The gastro-intestinal tract as the major site of biological action of dietary melanoidins.


:Emerging evidence from laboratory researches has highlighted the bioactivity of food melanoidins and melanoproteins. Whilst such studies have been carried out with different in vitro systems, information about melanoidins absorption and bio-availability are scarce. However, they are generally considered as poorly absorbable and bio-available compounds. Therefore, we present a review in which the gastro-intestinal tract is hypothesized to be the main site of action of food melanoidins and melanoproteins biological activity. We described recent data supporting this hypothesis both in vitro model systems and in vivo. Importantly, we focused this review only on the effect of melanoidins and melanoproteins extracted from food. Most of the studies had been carried out using water-soluble carbohydrate-based melanoidins isolated from different food sources (beer, barley coffee, coffee). In bakery products, melanoidins are protein-based structure (melanoproteins) which are largely insoluble in water. Dietary melanoidins and melanoproteins have been demonstrated to exert in vitro antioxidant and metal chelating ability in the gastro-intestinal tract reducing the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and advanced lipid oxidation end products during the digestion of meat. The reduction in the formation of these pro-atherogenic compounds has been shown to be followed by a decrease in their absorption in human volunteers. Food melanoidins have also shown in vitro anti-caries and prebiotic activities. We conclude by underlining the possible role of food melanoidins in the prevention of gastro-intestinal tract cancers. We hope this review will stimulate further research on food melanoidins and their biological activities in the gastro-intestinal tract.


Amino Acids


Amino acids


Tagliazucchi D,Bellesia A




Has Abstract


2015-06-01 00:00:00












  • Microglial self-defence mediated through GLT-1 and glutathione.

    abstract::Glutamate is stored in synaptic vesicles in presynaptic neurons. It is released into the synaptic cleft to provide signalling to postsynaptic neurons. Normally, the astroglial glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST take up glutamate to mediate a high signal-to-noise ratio in the synaptic signalling, and also to preven...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Persson M,Rönnbäck L

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Volatile constituents of glutathione--ribose model system and its antioxidant activity.

    abstract::Reaction between glutathione and ribose was carried out to study the volatiles formed via Maillard reaction and their antioxidant activity as well as their role in inhibition of LDL oxidation. The simultaneous distillation-extraction technique was used for trapping the volatile components followed by GC-MS analysis. T...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El-massry K,Farouk A,El-Ghorab A

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • How are signals transduced across the cytoplasmic membrane? Transport proteins as transmitter of information.

    abstract::In order to adapt to ever changing environmental conditions, bacteria sense environmental stimuli, and convert them into signals that are transduced intracellularly. Several mechanisms have evolved by which receptors transmit signals across the cytoplasmic membrane. Stimulus perception may trigger receptor dimerizatio...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tetsch L,Jung K

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological approaches to counter the toxicity of Dopa.

    abstract::Dopa and related catecholamines and their degradation products have been demonstrated to have neurotoxic potential in a number of cellular and in vivo experiments. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved including generation of prooxidant products that subsequently oxidize membrane lipids and exposed ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: VonVoigtlander PF,Fici GJ,Althaus JS

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Observations on the relationship between the extracellular changes of taurine and glutamate during cortical spreading depression, during ischemia, and within the area surrounding a thrombotic infarct.

    abstract::Taurine and glutamate were monitored by microdialysis technique during various cerebral insults: a. Application of K+ triggered a cortical spreading depression (CSD). Taurine and glutamate increased concomitantly but recovery of glutamate was faster than that of taurine. b. Application of NMDA induced also CSD but onl...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheller D,Szathmary S,Kolb J,Tegtmeier F

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide analogues of 1811-1818 loop of the A3 subunit of the light chain A3-C1-C2 of FVIII of blood coagulation: biological evaluation.

    abstract::Factor VIII, the plasma protein deficient or defective in individuals with hemophilia A, is a critical member of the blood coagulation cascade. Recent studies have identified the FVIII light chain region Glu1811-Lys1818 as being involved in FIXa binding and in the assembly of the FX-activating FIXaz-FVIIIa complex. Ba...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patsialas K,Koutsas C,Makris P,Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood.

    abstract::The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink, which includes taurine, glucuronolactone, and caffeine amongst the ingredients, were examined over 3 studies in a total of 36 volunteers. Assessments included psychomotor performance (reaction time, concentration, memory), subjective alertness and physical endurance. When compared...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Alford C,Cox H,Wescott R

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • The plant extracellular transglutaminase: what mammal analogues tell.

