Neurotransmitters, receptors, and neuropeptides in the accessory optic system: an immunohistochemical survey in the pigeon (Columba livia).


:Immunohistochemical techniques were used to survey the distribution of several conventional transmitters, receptors, and neuropeptides in the pigeon nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR), a component of the accessory optic system. Amongst the conventional neurotransmitters/modulators, the most intense labeling of fibers/terminals within the nBOR was obtained with antisera directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and serotonin (5-HT). Moderately dense fiber plexuses were seen to label with antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). GAD-like immunoreactivity (GAD-LI) was found in many small and medium-sized perikarya within the nBOR. Some of the medium-sized cells were occasionally positive for ChAT-LI. Cell body and dendritic staining was also commonly seen with the two tested antisera against receptors-anti-GABA-A receptor and anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The antisera directed against various neuropeptides produced only fiber labeling within the nBOR. The densest fiber plexus staining was observed with antiserum against neuropeptide Y (NPY-LI), while intermediate fiber densities were seen for substance P (SP-LI) and cholecystokinin (CCK-LI). A few varicose fibers were labeled with antisera against neurotensin (NT), leucine-enkephalin (L-ENK), and the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Unilateral enucleation produced an almost complete elimination of TH-LI in the contralateral nBOR. SP-LI and CCK-LI were also decreased after enucleation. No apparent changes were seen for all other substances. These results indicate that a wide variety of chemically-specific systems arborize within the nBOR. Three of the immunohistochemically defined fiber systems (TH-LI, SP-LI, and CCK-LI fibers) were reduced after removal of the retina, which may indicate the presence of these substances in retinal ganglion cells. In contrast, the fibers exhibiting ChAT-LI, GAD-LI, 5-HT-LI, NPY-LI, NT-LI, L-ENK-LI, and VIP-LI appear to be of nonretinal origin. Two different populations of nBOR neurons exhibited GAD-LI and ChAT-LI. However, these two populations together constituted only about 20% of the nBOR neurons.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Britto LR,Hamassaki DE,Keyser KT,Karten HJ




Has Abstract


1989-11-01 00:00:00














  • Cell density ratios in a foveal patch in macaque retina.

    abstract::We examine the assumptions that the fovea contains equal numbers of inner (invaginating or ON) and outer (flat or OFF) midget bipolar cells and equal numbers of inner and outer diffuse bipolar cells. Based on reconstruction from electron photomicrographs of serial thin sections through the fovea of a macaque monkey, w...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmad KM,Klug K,Herr S,Sterling P,Schein S

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Agrin mRNA expression in the developing chick Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

    abstract::Agrin is a large extracellular matrix protein that directs the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Recent evidence suggests that agrin may be involved in organizing synapses in the visual system as well. Focussing on the pathway that controls accommodation and pupilloconstriction, th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McAvoy M,Smith MA,Fujii JT

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cholinergic terminals in the cat visual cortex: ultrastructural basis for interaction with glutamate-immunoreactive neurons and other cells.

    abstract::Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the transmitters utilized by extra-thalamic afferents to modulate stimulus-driven neurotransmission and experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. Since these processes also depend on the activation of glutamatergic receptors, cholinergic terminals may exert their effects via d...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aoki C,Kabak S

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Two types of cone bipolar cells express voltage-gated Na+ channels in the rat retina.

    abstract::Two groups of retinal cone bipolar cells (CBCs) in rats were found to express voltage-gated Na+ channels. The axon terminals of the first group stratify in sublamina 2 of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and partially overlap with the OFF-cholinergic band. This group was identified as type 3 CBCs. The axon terminals of...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cui J,Pan ZH

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Radial motion bias in macaque frontal eye field.

    abstract::The visual responsiveness and spatial tuning of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons were determined using a delayed memory saccade task. Neurons with visual responses were then tested for direction selectivity using moving random dot patterns centered in the visual receptive field. The preferred axis of motion showed a si...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao Q,Barborica A,Ferrera VP

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • N-type and L-type calcium channels mediate glycinergic synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells of tiger salamanders.

    abstract::Synaptically localized calcium channels shape the timecourse of synaptic release, are a prominent site for neuromodulation, and have been implicated in genetic disease. In retina, it is well established that L-type calcium channels play a major role in mediating release of glutamate from the photoreceptors and bipolar...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bieda MC,Copenhagen DR

