Investigational drugs under development for the treatment of PTSD.


INTRODUCTION:Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic and disabling anxiety disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. There is currently no effective pharmacotherapy for PTSD and therefore the discovery of novel, evidence-based treatments is particularly important. This review of potential novel treatments could act as a catalyst for further drug investigation. AREAS COVERED:In this review, the authors discuss the heterogeneity of PTSD and why this provides a challenge for discovering effective treatments for this disorder. By searching for the neurobiological systems that are disrupted in individuals with PTSD and their correlation with different symptoms, the authors propose potential pharmacological treatments that could target these symptoms. They discuss drugs such as nabilone, d-cycloserine, nor-BNI, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and oxytocin (OT) to target systems such as cannabinoids, glutamate, opioids, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the OT receptor, respectively. While not conclusive, the authors believe that these brain systems include promising targets for drug discovery. Finally, the authors review animal studies, proof-of-concept studies and case studies that support our proposed treatments. EXPERT OPINION:A mechanism-based approach utilizing techniques such as in vivo neuroimaging will allow for the determination of treatments. Due to the heterogeneity of the PTSD phenotype, focusing on symptomology rather than a categorical diagnosis will allow for more personalized treatment. Furthermore, there appears to be a promise in drugs as cognitive enhancers, the use of drug cocktails and novel compounds that target specific pathways linked to the etiology of PTSD.


Ragen BJ,Seidel J,Chollak C,Pietrzak RH,Neumeister A




Has Abstract


2015-05-01 00:00:00












  • Antileukotrienes in clinical development for asthma.

    abstract::Asthma is a serious world health problem characterised by a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Asthma attacks, or exacerbations, are episodic but airway inflammation is chronically present. Thus, this disorder requires long-term management. The goals of asthma management include prevention steps for long-te...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Centanni S,Santus P

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • A consideration of PPAR-gamma ligands with respect to lipophilicity: current trends and perspectives.

    abstract::The fact that PPAR-gamma is expressed dramatically higher in fat, regulating gene transcription in response to small lipophilic ligands, supports an essential role of increased lipophilicity for those ligands. On the other hand, the skepticism concerning high lipophilicity as a characteristic associated with undesirab...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Giaginis C,Theocharis S,Tsantili-Kakoulidou A

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabinoids against pain. Efficacy and strategies to reduce psychoactivity: a clinical perspective.

    abstract::The clinical use of cannabinoids is currently a topic of interest not exclusively, but most importantly, concerning different areas of pain therapy. One of the major obstacles in developing clinically acceptable compounds is the cannabimimetic side-effect profile of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabi...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Karst M,Wippermann S

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists as therapeutics for inflammatory disease: preclinical and clinical developments.

    abstract::Leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) is a lipid inflammatory mediator derived from membrane phospholipids by the sequential actions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and leukotriene A(4) (LTA(4)) hydrolase. Several inflammatory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hicks A,Monkarsh SP,Hoffman AF,Goodnow R Jr

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin aspart: a novel rapid-acting human insulin analogue.

    abstract::In order to improve therapy and increase the quality of life for diabetic patients, it has been of significant interest to develop rapid-acting insulin preparations that mimic the physiological meal-time profile of insulin more closely than soluble human insulin. Insulin aspart (B28Asp human insulin) is a novel rapid-...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gammeltoft S,Hansen BF,Dideriksen L,Lindholm A,Schäffer L,Trüb T,Dayan A,Kurtzhals P

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Histopathological prognostic factors in early breast carcinoma: an evaluation of cell proliferation in carcinoma cells.

    abstract::Early breast carcinoma is defined as pathological stage 1 (pT1N0M0) tumour and its incidence has recently increased possibly due to the advent of mammography based mass screening. Overall survival of these patients is in general excellent, but more than 20% of them will eventually develop distant metastasis and die. T...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sasano H

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Retaspimycin hydrochloride (IPI-504): a novel heat shock protein inhibitor as an anticancer agent.

    abstract::Heat shock proteins are vital to cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Heat shock protein inhibitors are a diverse group of novel agents that have been demonst...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hanson BE,Vesole DH

