Coexisting peptides in hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems: some functional implications.


:1. Coexisting with oxytocin or vasopressin in the cell bodies and nerve terminals of the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system are smaller amounts of other peptides. For a number of these "copeptides" there is strong evidence of corelease with the major magnocellular hormones. Guided by the location of their specific receptors we have studied the effects of three copeptides, dynorphin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), on the secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin from isolated rat neural lobe or neurointermediate lobe preparations in vitro. 2. Dynorphin is coreleased with vasopressin from neural lobe nerve terminals and acts on neural lobe kappa-opiate receptors to inhibit the electrically stimulated secretion of oxytocin. Naloxone augments oxytocin release from the neural lobe in a manner directly proportional to the amount of vasopressin (and presumably dynorphin) released. 3. Cholecystokinin, coreleased with oxytocin by neural lobe terminals, has been shown to have high-affinity receptors located in the NL and to stimulate secretion of both oxytocin and vasopressin. CCK's secretagogue effect was independent of electrical stimulation and extracellular Ca2+ and was blocked by an inhibitor of protein kinase C. 4. CRH, coreleased with OT from the neural lobe, has receptors in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, but not in the neural lobe itself. CRH stimulates the secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin from combined neurointermediate lobes but not from isolated neural lobes. Intermediate lobe peptides, alpha and gamma melanocyte stimulating hormone, induced secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin from isolated neural lobes. Their effect was, like that of CCK, independent of electrical stimulation and extracellular Ca2+ and blocked by an inhibitor of protein kinase C. 5. Among the CRH-producing parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, in the normal rat, approximately half also produce and store vasopressin. After removal of glucocorticoid influence by adrenalectomy, virtually all of the CRH neurons contain vasopressin. 6. The two subtypes of CRH neurosecretory cells found in the normal rat possess different topographical distributions in the paraventricular nucleus, suggesting the possibility of differential innervation. Stress selectively activates the vasopressin containing subpopulation of CRH neurons, indicating that there are separate channels of regulatory input controlling the two components of the parvocellular CRH neurosecretory system.


Cell Mol Neurobiol


Bondy CA,Whitnall MH,Brady LS,Gainer H




Has Abstract


1989-12-01 00:00:00












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