High morale is associated with increased survival in the very old.


BACKGROUND:high morale is defined as future-oriented optimism. Previous research suggests that a high morale independently predicts increased survival among old people, though very old people have not been specifically studied. OBJECTIVE:to investigate whether high morale is associated with increased survival among very old people. SUBJECTS:the Umeå 85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) recruited participants aged 85 years and older in northern Sweden and western Finland during 2000-02 and 2005-07, of whom 646 were included in this study. METHODS:demographic, functional- and health-related data were collected in this population-based study through structured interviews and assessments carried out during home visits and from reviews of medical records. The 17-item Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. RESULTS:the 5-year survival rate was 31.9% for participants with low morale, 39.4% for moderate and 55.6% for those with high morale. In an unadjusted Cox model, the relative risk (RR) of mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.86, P < 0.001) and moderate morale (RR = 1.59, P < 0.001) compared with participants with high morale. Similar results were found after adjustment for age and gender. In a Cox model adjusted for several demographic, health- and function-related confounders, including age and gender, mortality was higher among participants with low morale (RR = 1.36, P = 0.032) than those with high morale. There was a similar but non-significant pattern towards increased mortality in participants with moderate morale (RR = 1.21, P value = 0.136). CONCLUSION:high morale is independently associated with increased survival among very old people.


Age Ageing


Age and ageing


Niklasson J,Hörnsten C,Conradsson M,Nyqvist F,Olofsson B,Lövheim H,Gustafson Y




Has Abstract


2015-07-01 00:00:00














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    journal_title:Age and ageing

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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  • Geriatric medicine in Sweden: a study of the organisation, staffing and care production in 2000-2001.

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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    authors: Akner G

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

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    authors: Holt EW,Muntner P,Joyce CJ,Webber L,Krousel-Wood MA

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Age and ageing

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bates CJ,Fleming M,Paul AA,Black AE,Mandal AR

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Age and ageing

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mallet M

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00