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Projection status of calbindin- and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the superficial layers of the rat's superior colliculus.

    abstract::Immunocytochemistry and retrograde labeling were used to define the thalamic projections of calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells in superficial layers of the rat's superior colliculus (SC). Quantitative analysis revealed that 90.8 +/- 2.2% (mean +/- standard deviation) of the calbindin-immunoreactive neurons in...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lane RD,Allan DM,Bennett-Clarke CA,Howell DL,Rhoades RW

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of saccadic eye movements on the activity of geniculate relay neurons in the monkey.

    abstract::Saccadic suppression is the reduced visibility that occurs during saccadic eye movements. Recent psychophysical studies have suggested that this is due to a reduction in responsiveness of magnocellular (M), but not parvocellular (P), cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus. To address this and other phenomena of respo...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramcharan EJ,Gnadt JW,Sherman SM

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Photoresponses of human rods in vivo derived from paired-flash electroretinograms.

    abstract::In the human eye, domination of the electroretinogram (ERG) by the b-wave and other postreceptor components ordinarily obscures all but the first few milliseconds of the rod photoreceptor response to a stimulating flash. However, recovery of the rod response after a bright rest flash can be analyzed using a paired-fla...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pepperberg DR,Birch DG,Hood DC

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    abstract::Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldsmith TH,Cronin TW

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Striate cortex increases contrast gain of macaque LGN neurons.

    abstract::Recurrent projections comprise a universal feature of cerebral organization. Here, we show that the corticofugal projections from the striate cortex (VI) to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) robustly and multiplicatively enhance the responses of parvocellular neurons, stimulated by gratings restricted to the classi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Przybyszewski AW,Gaska JP,Foote W,Pollen DA

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the responses to light and to GABA of cells postsynaptic to barnacle photoreceptors (I-cells).

    abstract::We tested the hypothesis that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the transmitter released by barnacle photoreceptors onto postsynaptic cells (I-cells). GABA was applied to I-cells either by superfusion or by ejecting it with pressure from a pipette positioned close to the I-cell's soma. The I-cell's response to GABA wa...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Callaway JC,Stuart AE

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Movement of retinal along cone and rod photoreceptors.

    abstract::Single isolated photoreceptors can be taken through a visual cycle of light adaptation by bleaching visual pigment, followed by dark adaptation when supplied with 11-cis retinal. Light adaptation after bleaching is manifested by faster response kinetics and a permanent reduction in sensitivity to light flashes, presum...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jin J,Jones GJ,Cornwall MC

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Encoding of both vertical and horizontal disparity in random-dot stereograms by Wulst neurons of awake barn owls.

    abstract::In binocular vision, the lateral displacement of the eyes gives rise to both horizontal and vertical disparities between the images projected onto the left and right retinae. While it is well known that horizontal disparity is exploited by the binocular visual system of birds and mammals to enable depth perception, th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nieder A,Wagner H

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of cat posterior parietal cortex to visuospatial discrimination.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to examine the contributions made by cat posterior parietal cortex to the analyses of the relative position of objects in visual space. Two cats were trained on a landmark task in which they learned to report the position of a landmark object relative to a right or left food-reward...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lomber SG,Payne BR

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological inactivation of pretectal nuclei reveals different modulatory effects on retino-geniculate transmission by X and Y cells in the cat.

    abstract::The modulatory influence of pretectal neurons on retino-geniculate transmission in the cat was studied by cross-correlation analysis of single-unit activity simultaneously recorded from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the pretectum (PT) and with reversible inactivation of the PT by GABA microiontophor...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Funke K,Eysel UT

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Central factors contributing to para-contrast modulation of contour and brightness perception.

    abstract::Following up on a prior study of contour and brightness processing in visual masking (Breitmeyer et al., 2006), we investigated the effects of a binocular and dichoptic para-contrast masking on the visibility of the contour and brightness of a target presented to the other eye. Combined, the results support the contri...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Breitmeyer BG,Ziegler R,Hauske G

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Alpha ganglion cells of the rabbit retina lose antagonistic surround responses under dark adaptation.

    abstract::Alpha ganglion cells from the midperiphery of the rabbit retina were recorded intracellularly under visual control, in a superfused everted eyecup, and labeled with HRP. Their physiology and large somata with broad dendritic arbors identified them as uniform populations of ON- and OFF-center alpha ganglion cells, whic...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muller JF,Dacheux RF

