Rapid tranquillisation in a psychiatric emergency hospital in Lebanon: TREC-Lebanon - a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol and promethazine v. intramuscular haloperidol, promethazine and chlorpromazine.


BACKGROUND:Agitated patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians differ in opinion and practice. In Lebanon, the use of the triple therapy haloperidol plus promethazine plus chlorpromazine (HPC) is frequently used but no studies involving this combination exists. METHOD:A pragmatic randomised open trial (September 2018-July 2019) in the Lebanese Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross in Beirut Lebanon involving 100 people requiring urgent intramuscular sedation due to aggressive behaviour were given intramuscular chlorpromazine 100 mg plus haloperidol 5 mg plus promethazine 25 mg (HPC) or intramuscular haloperidol 5 mg plus promethazine 25 mg. RESULTS:Primary outcome data were available for 94 (94%) people. People allocated to the haloperidol plus promethazine (HP) group showed no clear difference at 20 min compared with patients allocated to the HPC group [relative risk (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-1.50]. CONCLUSIONS:Neither intervention consistently impacted the outcome of 'calm', or 'asleep' and had no discernible effect on the use of restraints, use of additional drugs or recurrence. If clinicians are faced with uncertainty on which of the two intervention combinations to use, the simpler HP is much more widely tested and the addition of chlorpromazine adds no clear benefit with a risk of additional adverse effects.


Psychol Med


Psychological medicine


Dib JE,Yaacoub HE,Ikdais WH,Atallah E,Merheb TJ,Ajaltouni J,Akkari M,Mourad M,Nasr ME,Hachem D,Kazour F,Tahan F,Haddad G,Azar J,Zoghbi M,Haddad C,Hallit S,Adams CE




Has Abstract


2021-01-06 00:00:00










  • Mortality in offspring of mothers with psychotic disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggest that offspring of mothers with psychotic disorders have an almost two-fold higher mortality risk from birth until early adulthood. We investigated predictors of mortality from late adolescence until middle age in offspring of mothers with psychotic disorders. METHOD:The Helsinki Hig...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suvisaari J,Häkkinen L,Haukka J,Lönnqvist J

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Improvement in prefrontal thalamic connectivity during the early course of the illness in recent-onset psychosis: a 12-month longitudinal follow-up resting-state fMRI study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous research in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has shown a mixed pattern of disrupted thalamocortical connectivity in psychosis. The clinical meaning of these findings and their stability over time remains unclear. We aimed to study thalamocortical connectivity longitudina...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bergé D,Lesh TA,Smucny J,Carter CS

    更新日期:2020-12-16 00:00:00

  • COMT Val158Met moderation of stress-induced psychosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Exposure to stressful life events increases the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Moreover, increased reactivity to stress seems to represent part of the vulnerability for psychosis. This study aimed to investigate whether a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158)Met...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stefanis NC,Henquet C,Avramopoulos D,Smyrnis N,Evdokimidis I,Myin-Germeys I,Stefanis CN,Van Os J

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Epileptic seizures induced by psychotropic drugs.

    abstract::On the basis of information abstracted from case histories, 41 patients who had experienced epileptic seizures thought to be due either to treatment with psychiatric drugs or to withdrawal from sedative drugs were compared with a control group of patients. Those who had experienced seizures were more commonly first bo...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toone BK,Fenton GW

    更新日期:1977-05-01 00:00:00

  • Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We studied to what extent internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) programs for symptoms of depression and anxiety are effective. METHOD:A meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials. RESULTS:The effects of internet-based CBT were compared to control conditions in 13 contrast groups with a tot...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Spek V,Cuijpers P,Nyklícek I,Riper H,Keyzer J,Pop V

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Long-stay patients in Danish psychiatric hospitals.

    abstract::The numbers of long-stay patients in Danish psychiatric hospitals were studied, based on information from the Danish cumulative psychiatric register and from the census studies of patients in Danish psychiatric hospitals, performed at 5-year intervals since 1957. In 1977, 2079 (20%) of the in-patient population which ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weeke A,Kastrup M,Dupont A