    abstract::The extracellular transglutaminases (TGs) in eukaryotes are responsible for the post-translational modification of proteins through different reactions, cross-linking being the best known. In higher plants, extracellular TG appears to be involved in roles similar to those performed by the mammalian counterparties. Sin...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Del Duca S,Verderio E,Serafini-Fracassini D,Iorio R,Cai G

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Immunocytochemical study by two photon fluorescence microscopy of the distribution of GABA(A) receptor subunits in rat cerebellar granule cells in culture.

    abstract::An immunocytochemical investigation of the expression of alpha(1), alpha(6), beta(2/3), gamma(2) and delta subunits was performed on rat cerebellum granule cells in culture by the two photon microscopy technique. The first four subunits appear to be expressed abundantly in these cells, whereas the delta one seems to b...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merlo F,Balduzzi R,Cupello A,Robello M

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide substrate for caspase-3 with 2-aminoacridone as reporting group.

    abstract::Synthesis and properties of a new fluorescent/fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMAC for caspase-3 are reported. The substrate is obtained by conventional Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis and its properties are investigated with regard to fluorescence, sensitivity, applicability and kinetic constants. A non-tradit...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lozanov V,Ivanov IP,Benkova B,Mitev V

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • N-acetylcysteine reduces inflammation in the small intestine by regulating redox, EGF and TLR4 signaling.

    abstract::This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could affect intestinal redox status, proinflammatory cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), and aquaporin-8 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet model. Eighteen piglets (35-day-old) were randomly alloc...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou Y,Wang L,Yi D,Ding B,Yang Z,Li J,Chen X,Qiu Y,Wu G

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Monosodium glutamate induced convulsions in rats: Influence of route of administration, temperature and age.

    abstract::Treatment of developing rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG) produces an increase of glutamate levels in the brain, being this elevation dependent on both route of administration and animal's age. The capacity of exogenous MSG to induce convulsions seems to be related to the rate of glutamate elevation in the brain, r...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peñafiel R,Cremades A,Monserrat F,Puelles L

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Free carnitine and acetyl carnitine plasma levels and their relationship with body muscular mass in athletes.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma carnitine concentration and body composition variation in relation to muscular and fat masses since there is no experimentally proved correlation between plasma carnitine and body masses. We used bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gatti R,De Palo CB,Spinella P,De Palo EF

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • High plasma guanidinoacetate-to-homoarginine ratio is associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rate in adult renal transplant recipients.

    abstract::L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is the main producer of the creatine precursor, guanidinoacetate (GAA), and L-homoarginine (hArg). We and others previously reported lower levels of circulating and urinary hArg in renal transplant recipients (RTR) compared to healthy subjects. In adults, hArg emerged as a ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hanff E,Said MY,Kayacelebi AA,Post A,Minovic I,van den Berg E,de Borst MH,van Goor H,Bakker SJL,Tsikas D

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lysine metabolism in mammalian brain: an update on the importance of recent discoveries.

    abstract::The lysine catabolism pathway differs in adult mammalian brain from that in extracerebral tissues. The saccharopine pathway is the predominant lysine degradative pathway in extracerebral tissues, whereas the pipecolate pathway predominates in adult brain. The two pathways converge at the level of ∆(1)-piperideine-6-ca...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hallen A,Jamie JF,Cooper AJ

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    abstract::Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium ph...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Atanassova SS,Panchev P,Ivanova M

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical localization of D-aspartate oxidase in porcine peripheral tissues.

    abstract::D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous substance in mammals. Degradation of D-Asp is carried out only by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). We measured DDO activity in porcine tissues, and produced an anti-porcine DDO antibody to examine the cellular localization of DDO. All the tissues examined showed DDO activities, whereas t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto A,Tanaka H,Ishida T,Horiike K

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomic profiling identifies the inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) protein as a potential biomarker of metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    abstract::Relapse and metastasis are the main causes of unfavorable outcome in head and neck cancers. Whereas, understanding of the molecular background of these processes is far from being complete. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify potential biomarker candidates of relapse and metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bodnar M,Luczak M,Bednarek K,Szylberg L,Marszalek A,Grenman R,Szyfter K,Jarmuz-Szymczak M,Giefing M

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients.

    abstract::The effect of dietary amino acid taurine on the liver function of chronic hepatitis patients was investigated. The 24 chronic hepatitis patients with 2-5 times over normal activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were selected and equally divided into taurine treatment and contr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu YH,Lin CL,Huang YW,Liu PE,Hwang DF

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Specific effects by the psychotomimetic drugsd-amphetamine and phencyclidine on the performance of an aversely motivated successive visual discrimination in the rat.