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • The therapeutic potential of gut hormone peptide YY3-36 in the treatment of obesity.

    abstract::Many peptides are synthesised and released from the gastrointestinal tract. Although their roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal function have been known for some time, it has become increasingly evident that they also influence eating behaviour. Peptide YY (PYY) is released postprandially from gastrointestinal ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Small CJ,Bloom SR

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Does the small tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib mesylate counteract diabetes by affecting pancreatic islet amyloidosis and fibrosis?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The small tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib Mesylate (Gleevec) protects against diabetes, but it is not known how. AREAS COVERED:It has been suggested that islet amyloid and fibrotic deposits promote beta-cell failure and death, leading to Type-2 diabetes. As Imatinib is known to possess anti-fibrotic/am...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Welsh N

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Investigational PD-1 inhibitors in HL and NHL and biomarkers for predictors of response and outcome.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Inhibitors against the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway are revolutionizing the treatment and management of malignancies. AREAS COVERED:We summarize our current understanding of the function of PD-1, its role in immune evasion, the clinical data available that support the use of PD-1 antagonist in Hodgkin and non-Hodgk...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang A,Schlafer D,Flowers CR,Allen PB

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sofinicline: a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Psychostimulants are first-line treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their tolerability profiles and individual response variability fuel a continuing search for alternative medications. The observation that nicotinic agents improve cognition has led pharmaceutical companies ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fleisher C,McGough J

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic potential of GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists in acute myocardial infarction.

    abstract::The management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has changed dramatically over the last two decades, with the addition of fibrinolytic agents and primary coronary intervention (PCI). The more recent development of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists, a new class of potent antiplatelet drugs, has the potentia...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferguson JJ,Vaisman D

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Duvelisib: a phosphoinositide-3 kinase δ/γ inhibitor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Frontline chemotherapy is successful against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but results in untoward toxicity. Further, prognostic factors, cytogenetic anomalies, and compensatory cellular signaling lead to therapy resistance or disease relapse. Therefore, for the past few years, development of targete...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vangapandu HV,Jain N,Gandhi V

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Oral amphipathic peptides as therapeutic agents.

    abstract::Cholesterol can promote inflammation by its ability to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species that result in the formation of pro-inflammatory oxidised phospholipids. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are part of the innate immune response and can be either pro- or anti-inflammatory independently of plasma...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reddy ST,Anantharamaiah GM,Navab M,Hama S,Hough G,Grijalva V,Garber DW,Datta G,Fogelman AM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dronedarone: an amiodarone analogue.

    abstract::Of the antiarrhythmic drugs in current use, amiodarone is one of the most effective and is associated with a comparatively low risk of drug-induced pro-arrhythmia, probably due to its multiple pharmacological actions on cardiac ion channels and receptors. However, amiodarone is associated with significant extra-cardia...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doggrell SA,Hancox JC

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Current status and future development of antitubercular chemotherapy.

    abstract::Tuberculosis (TB), which kills more people than any other infectious disease, was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. The emergence of new Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that are resistant to some or all current antitubercular drugs seriously hampers the control of the disease. Up...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kremer LS,Besra GS

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Novel approaches for the prevention of restenosis.

    abstract::Restenosis, the re-narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery, in the months following a successful percutaneous balloon angioplasty or stenting, remains the main limitation to percutaneous coronary revascularisation. Serial intravascular ultrasound studies have shown that restenosis after conventional balloon angi...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gruberg L,Waksman R,Satler LF,Pichard AD,Kent KM

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Developing DMD therapeutics: a review of the effectiveness of small molecules, stop-codon readthrough, dystrophin gene replacement, and exon-skipping therapies.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin (DMD) gene. Most patients die from respiratory failure or cardiomyopathy. There are significant unmet needs for treatments for DMD as the standard of care is principally limited to symptom relief throu...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sheikh O,Yokota T

    更新日期:2021-01-06 00:00:00

  • The therapeutic potential of phytoestrogens.

    abstract::Phytoestrogens, such as the soya isoflavones genistein and daidzein, are currently being extensively investigated through both molecular, preclinical and clinical studies to determine their potential health benefits. Phytoestrogens may protect against chronic diseases such as hormone-dependent cancer (e.g., breast and...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wiseman H