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sense of hyper-positive self and response to cognitive therapy in bipolar disorder.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Cognitive therapy (CT) for bipolar disorder emphasizes the monitoring and regulation of mood, thoughts and behaviour. The Sense of Hyper-Positive Self Scale (SHPSS) measures the extent to which bipolar patients value themselves and perceive themselves to possess personal attributes (e.g. dynamism, persuasi...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lam D,Wright K,Sham P

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the present paper, sex differences in the association between adult depression and childhood experiences were examined. METHODS:The study series of the Finnish UKKI Study consisted of a population sample of 501 men and 499 women. Information concerning childhood experiences was gathered retrospectively i...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veijola J,Puukka P,Lehtinen V,Moring J,Lindholm T,Väisänen E

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive remediation improves memory and psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychiatric out-patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cognitive remediation (CR) is an effective treatment for several psychiatric disorders. To date, there have been no published studies examining solely first-episode psychiatric cohorts, despite the merits demonstrated by early intervention CR studies. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of CR...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lee RS,Redoblado-Hodge MA,Naismith SL,Hermens DF,Porter MA,Hickie IB

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Because of the potential importance of prolonged action neuroleptics for the delivery of care to schizophrenic patients, and because of the availability of new, extensive data from clinical trials on the utility of these drugs, a workshop conference was convened by the United States National Institute of Mental Health...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levine J,Schooler NR,Cassano GB

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Madsen IEH,Nyberg ST,Magnusson Hanson LL,Ferrie JE,Ahola K,Alfredsson L,Batty GD,Bjorner JB,Borritz M,Burr H,Chastang JF,de Graaf R,Dragano N,Hamer M,Jokela M,Knutsson A,Koskenvuo M,Koskinen A,Leineweber C,Niedhamme

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. METHODS:Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited fro...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Finsaas MC,Bufferd SJ,Dougherty LR,Carlson GA,Klein DN

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • A Swedish national twin study of criminal behavior and its violent, white-collar and property subtypes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We sought to clarify the etiological contribution of genetic and environmental factors to total criminal behavior (CB) measured as criminal convictions in men and women, and to violent (VCB), white-collar (WCCB) and property criminal behavior (PCB) in men only. METHOD:In 21 603 twin pairs from the Swedish T...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kendler KS,Maes HH,Lönn SL,Morris NA,Lichtenstein P,Sundquist J,Sundquist K

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We report on the epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Australian community, including information on lifetime exposure to trauma, 12-month prevalence of PTSD, sociodemographic correlates and co-morbidity. METHODS:Data were obtained from a stratified sample of 10,641 participants as p...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Creamer M,Burgess P,McFarlane AC

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients may present with cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder, but it is unclear whether the impairment is prevalent before onset of the illness. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with cognitive i...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christensen MV,Kyvik KO,Kessing LV

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Over 90% of the 1202 patients investigated in the 9 centres collaborating in the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia were traced 2 years after the initial examination and on the average over 75% of them were re-examined, using standardized instruments and methods. Results indicate that patients diagnosed as sch...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sartorius N,Jablensky A,Shapiro R

    更新日期:1977-08-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of digoxin on the response to lithium therapy in mania.

    abstract::Patients suffering from manic-depressive psychosis, manic type (ICD 296.0), were treated with lithium carbonate and randomly allocated to two groups, one received digoxin and the other matching placebo for 7 days. Severity of mania was rated by psychiatrists on the Manic Rating Scale and Analogue Line on days 0 and 7 ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Chambers CA,Smith AH,Naylor GJ

    更新日期:1982-02-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the utility of dimensional and categorical representations of psychosis. UK700 Group.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The usefulness of any diagnostic scheme is directly related to its ability to provide clinically useful information on need for care. In this study, the clinical usefulness of dimensional and categorical representations of psychotic psychopathology were compared. METHOD:A total of 706 patients aged 16-65 ye...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Van Os J,Gilvarry C,Bale R,Van Horn E,Tattan T,White I,Murray R

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with satisfaction of inpatient psychiatric care: a cross country comparison.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patient satisfaction is a key indicator of inpatient care quality and is associated with clinical outcomes following admission. Different patient characteristics have been inconsistently linked with satisfaction. This study aims to overcome previous limitations by assessing which patient characteristics are ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Bird V,Miglietta E,Giacco D,Bauer M,Greenberg L,Lorant V,Moskalewicz J,Nicaise P,Pfennig A,Ruggeri M,Welbel M,Priebe S