    abstract::Rats were trained to perform a conditioned avoidance response to white noise in a conventional two-compartment "shuttle-box". The partition between the compartments had two openings, however, and the correct passage (leftor right) was signalled by changes in background illumination. In this situation the psychotomimet...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahlenius S,Ericson E,Svensson TH

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Easy preparation of dehydroalanine building blocks equipped with oxazolidin-2-one chiral auxiliaries, and applications to the stereoselective synthesis of substituted tryptophans.

    abstract::Chiral dehydroamino acid building blocks are versatile starting materials for the preparation of optically active unusual amino acids and other compounds of pharmacological interest. Herein we disclose the expedient preparation of dehydroalanines (ΔAla) equipped with oxazolidin-2-one (Oxd) chiral auxiliaries, Ts-Oxd-Δ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Marco R,Cavina L,Greco A,Gentilucci L

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • A novel method for promoting heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli by fusion with the HIV-1 TAT core domain.

    abstract::The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein, a member of the protein transduction domain (PTD) superfamily, can deliver heterologous proteins across most biomembranes without losing bioactivity. However, there is no report on whether the TAT core domain containing the ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu Y,Ren C,Gao Y,Hou B,Chen T,Zhang C

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neurofilament proteins NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in brain of patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

    abstract::Neurofilaments (NFs) are integral constituents of the neuron playing a major role in brain development, maintenance, regeneration and the pattern of expression for NFs suggests their contribution to plasticity of the neuronal cytoskeleton and creating and maintaining neuronal architecture. Using immune-histochemical t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bajo M,Yoo BC,Cairns N,Gratzer M,Lubec G

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of phosphate ion on the fluorescence of 3-fluorotyrosine.

    abstract::3-Fluorotyrosine fluorescence is quenched effectively by phosphate ions not only by a dynamic but also by a static mechanism owing to H-bond complex formation in ground state. 3-Fluorotyrosine pKa values both in the ground and first excited state (8.3 and 4, respectively) are appreciably lower than those of tyrosine, ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vdovenko SI,Kolycheva MT,Gerus II,Kukhar VP

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • New insights on the role of free D-aspartate in the mammalian brain.

    abstract::Free D-aspartate (D-Asp) occurs in substantial amounts in the brain at the embryonic phase and in the first few postnatal days, and strongly decreases in adulthood. Temporal reduction of D-Asp levels depends on the postnatal onset of D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity, the only enzyme able to selectively degrade this ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Errico F,Napolitano F,Nisticò R,Usiello A

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Growth promotion by homocysteine thiolactone and its alpha-alkylated derivative - A role for excess growth in homocystinurias?

    abstract::It is controversial whether homocysteic acid or other homocysteine derivatives show growth promoting effects. In a clonogenic assay we could show that homocysteine thiolactone and its alpha alkylated derivative increased colony formation significantly. Our work favorizes previous observations showing growth promoting ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lubec B,Szekeres T

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Isozymic nature of spore coat-associated alanine racemase of Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::Spore coat-associated alanine racemase of Bacillus subtilis, which converts L-alanine to D-alanine, that is, the germinant to the competitive inhibitor, to regulate spore germination for survival of the organism under unfavorable growth conditions, was examined. The dormant spores, L-alanine-initiated germination of w...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanda-Nambu K,Yasuda Y,Tochikubo K

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer therapy and prevention by green tea: role of ornithine decarboxylase.

    abstract::Green tea which is widely consumed in China, Japan and India, contains polyphenolic compounds, which account for 30% of the dry weight of the leaves. Most of the polyphenols are flavanols, of which (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is most abundant. Epidemiological studies revealed that the incidences of stomach a...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bachrach U,Wang YC

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Spectroscopic and structural elucidation of amino acid derivatives and small peptides: experimental and theoretical tools.

    abstract::This mini review deals with the modern aspects of the spectroscopy and structural elucidation of amino acid derivatives and small biologically active compounds. Free peptide bond rotation in these systems yields various conformers, which possess differing biological activities. Another phenomenon is the intermolecular...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kolev T,Spiteller M,Koleva B

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of NMDA, a potent agonist of glutamate receptor, on behavioral activity of rats with experimental hyperammonemia evoked by liver failure.

    abstract::The study was designed to investigate the effects of NMDA receptor agonist on the behavioral activity in rats with experimental hyperammonemia. The experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections of tioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg) for three cons...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fedosiewicz-Wasiluk M,Hoły ZZ,Wiśniewska RJ,Wiśniewski K

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00