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Non-BRAF targeted therapies for melanoma: protein kinase inhibitors in Phase II clinical trials.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cutaneous malignancies displaying a substantial mortality rate among the various forms of skin cancers. The management of patients with advanced melanoma poses a significant challenge considering that the disease is refractory to most conventional therapies. ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bhatia S,Emdad L,Das SK,Hamed H,Dent P,Sarkar D,Fisher PB

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Polidocanol for endovenous microfoam sclerosant therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Polidocanol is a liquid surfactant having endothelial cell lytic properties. In the form of a controlled, dispensed microfoam it is administered endovenously as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins. OBJECTIVE:This review summarizes efficacy of polidocanol endovenous microfoam sclerotherapy ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Eckmann DM

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Migraine and beyond: cardiovascular therapeutic potential for CGRP modulators.

    abstract::CGRP is a potent vasodilator that has been shown to have a physiological and/or pathological role in neurogenic inflammation, headaches including migraine, thermal injury, circulatory shock, pregnancy and menopause, hypertension and heart failure and is known to be cardioprotective. CGRP is also a positive inotrope an...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doggrell SA

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Update on antifungals targeted to the cell wall: focus on beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitors.

    abstract::Currently available antifungal drugs for serious infections are either fungistatic and vulnerable to resistance (azoles) or fungicidal but toxic to the host (polyenes). Cell wall-acting antifungals are inherently selective and fungicidal, features that make them particularly attractive for clinical development. Three ...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Georgopapadakou NH

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Developments with experimental and investigational drugs for axial spondyloarthritis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Axial spondyloarthritis (AxS pA) is a chronic inflammatory disease for which, until recently, there were no valid therapeutic alternatives to TNF-α blocking agents. This unmet clinical need led to explore several therapeutic targets, from proinflammatory cytokines to intracellular signaling systems. The re...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clavel G,Boissier MC,Sigaux J,Semerano L

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Aripiprazole acts as a selective dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist.

    abstract::Aripiprazole has made a significant contribution to the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders with an improved safety and tolerability profile, which has been attributed to its unique pharmacological profile. It has been claimed that partial agonism of the dopamine D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptors and antagonism...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wood M,Reavill C

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Flavopiridol, the first cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor to enter the clinic: current status.

    abstract::This review focuses on the clinical development of the prototype broad spectrum inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), flavopiridol, now undergoing Phase II single-agent trials and Phase I combination trials (with paclitaxel and cisplatin). Preclinically, flavopiridol is a potent inhibitor of CDKs 1, 2 and 4 in...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kelland LR

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Abatacept for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Due to improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several target drugs have been and are being developed. One of the possible targets in SLE is co-stimulation between antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Abatacept is a co-stimulation moderator approved for...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pimentel-Quiroz VR,Ugarte-Gil MF,Alarcón GS

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:EGFR has been implicated in various malignancies such as NSCLC, breast, head and neck, and pancreatic cancer. Numerous drugs have been developed in order to target the tyrosine domain of EGFR as an approach in cancer treatment. AREAS COVERED:This article focuses on the different generations of EGFR tyrosi...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee CC,Shiao HY,Wang WC,Hsieh HP

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin glargine: the first clinically useful extended-acting insulin in half a century?

    abstract::Insulin glargine (HOE 901) appears to be the first clinically useful extended-acting insulin preparation for 50 years. A combination of a di-arginine addition to the C-terminal of the insulin B-chain, and a glycine substitution in the A-chain, produce an insulin which is soluble at acid pH, but precipitates in sc. tis...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Home P

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological revascularisation in coronary and peripheral vascular disease.

    abstract::Therapeutic angiogenesis is a novel approach to the treatment of ischaemic or occlusive coronary and peripheral vascular disease. The therapeutic concept is based on the restoration of distal blood flow by the enlargement of existing vessels and tissue perfusion by the induction of new capillaries. Initial studies hav...

    journal_title:Expert opinion on investigational drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tarzami ST,Singh JP

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00