolescent chronic ankle sprain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Adolescents who have chronic pain after common orthopedic injuries such as ankle sprains may present a multidimensional clinical problem stemming from both physical and psychological issues. A traumatic incident such as a motor vehicle accident can produce clinical issues ranging from a specific ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohamed M,Wong CK

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Developing a clinical education program from the clinician's perspective.

    abstract::As the number of physical therapy programs increases, more physical therapy departments will be developing clinical education programs. A guide for clinicians who are developing clinical education programs is presented. Suggestions are made for developing a philosophy of clinical education and for structuring the prog...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Windom PA

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of two outcome measures for infants with cerebral palsy and infants with motor delays.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale (PDMS-GM) as measures of change in infants with cerebr-al palsy (CP) and infants with motor delays. We hypothesized that mean change scores would be greater for the GMF...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kolobe TH,Palisano RJ,Stratford PW

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Engaging Families in Rehabilitation of People Who Are Critically Ill: An Underutilized Resource.

    abstract::Rehabilitation of people who are critically ill has received increased attention in recent years, although this has not extended to specifically facilitating family involvement. Engaging families in the rehabilitation arc has the potential to optimize outcomes. Likely benefits include redirecting family psychological ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haines KJ

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromuscular training versus strength training during first 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized clinical trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 6-month neuromuscular training (NT) program versus a traditional strength training (ST) program following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. SUBJECTS:Seventy-four subjects with ACL reconstruction participated in the study. ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Risberg MA,Holm I,Myklebust G,Engebretsen L

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00