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Long-range interactions modulate the contrast gain in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats.

    abstract::In previous work, we have shown that sudden image displacements well outside the classical receptive field modulate the visual sensitivity of LGN relay cells. Here we report the effect of image displacements on the response versus contrast function. The stimuli consisted of a central spot of optimal size and polarity ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Felisberti F,Derrington AM

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Distributed spatial coding in the superior colliculus: a review.

    abstract::This paper reviews evidence that the superior colliculus (SC) of the midbrain represents visual direction and certain aspects of saccadic eye movements in the distribution of activity across a population of cells. Accurate and precise eye movements appear to be mediated, in part at least, by cells of the SC that have ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McIlwain JT

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reaction time measures of adaptation to chromatic contrast.

    abstract::Simple reaction times (RTs) were measured to brief temporally blurred (total onset 570 ms) Gaussian isoluminant chromatic patches (s.d. 0.5 degrees) whose chromaticities lay along the cardinal chromatic axes (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees in MBDKL color space). Bipolar adapting stimuli were emplo...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parry NR,Murray IJ,McKeefry DJ

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    abstract::Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gaug...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pokorny J,Lutze M,Cao D,Zele AJ

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Visual-field map in the transcallosal sending zone of area 17 in the cat.

    abstract::The representation of the visual field in the part of area 17 containing neurons that project axons across the corpus callosum to the contralateral hemisphere was defined in the cat. Of 1424 sites sampled along 77 electrode tracks, 768 proved to be in the callosal sending zone, which was identified by retrograde trans...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Payne BR

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of brief monocular deprivation on binocular depth perception in the cat: a sensitive period for the loss of stereopsis.

    abstract::The period of susceptibility for binocular depth vision was studied in kittens by subjecting them to periods of monocular deprivation beginning at different ages. In an initial study, we found that normally reared kittens can learn a depth-discrimination task much more rapidly when tested binocularly than monocularly,...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Timney B

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Receptive-field properties of Q retinal ganglion cells of the cat.

    abstract::The goal of this work was to provide a detailed quantitative description of the receptive-field properties of one of the types of rarely encountered retinal ganglion cells of cat; the cell named the Q-cell by Enroth-Cugell et al. (1983). Quantitative comparisons are made between the discharge statistics and between th...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Troy JB,Schweitzer-Tong DE,Enroth-Cugell C

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Two opposite effects of ATP on the apparent sensitivity of the cGMP-gated channel of the carp retinal cone.

    abstract::Effects of ATP on the activity of cGMP-gated channels from carp cone photoreceptors were studied. In 29% of the patches examined (N = 45), ATP (1 mM) enhanced a current evoked by cGMP (20 microM, up to about 100%), in 33%. ATP suppressed it by up to about 90%, and in the remaining 38%, ATP had no effect. ATP showed si...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe S,Shen J

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Visual tracking of moving targets by freely flying honeybees.

    abstract::The ability of freely-flying honeybees to track moving targets was examined by training them to collect a reward on a target, and then videotaping their approach to the target while it was in motion. Training experiments were carried out with several groups of bees, using various colors for the target and the backgrou...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang SW,Wang XA,Liu ZL,Srinivasan MV

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for a potential role of glucagon during eye growth regulation in chicks.

    abstract::Eye growth and refraction are regulated by visual processing in the retina. Until now, the messengers released by the retina to induce these changes are largely unknown. Previously, it was found that glucagon amacrine cells respond to defocus in the retinal image and even to its sign. The expression of the immediate-e...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feldkaemper MP,Schaeffel F

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Temporal properties of surround suppression in cat primary visual cortex.

    abstract::The responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli presented in the region surrounding the receptive field. There is debate as to whether this surround suppression is due to intracortical inhibition, is inherited from lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), or is due to a combination of these f...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Durand S,Freeman TC,Carandini M

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Rescue of excitation by inositol following Li(+)-induced block in Limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    abstract::The phosphoinositide (PI) intracellular signaling pathway, which triggers Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, appears to be a central feature of phototransduction in most invertebrate species studied. Procedures designed to inhibit PI-pathway reactions cause suppression of excitation to dim lights. However, in Lim...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson EC,Gray-Keller MP,O'Day PM

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00