In vivo distribution of organophosphate antidotes: autoradiography of [14C]HI-6 in the rat.


:In order to visualize the distribution of HI-6 in the rat after iv administration, autoradiographic experiments were carried out with [14C]HI-6, labeled at the carbon of the carboxamide moiety. Autoradiography clearly confirms penetration of HI-6 into the central nervous system. Considerable radioactivity was found in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the choroid plexus. No significant activity was detected in the pontomedullary region or the spinal cord. Peripherally, [14C]HI-6 is observed in large amounts in kidneys, heart, liver, nose, bladder, testes, and marrow-containing bone. The gastrointestinal tract was largely devoid of any radioactivity. The relative absence of HI-6 in the pontomedullary region renders centrally mediated influences of HI-6 on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters less likely.


Toxicol Appl Pharmacol


Ligtenstein DA,Moes GW,Kossen SP




Has Abstract


1988-02-01 00:00:00














  • Nonresponsiveness to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin of transforming growth factor beta1 and CYP 1A1 gene expression in rat liver fat-storing cells.

    abstract::Exposure to the potent tumor promoter 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or related agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) can result in hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. Changes in the expression and/or the level of growth factors may be a critical event in TCDD-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. In this...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Riebniger D,Schrenk D

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Extension of a PBPK model for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid to include the competitive formation and clearance of metabolites associated with kidney toxicity in rats and humans.

    abstract::A previously developed PBPK model for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid was extended to include glyoxylic acid, oxalic acid, and the precipitation of calcium oxalate that is associated with kidney toxicity in rats and humans. The development and evaluation of the PBPK model was based upon previously published pharmaco...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Corley RA,Saghir SA,Bartels MJ,Hansen SC,Creim J,McMartin KE,Snellings WM

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Single-tracer technique to evaluate pulmonary edema and its application to detect the effect of hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer aerosol exposures.

    abstract::Two hours after a four-hour exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer (HDIt) aerosol between 2.5 and 39 mg/m3, mice were injected iv with 51Cr-EDTA (chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Ten minutes later the lung was lavaged. A larger amount of 51Cr-EDTA was detected in the lung lavage of HDIt mice than of contr...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valentini JE,Wong KL,Alarie Y

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Food ingredient safety evaluation: Utility and relevance of toxicokinetic methods.

    abstract::The use of toxicokinetic (TK) data is becoming more prevalent in the evaluation of food ingredient safety as more TK information is being incorporated in safety data packages. Data demonstrating "1) the extent of absorption, 2) tissue distribution, 3) pathways and rates of metabolism, and 4) rate(s) of elimination" of...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kabadi SV,Zang Y,Fisher JW,Smith N,Whiteside C,Aungst J

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • The uptake and elimination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane during and following inhalation exposures in rats.

    abstract::The pharmacokinetics of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TRI) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats in order to characterize and quantify TRI uptake and elimination oby direct measurements of the inhaled and exhaled compound. Fifty or 500 ppm TRI was inhaled for 2 hr through a one-way breathing valve by unanesthetized rats of...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dallas CE,Ramanathan R,Muralidhara S,Gallo JM,Bruckner JV

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Asian sand dust enhances murine lung inflammation caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    abstract::Inhaling concomitants from Asian sand dust (ASD) may result in exacerbation of pneumonia by the pathogen. The exacerbating effect of ASD on pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) was investigated in ICR mice. The organic substances adsorbed onto ASD collected from the atmosphere of Iki-island in Japan were ex...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He M,Ichinose T,Yoshida S,Yamamoto S,Inoue K,Takano H,Yanagisawa R,Nishikawa M,Mori I,Sun G,Shibamoto T

    更新日期:2012-01-15 00:00:00

  • Short-term toxicity of trans,trans-muconaldehyde.

    abstract::Toxicological and biochemical effects of muconaldehyde, a six-carbon diene dialdehyde, were evaluated in 6- to 9-week-old CD-1 male mice. The LD50 of trans,trans-muconaldehyde was 6.7 and 7.1 mg/kg body wt when calculated by two different methods. Administration of trans,trans-muconaldehyde (2 mg/kg, ip) daily for 10 ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Witz G,Rao GS,Goldstein BD

    更新日期:1985-09-30 00:00:00

  • Methyl mercury pharmacokinetics in man: a reevaluation.

    abstract::Data taken from Aberg et al. ((1969) Arch. Environ. Health 19, 478-484) and Miettinen et al. ((1971) Ann. Clin. Res. 3, 116-122) were analyzed by means of models that describe methyl mercury pharmacokinetics in man in terms of parent compound only (Model I) or in terms of parent compound plus metabolite, inorganic mer...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith JC,Farris FF

