The global prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii among foxes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.


:Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful intracellular protozoan parasites in the world, which can infect most warm-blooded animals including foxes in the world and cause toxoplasmosis. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the overall prevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii among foxes in the world. Relevant studies were comprehensively collected from ScienceDirect, Springer-Link, PubMed, VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The random-effect model was used to calculate pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data were from 20 countries. The pooled T. gondii prevalence in foxes was estimated to be 39.6%. T. gondii has the highest prevalence in North America (51.2%), and lowest in Asia (8.3%). The prevalence in the sub-group after 2006 (44.7%) was lower than 2006 or before (48.5%). The prevalence in female foxes was 46.1%, which was higher than that in male foxes (19.7%). In species subgroup, red fox has the highest prevalence (46.8%). Wild foxes have a higher rate of infection (40.8%) than captive foxes (8.4%). Genotype Ⅱ of T. gondii is the most prevalent in foxes. We also evaluated the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled prevalence of T. gondii in foxes. Our research indicated that toxoplasmosis widely existed in the world. The investigation of T. gondii infection in wild animals can provide an estimate of environmental pollution and T. gondii circulation in the ecosystem. It is essential for us to prevent and control T. gondii infection in foxes in order to reduce the risk of human infection.


Microb Pathog


Microbial pathogenesis


Wei XY,Gao Y,Lv C,Wang W,Chen Y,Zhao Q,Gong QL,Zhang XX




Has Abstract


2020-12-28 00:00:00












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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koh YS,Yun JH,Seong SY,Choi MS,Kim IS

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  • The inhibitory impacts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived extracellular vesicles on the growth of hepatic cancer cells.

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    authors: Behzadi E,Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini H,Imani Fooladi AA

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  • In silico design and in vitro validation of a novel PCR-RFLP assay for determination of phylogenetic clusters of streptokinase gene alleles in streptococci groups.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keramati M,Aslani MM,Roohvand F

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poey ME,Laviña M

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • The C-terminus of IpaC is required for effector activities related to Shigella invasion of host cells.

    abstract::Invasion plasmid antigen C (IpaC) is secreted by the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system (TTSS) as an essential trigger of epithelial cell invasion. At the molecular level, IpaC possesses a distinct functional organization. The IpaC C-terminal region between amino acids 319 and 345 is predicted to form a coile...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terry CM,Picking WL,Birket SE,Flentie K,Hoffman BM,Barker JR,Picking WD

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sodium acetate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei Z,Xiao C,Guo C,Zhang X,Wang Y,Wang J,Yang Z,Fu Y

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mannosylated lipoarabinomannan balances apoptosis and inflammatory state in mycobacteria-infected and uninfected bystander macrophages.

    abstract::To assess the role of mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) in the inflammatory and apoptotic response of mycobacteria-infected and uninfected, bystander cells we applied a mouse macrophage model of infection with avirulent strains--Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra and compared with a ...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wojtas B,Fijalkowska B,Wlodarczyk A,Schollenberger A,Niemialtowski M,Hamasur B,Pawlowski A,Krzyzowska M

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Computer aided ligand based screening for identification of promising molecules against enzymes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway from Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amera GM,Khan RJ,Pathak A,Jha RK,Muthukumaran J,Singh AK

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balachandar R,Karmegam N,Saravanan M,Subbaiya R,Gurumoorthy P

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Binding of Haemophilus ducreyi to extracellular matrix proteins.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abeck D,Johnson AP,Mensing H

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Elucidation of genetic relatedness of Magnaporthe grisea, an incitent of pearl millet blast disease by molecular markers associated with virulence of host differential cultivars.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adhikari S,Joshi SM,Athoni BK,Patil PV,Jogaiah S

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    abstract::The bacterial phylum Synergistetes consists of Gram-negative anaerobes. Oral Synergistetes are divided in two main clusters, namely A and B. Increasing evidence demonstrates their involvement in etiology of oral infections, including apical periodontitis. This condition causes bone loss around the apex of the tooth, s...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernandes Cdo C,Rechenberg DK,Zehnder M,Belibasakis GN

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • An updated and comprehensive review of the antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents with special focus on their mechanism of action against various influenza and coronaviruses.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wani AR,Yadav K,Khursheed A,Rather MA

    更新日期:2020-11-16 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gajera HP,Katakpara ZA,Patel SV,Golakiya BA

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qingqing B,Jie Z,Songben Q,Juan C,Lei Z,Mu X

    更新日期:2020-11-15 00:00:00

  • Worldwide prevalence of emerging parasite Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Blastocystis is one of the most common pathogens of the human intestine, caused by an emerging parasite, which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to determine the global prevalence of Blastocystosis infection in people with immunodeficiency. A systematic litera...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khorshidvand Z,Khazaei S,Amiri M,Taherkhani H,Mirzaei A

    更新日期:2020-11-24 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dinesh N,Pallerla DS,Kaur PK,Kishore Babu N,Singh S

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of two monoterpene phenols on antioxidant defense system in Candida albicans.

