An Integrated HOCl-Producing E-Scaffold Is Active Against Monomicrobial and Polymicrobial Biofilms.


:Oxidizing agents like hypochlorous acid (HOCl) have antimicrobial activity. We developed an integrated electrochemical scaffold or 'e-scaffold' that delivers a continuous low dose of HOCl aimed at targeting microbial biofilms without exceeding concentrations toxic to humans, as a prototype of a device being developed to treat wound infections in humans. In this work, we tested the device against 33 isolates of bacteria (including isolates with acquired antibiotic resistance) grown as in vitro biofilms, alongside 12 combinations of dual-species in vitro biofilms. Biofilms were grown on the bottoms of 12-well plates for 24 hours. An integrated e-scaffold was placed atop each biofilm and polarized at 1.5V for 1, 2 or 4 hours. HOCl was produced electrochemically by oxidizing chloride ions (Cl-) in solution to chlorine (Cl2); dissolved Cl2 spontaneously dissociates in water to produce HOCl. The cumulative concentration of HOCl produced at the working electrode in each well was estimated to be 7.89, 13.46, and 29.50 mM after 1, 2 and 4 hours of polarization, respectively. Four hours of polarization caused an average reduction of 6.13 log10 CFU/cm2 (±1.99 log10 CFU/cm2) of viable cell counts of mono-species biofilms and 5.53 log10 CFU/cm2 (±2.31 log10 CFU/cm2) for the 12 dual-species biofilms studied. The described integrated e-scaffold reduces viable bacterial cell counts in biofilms formed by an array of antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant bacteria alone and in combination.


Flurin L,Raval YS,Mohamed A,Greenwood-Quaintance KE,Cano EJ,Beyenal H,Patel R




Has Abstract


2021-01-04 00:00:00








  • Nationwide study of the susceptibility of the Bacteroides fragilis group in the United States.

    abstract::A nationwide susceptibility survey of the Bacteroides fragilis group was continued at New England Medical Center in 1983. A total of 555 strains were obtained from eight centers in the United States. In addition to the nine antimicrobial agents studied in the two previous years, three other agents were added to the ev...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tally FP,Cuchural GJ Jr,Jacobus NV,Gorbach SL,Aldridge K,Cleary T,Finegold SM,Hill G,Iannini P,O'Keefe JP

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of E119V and E119I mutations in influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated from an immunocompromised patient: challenges in diagnosis of oseltamivir resistance.

    abstract::The clinical use of the neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) oseltamivir is associated with the emergence of drug resistance resulting from subtype-specific neuraminidase (NA) mutations. The influenza A/Texas/12/2007 (H3N2) virus isolated from an oseltamivir-treated immunocompromised patient exhibited reduced susceptibility ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okomo-Adhiambo M,Demmler-Harrison GJ,Deyde VM,Sheu TG,Xu X,Klimov AI,Gubareva LV

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • New transposon Tn6133 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 contains vga(E), a novel streptogramin A, pleuromutilin, and lincosamide resistance gene.

    abstract::A novel streptogramin A, pleuromutilin, and lincosamide resistance determinant, Vga(E), was identified in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398. The vga(E) gene encoded a 524-amino-acid protein belonging to the ABC transporter family. It was found on a multidrug resistance-conferring transpo...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwendener S,Perreten V

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Transposition of Tn1213 Encoding the PER-1 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase.

    abstract::PER-1 is an extended-spectrum β-lactamase that is encoded by a gene located in composite transposon Tn1213 made by two distinct insertion sequences, namely, ISPa12 and ISPa13. In vitro mobilization performed in Escherichia coli shows that Tn1213 is functional and is able to mobilize the blaPER-1 gene, although at a ve...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mancini S,Poirel L,Kieffer N,Nordmann P

    更新日期:2018-02-23 00:00:00

  • International pneumococcal clones match or exceed the fitness of other strains despite the accumulation of antibiotic resistance.

    abstract::A few international pneumococcal clones dominate the population of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci. Despite the scientific paradigm that a loss in fitness is the price for acquisition of resistance, these clones spread successfully. One hundred fifty-four isolates from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rudolf D,Michaylov N,van der Linden M,Hoy L,Klugman KP,Welte T,Pletz MW,CAPNETZ Study Group.

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro efficacies and resistance profiles of rifampin-based combination regimens for biofilm-embedded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract::To compare the in vitro antibacterial efficacies and resistance profiles of rifampin-based combinations against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a biofilm model, the antibacterial activities of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, minocycline, linezolid, fusidic acid, fosfomycin, and tigecycline a...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tang HJ,Chen CC,Cheng KC,Wu KY,Lin YC,Zhang CC,Weng TC,Yu WL,Chiu YH,Toh HS,Chiang SR,Su BA,Ko WC,Chuang YC

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Selective phosphorylation of antiviral drugs by vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.

    abstract::The antiviral activity of a new series of thymidine analogs was determined against vaccinia virus (VV), cowpox virus (CV), herpes simplex virus, and varicella-zoster virus. Several compounds were identified that had good activity against each of the viruses, including a set of novel 5-substituted deoxyuridine analogs....