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Emerging systems biology approaches in nanotoxicology: Towards a mechanism-based understanding of nanomaterial hazard and risk.

    abstract::Engineered nanomaterials are being developed for a variety of technological applications. However, the increasing use of nanomaterials in society has led to concerns about their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. During the first decade of nanotoxicological research, the realization has eme...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Costa PM,Fadeel B

    更新日期:2016-05-15 00:00:00

  • The synergistic upregulation of phase II detoxification enzymes by glucosinolate breakdown products in cruciferous vegetables.

    abstract::Cruciferous vegetables contain secondary metabolites termed glucosinolates that break down to products that upregulate hepatic detoxification enzymes. We have previously shown that a mixture of four major glucosinolate breakdown products from Brussels sprouts interact to produce synergistic induction of phase II detox...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nho CW,Jeffery E

    更新日期:2001-07-15 00:00:00

  • Dendritic cells and skin sensitization: biological roles and uses in hazard identification.

    abstract::Recent advances have been made in our understanding of the roles played by cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) in the induction of contact allergy. A number of associated changes in epidermal Langerhans cell phenotype and function required for effective skin sensitization are providing the foundations for the development ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ryan CA,Kimber I,Basketter DA,Pallardy M,Gildea LA,Gerberick GF

    更新日期:2007-06-15 00:00:00

  • Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47(phox) pathway.

    abstract::Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai MH,Lin ZC,Liang CJ,Yen FL,Chiang YC,Lee CW

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism and bioactivation of 3-methylindole by Clara cells, alveolar macrophages, and subcellular fractions from rabbit lungs.

    abstract::3-Methylindole (3MI), a fermentation product of tryptophan produced by intestinal and ruminal microflora, has been shown to cause pneumotoxicity in several species subsequent to cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation. Among several species studied, rabbits are comparatively resistant to 3MI-induced pneumotoxicity,...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thornton-Manning JR,Nichols WK,Manning BW,Skiles GL,Yost GS

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence against deacetylation and for cytochrome P450-mediated activation in acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in the CD-1 mouse.

    abstract::Acetaminophen (APAP) administration (600 mg/kg, po) results in proximal tubular necrosis in 18-hr fasted, 3-month-old male CD-1 mice. This study was undertaken to determine if deacetylation of APAP to p-aminophenol (PAP) is a prerequisite to nephrotoxicity in the mouse, as it is in the Fischer rat. Administration of e...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Emeigh Hart SG,Beierschmitt WP,Bartolone JB,Wyand DS,Khairallah EA,Cohen SD

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2: a characterization of expression and adenylate cyclase modulation within the immune system.

    abstract::Cannabinoid receptor (CB) expression was characterized in immunological cell and tissue preparations. Northern analysis revealed approximately 6-kb transcripts for CB1 (brain-type) in mouse spleen and brain and in rat cerebellum. CB1 was not detected in mouse thymus or rat spleen RNA by Northern analysis. CB2 (periphe...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schatz AR,Lee M,Condie RB,Pulaski JT,Kaminski NE

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of microsomal enzyme inducers upon UDP-glucuronic acid concentration and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in the rat intestine and liver.

    abstract::This study was conducted to evaluate UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UDP-GT) activity, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GA) concentration, and UDP-glucose (UDPG) concentration in the rat intestine and liver following oral administration of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), phenoba...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goon D,Klaassen CD

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cytotoxicity of monodispersed chitosan nanoparticles against the Caco-2 cells.

    abstract::Published toxicology data on chitosan nanoparticles (NP) often lack direct correlation to the in situ size and surface characteristics of the nanoparticles, and the repeated NP assaults as experienced in chronic use. The aim of this paper was to breach these gaps. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by spinning disc pr...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loh JW,Saunders M,Lim LY

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanistic toxicogenomic analysis of WAY-144122 administration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    abstract::Application of global gene expression analysis in the study of mechanisms of toxicity could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of the molecular basis of drug action. WAY-144122 has pharmacological activity against several targets improving insulin responsiveness and favorably altering lipid profiles. Normal r...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peterson RL,Casciotti L,Block L,Goad ME,Tong Z,Meehan JT,Jordan RA,Vinlove MP,Markiewicz VR,Weed CA,Dorner AJ

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Protection of hepatocytes against death due to mitochondrial failure: effect of di-Calciphor on antimycin A-induced toxicity.