    abstract::Thymol and carvacrol from the class of monoterpene phenols are one of the most potent plant essential oil components possessing antimicrobial effects. Known for their wide bioactive spectrum, these positional isomers of isopropyl cresol deplete ergosterol content, compromise membrane permeability, block efflux pumps a...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan A,Ahmad A,Ahmad Khan L,Padoa CJ,van Vuuren S,Manzoor N

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • In silico analysis of four structural proteins of aphthovirus serotypes revealed significant B and T cell epitopes.

    abstract::Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is economically devastating, highly contagious transboundry viral disease of livestock with 100% morbidity, rapid spread and severe production losses in animals. The FMDV has seven different serotypes. There is no vaccine that can protect animals from all serotypes. Hence, it is need of th...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raza S,Siddique K,Rabbani M,Yaqub T,Anjum AA,Ibrahim M,Azhar M,Jamil F,Rasheed MA

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Receptor affinity, stability and binding mode of Shiga toxins are determinants of toxicity.

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimizu T,Sato T,Kawakami S,Ohta T,Noda M,Hamabata T

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • A critical role for phospholipase C in protective immunity conferred by listeriolysin O-deficient Listeria monocytogenes.

    abstract::Attenuated recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) strains are a promising class of vaccine vectors that trigger protective antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an important Lm virulence determinant allowing the bacterium to escape from the endocytic vacuole into the cell cytoplasm in phagocytic cell...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orgun NN,Way SS

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Immunomodulatory effects and anti-Candida activity of lactobacilli in macrophages and in invertebrate model of Galleria mellonella.

    abstract::Due to the growing number of multi-resistant Candida spp., adjuvant treatments that may help combat these fungal pathogens are relevant and useful. This study evaluated the immunomodulation and anti-Candida activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei suspensions, eit...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Oliveira FE,Rossoni RD,de Barros PP,Begnini BE,Junqueira JC,Jorge AOC,Leão MVP,de Oliveira LD

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing the role of SH3RF1 and SH3RF2 polymorphisms in susceptibility to tuberculosis: A case-control study in the Han Chinese population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem. SH3RF1 and SH3RF2 are candidate genes with multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have the potential to participate in Mycobacterium infection via activation of the JNK signaling pathway. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigat...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen H,Zhou J,Jiao L,Song J,Zhong H,Zhao Z,Meng Z,Lu X,Chen X,Zhang W,Ying B

    更新日期:2020-10-28 00:00:00

  • Clinical and serological approach to patients with brucellosis: A common diagnostic dilemma and a worldwide perspective.

    abstract::According to the WHO factsheet, although approximately half a million brucellosis cases are reported annually, the true incidence is always 10-25 times higher than the reported number of cases. Therefore, we face a common yet uncommonly recognized entity of brucellosis, which highlights the importance of providing pre...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Avijgan M,Rostamnezhad M,Jahanbani-Ardakani H

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Intercellular adhesion and biocide resistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms.

    abstract::Respiratory infections caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are a major medical problem. Evidence suggests that the ability to form biofilms on mucosal surfaces may play a role in NTHi pathogenesis. However, the factors that contribute to NTHi biofilm cohesion remain largely unknown. In this study we in...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Izano EA,Shah SM,Kaplan JB

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against GII.6 norovirus virus-like particles.

    abstract::In this study we generated and characterized a series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GII.6 norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs). Mice were immunized with purified GII.6 NoV VLPs and peptide-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates with the peptide sequence (31 aa) derived from the trypsin cleavage region....

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qiu S,Zheng L,Qin C,Yin X,Ma J,Liu J,Yang Z,Li C,Wang Y,Wang M,Qi Y,Huo Y

    更新日期:2020-02-26 00:00:00

  • Porcine 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in vitro.

    abstract::Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is acknowledged a fulminating infectious pathogen affecting the pig farming industry, and current vaccines and drugs could hardly inhibit this virus. The 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OASs) have antiviral activities, but the role(s) played by porcine OAS2...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao M,Wan B,Li H,He J,Chen X,Wang L,Wang Y,Xie S,Qiao S,Zhang G

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mutation of purD and purF genes further attenuates Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    abstract::In the present study, transposon mutagenesis was used to further attenuate Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine strain. Two purD and purF mutants were constructed, characterized and evaluated for attenuation via intracellular survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 and HeLa cells, and by clearance in BALB/c mice. The pur...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Truong QL,Cho Y,Barate AK,Kim S,Watarai M,Hahn TW

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical, histological and ultrastructural evaluation of protection provided by cholera vaccine against V. cholerae O139.

    abstract::In our previous study, complete protection was observed in rabbit immunized with 1 × 1010 CFU of live attenuated VCUSM21P vaccine against challenge with 1 × 109 CFU Vibrio cholerae O139. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes usi...

    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murugaiah C,Nik Mohd Noor NZ,Al-Talib H,Mustafa S,Manickam R,Pattabhiraman L

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Microbial pathogenesis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ponnuvel S,Sankar S,Ponnuraj K

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00