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Local treatment of experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa osteomyelitis with a biodegradable dilactide polymer releasing ciprofloxacin.

    abstract::A biodegradable system of poly-D,L-dilactide releasing ciprofloxacin was assessed in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa osteomyelitis model after inoculation of the test pathogen into the left tibia of 76 New Zealand White rabbits; 31 were controls (group A), and 45 were implanted with the polymer at the infection site (group B...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanellakopoulou K,Thivaios GC,Kolia M,Dontas I,Nakopoulou L,Dounis E,Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ,Andreopoulos A,Karagiannakos P,Giamarellou H

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2020-09-21 00:00:00

  • Anticoccidial activities of 7-bromo-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)-1H-indazol-6-amine and other alpha 2 adrenergic agonists.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Variability of Hydroxy-Itraconazole in Relation to Itraconazole Bloodstream Concentrations.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2021-01-19 00:00:00

  • Alterations of penicillin-binding proteins 1A, 2X, and 2B in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for which amoxicillin MICs are higher than penicillin MICs.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Impact of MIC range for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae on the ceftolozane in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • MarA-like regulator of multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Udani RA,Levy SB

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antipneumococcal activity of dalbavancin compared to other agents.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Post-PKS tailoring steps of the spiramycin macrolactone ring in Streptomyces ambofaciens.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1980-05-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular survey of the dissemination of two blaKPC-harboring IncFIA plasmids in New Jersey and New York hospitals.

    abstract::Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains have spread worldwide and become a major threat in health care facilities. Transmission of blaKPC, the plasmid-borne KPC gene, can be mediated by clonal spread and horizontal transfer. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequences of two nov...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen L,Chavda KD,Melano RG,Hong T,Rojtman AD,Jacobs MR,Bonomo RA,Kreiswirth BN

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  • Cefiderocol Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Roles of β-Lactamases, Siderophore Receptors, and Penicillin Binding Protein 3.

    abstract::Cefiderocol is a siderophore cephalosporin active against many multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. We examined the resistance mechanisms in 12 Acinetobacter baumannii strains with cefiderocol MICs ranging from ≤0.03 to >32 μg/ml. Cefiderocol resistance could not be explained by β-lactamase activity. Cef...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malik S,Kaminski M,Landman D,Quale J

    更新日期:2020-10-20 00:00:00

  • Kinetic and structural analysis for potent antifolate inhibition of Pneumocystis jirovecii, Pneumocystis carinii, and human dihydrofolate reductases and their active-site variants.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cody V,Pace J,Queener SF,Adair OO,Gangjee A

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Moderately penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis was responsible for an outbreak of meningococcal disease in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in 1993. We tested fully susceptible and moderately resistant strains of N. meningitidis against ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, penicillin, and ri...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blondeau JM,Yaschuk Y

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Urinary excretion and bactericidal activities of a single oral dose of 400 milligrams of fleroxacin versus a single oral dose of 800 milligrams of pefloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    abstract::Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this randomized crossover study to compare the concentrations and recovery levels of fleroxacin and pefloxacin in urine and to assess their bactericidal activities against 12 strains of urinary pathogens with different susceptibilities over a wide range of MICs. The volunteers...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Naber KG,Theuretzbacher U,Kinzig M,Savov O,Sörgel F

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation and molecular characterization of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus parainfluenzae from the genital tract.

    abstract::Three Haemophilus parainfluenzae strains isolated from the urogenital tract harbored a beta-lactamase-coding 3.2-megadalton plasmid identical, by restriction endonuclease digestion and hybridization with radioactive and biotin-labeled probes specific for the TEM-1 beta-lactamase and TnA sequences, to the 3.2-megadalto...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Flucloxacillin Results in Suboptimal Plasma Voriconazole Concentrations.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muilwijk EW,Dekkers BGJ,Henriet SSV,Verweij PE,Witjes B,Lashof AMLO,Groeneveld GH,van der Hoeven J,Alffenaar JWC,Russel FGM,van de Veerdonk F,Brüggemann RJM

    更新日期:2017-08-24 00:00:00

  • Insusceptibility of members of the class Mollicutes to rifampin: studies of the Spiroplasma citri RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene.

    abstract::In order to study the mechanism of insusceptibility of Spiroplasma citri to rifampin, we have cloned and sequenced its rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with sequences of beta subunits from susceptible and resistant bacteria, it was possible t...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • VIM-19, a metallo-beta-lactamase with increased carbapenemase activity from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodriguez-Martinez JM,Nordmann P,Fortineau N,Poirel L

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reproducibility of control strains for antibiotic susceptibility testing.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1976-09-01 00:00:00

  • Synergy between efflux pump CmeABC and modifications in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 in conferring macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cagliero C,Mouline C,Cloeckaert A,Payot S

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the beta-lactamase gene cluster in clonally distinct strains of Enterococcus faecalis.

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    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomayko JF,Zscheck KK,Singh KV,Murray BE

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00