    abstract::Di-Calciphor is a synthetic derivative of prostaglandin B1 that protects against cerebral and cardiac ischemia apparently by preserving mitochondrial function. To determine whether di-Calciphor specifically protects against mitochondrial failure, we studied its effects on mitochondrial functions in hepatocytes treated...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park Y,Devlin TM,Jones DP

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cytotoxicity and induction of proinflammatory cytokines from human monocytes exposed to fine (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10-2.5) in outdoor and indoor air.

    abstract::Increased incidence of mortality and morbidity due to cardiopulmonary complications has been found to associate with elevated levels of particulate air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm, PM10 and <2.5 microm, PM2. 5). Lung injury and an imbalance of inflammatory mediators are propo...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monn C,Becker S

    更新日期:1999-03-15 00:00:00

  • Enhanced hepatotoxicity and toxic outcome of thioacetamide in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    abstract::Diabetes is known to potentiate thioacetamide (TA)-induced liver injury via enhanced bioactivation. Little attention has been given to the role of compensatory tissue repair on ultimate outcome of hepatic injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diabetes on TA-induced liver inju...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang T,Fontenot RD,Soni MG,Bucci TJ,Mehendale HM

    更新日期:2000-07-15 00:00:00

  • Contribution of acetaminophen-cysteine to acetaminophen nephrotoxicity in CD-1 mice: I. Enhancement of acetaminophen nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen-cysteine.

    abstract::Acetaminophen (APAP) nephrotoxicity has been observed both in humans and research animals. Recent studies suggest a contributory role for glutathione (GSH)-derived conjugates of APAP in the development of nephrotoxicity. Inhibitors of either gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) or the probenecid-sensitive organic ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stern ST,Bruno MK,Hennig GE,Horton RA,Roberts JC,Cohen SD

    更新日期:2005-01-15 00:00:00

  • Augmented humoral immune function in metallothionein-null mice.

    abstract::Stress response proteins can play integral roles as modulators of cellular function and can be involved in mechanisms that are important to immune function. Metallothionein (MT), a cysteine-rich stress response protein, has been shown to play numerous roles in the cell: it serves as a reservoir of essential heavy meta...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crowthers KC,Kline V,Giardina C,Lynes MA

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Role of oxidative stress in thuringiensin-induced pulmonary toxicity.

    abstract::To understand the effect of thuringiensin on the lungs tissues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with thuringiensin by intratracheal instillation at doses 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after treatment, and lungs were isolated and examined. Subsequently, an...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai SF,Yang C,Liu BL,Hwang JS,Ho SP

    更新日期:2006-10-15 00:00:00

  • Activation of the activator protein-1 by the peroxisome proliferator clofibric acid in rat H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells.

    abstract::Clofibric acid (CA), a potent peroxisome proliferator (PP), has been shown to cause tumor formation in rat liver. The precise mechanism of action of PPs remains largely unknown. However, it has been proposed that they act by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a cellular oxidative stress. In the prese...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bécuwe P,Bianchi A,Dauça M

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats.

    abstract::We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 cause...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo X,Meng Q,Liu Q,Wang C,Sun H,Peng J,Ma X,Kaku T,Liu K

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications.

    abstract::Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 μM) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mit...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pardo-Andreu GL,Nuñez-Figueredo Y,Tudella VG,Cuesta-Rubio O,Rodrigues FP,Pestana CR,Uyemura SA,Leopoldino AM,Alberici LC,Curti C

    更新日期:2011-06-15 00:00:00

  • Arsenic induces platelet shape change through altering focal adhesion kinase-mediated actin dynamics, contributing to increased platelet reactivity.

    abstract::Arsenic, an environmental contaminant in drinking water worldwide is well-established to increase cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in humans. Of these, thrombotic events represent a major adverse effect associated with arsenic exposure, for which an abundance of epidemiological evidence exists. Platelet aggregation cons...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim K,Shin EK,Chung JH,Lim KM

    更新日期:2020-03-15 00:00:00

  • Investigation of the therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine and the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo.

    abstract::The glutathione precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is currently being tested on Parkinson's patients for its neuroprotective properties. Our studies have shown that NAC can elicit protection in glutathione-independent manners in vitro. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish an animal model of NAC-mediat...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nouraei N,Zarger L,Weilnau JN,Han J,Mason DM,Leak RK

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Physiologically based models for bone-seeking elements. V. Lead absorption and disposition in childhood.

    abstract::A physiologically based model of lead absorption and disposition, previously developed and validated for adults, has been tested and calibrated for children. The model was modified to incorporate additional information on the age dependence of bone formation rate and to take into account increasing localization of bon...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: O'Flaherty EJ

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00