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of a computerized assessment (PROQSY) of minor psychological morbidity by Relative Operating Characteristic analysis using a single GP's assessments as criterion measures.

    abstract::This is a study of the criterion validity of a newly developed computerized assessment (PROQSY) of minor psychological morbidity based on the Clinical Interview Schedule, employing a single GP's assessments as criterion measures of such morbidity and Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Two-stage screenin...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson G,Markus AC

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

  • Slow binocular rivalry in bipolar disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The rate of binocular rivalry has been reported to be slower in subjects with bipolar disorder than in controls when tested with drifting, vertical and horizontal gratings of high spatial frequency. METHOD:Here we assess the rate of binocular rivalry with stationary, vertical and horizontal gratings of low ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller SM,Gynther BD,Heslop KR,Liu GB,Mitchell PB,Ngo TT,Pettigrew JD,Geffen LB

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous research has established the relationship between cannabis use and psychotic disorders. Whether cannabis use is related to transition to psychosis in patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis remains unclear. The present study aimed to review the existing evidence on the association between ca...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kraan T,Velthorst E,Koenders L,Zwaart K,Ising HK,van den Berg D,de Haan L,van der Gaag M

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychological deficits and CT scan changes in elderly depressives.

    abstract::A number of computerized tests were used to study visual attention, memory and learning in elderly depressed patients. Impairment was found in approximately 70% of depressed patients and was seen particularly in memory and in measures of latency. Depressed patients showed equivalent impairment in short-term memory but...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abas MA,Sahakian BJ,Levy R

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of unemployment on the psychological well-being of British Asians.

    abstract::This paper presents the results of a study of unemployment among British Asians living in the north of England. The sample comprises 139 employed and unemployed men. Using standardized psychological questionnaires with a semi-structured interview schedule, the psychological consequences of unemployment are examined in...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shams M,Jackson PR

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence of psychiatric illness among patients on home haemodialysis.

    abstract::An entire population of 32 patients on regular dialysis treatment (RDT) in their own homes were ranked according to their present mental state as assessed by a standardized semi-structured interview. The point-prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 31% which compares closely with that of patients attending a general ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farmer CJ,Snowden SA,Parsons V

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • The association between systolic blood pressure variability with depression, cognitive decline and white matter hyperintensities: the 3C Dijon MRI study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence links blood pressure variability (BPV) with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and stroke. The longitudinal association between BPV with late onset depression (LOD) and cognitive decline remains unexplored. METHODS:Prospective cohort study of 2812 participant's age ⩾65 years (median a...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tully PJ,Debette S,Tzourio C

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Eating disorders: lessons from a cross-cultural study.

    abstract::Five hundred and eighty schoolgirls living in a small North Indian industrial town were screened using the EAT-26. Although twenty-nine per cent scored above the threshold for the questionnaire (greater than or equal to 20), closer scrutiny of the pattern of responses revealed misinterpretations of a large number of q...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: King MB,Bhugra D

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Continuation therapy with lithium and amitriptyline in unipolar depressive illness: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    abstract::A detailed analysis of the results of a multi-centre clinical trial shows that, while the relapse rate following recovery from an operationally defined depressive illness was smaller among patients subsequently treated with either amitryptiline or lithium than with a placebo, there was no clinically significant differ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Glen AI,Johnson AL,Shepherd M

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sibling pairs with affective disorders: resemblance of demographic and clinical features.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:As part of a collaborative linkage study, the authors obtained clinical and demographic data on 160 families in which more than one sibling was affected with a bipolar illness. The aim of the study was to identify clinical characteristics that had a high degree of familiality. METHOD:Data on age at onset, g...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Mahony E,Corvin A,O'Connell R,Comerford C,Larsen B,Jones R,McCandless F,Kirov G,Cardno AG,Craddock N,Gill M

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco smoking is associated with psychotic experiences in the general population of South London.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The association between cigarette smoking and psychosis remains unexplained, but could relate to causal effects in both directions, confounding by socioeconomic factors, such as ethnicity, or use of other substances, including cannabis. Few studies have evaluated the association between cigarettes and psycho...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhavsar V,Jauhar S,Murray RM,Hotopf M,Hatch SL,McNeill A,Boydell J,MacCabe JH

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00