Victims of lethal hypothermia have decreased levels of thrombomodulin in myocardium and urine.


:Severe cold stress has been shown to cause changes in the expression and secretion of thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial protein regulating haemostasis and inflammation. To further evaluate TM as a cold stress indicator, relative TM mRNA and TM protein levels in the myocardium and the concentrations of TM in serum and urine were analysed in different causes of death (hypothermia main cause, n = 80; hypothermia contributory cause, n = 26; cardiovascular disease (CVD) main cause, n = 94; trauma main cause, n = 45; other main cause, n = 25). Urinary catecholamine concentrations and myocardial heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcript levels were also studied. The TM mRNA and the TM protein levels in myocardium and urine were significantly lower in hypothermia deaths than those in the controls. Post-mortem interval did not correlate with urinary TM concentration. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary TM assay to detect hypothermia deaths were 70.8 and 70.3 %, respectively. Catecholamine concentrations in urine correlated significantly with TM concentration in urine and TM mRNA levels in all groups excluding CVD deaths. There were no differences in the HSF1 transcript levels and no correlation to TM levels. These findings provide further evidence that cold stress and hypothermia affect TM expression and secretion and that they are possibly linked to catecholamine action. Thus, measuring post-mortem TM levels may provide additional support to diagnosing hypothermia in medico-legal examination. The results may also provide additional knowledge for the treatment of hypothermic patients and the use of hypothermia for medical purposes.


Int J Legal Med


Pakanen L,Kaija H,Kortelainen ML,Särkioja T,Porvari K




Has Abstract


2015-03-01 00:00:00












  • Are autopsies of help to the parents of SIDS victims? A follow-up on SIDS families.

    abstract::Little is known about what bereaved parents feel about the autopsy performed on their child. A multi-centre case control study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) victims was carried out in Germany between 1998 and 2001, in which all infants had been autopsied. We performed a follow-up study 4-7 years after the par...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Vennemann MM,Rentsch C,Bajanowski T,Zimmer G

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Genomic portrait of population of Jharkhand, India, drawn with 15 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-STRs.

    abstract::We analysed 15 autosomal STRs in 200 unrelated individuals (102 males and 98 females) and 17 Y-STRs in 102 unrelated males living in Jharkhand, India, to establish parameters of forensic interest. The examined autosomal STRs revealed high combined power of exclusion (CPE) and combined power of discrimination (CPD) as ...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imam J,Reyaz R,Singh RS,Bapuly AK,Shrivastava P

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Human fatalities caused by wasp and bee stings in Sweden.

    abstract::Bee and wasp stings represent an uncommon cause of death. In a retrospective study of all fatalities due to venomous animals in Sweden during a 10-year-period, we found 19 fatalities due to wasps, 1 due to bees but none due to snake bite. This gives an annual incidence of 0.2 per million inhabitants. Most of the decea...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johansson B,Eriksson A,Ornehult L

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence variation of a hypervariable short tandem repeat at the D1S1656 locus.

    abstract::A short tandem repeat at the D1S1656 locus was sequenced in 45 selected alleles and 13 different alleles were found which were designated according to the total number of repeats. This STR is a compound hypervariable STR consisting of blocks of (TAGR) repeats with a basic sequence structure (TAGA)4(TGA)0-1(TAGA)6-16(T...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lareu MV,Barral S,Salas A,Pestoni C,Carracedo A

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of two multiplex PCR systems for the analysis of 14 X-chromosomal STR loci in a southern Brazilian population sample.

    abstract::We developed two multiplex systems for the coamplification of X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). X-Multiplex 1 consisted of DXS6807, DXS6800, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05 and HPRTB and X-Multiplex 2 consisted of DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS6801, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS8377 and DXS7423. In addition, we present a...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Penna LS,Silva FG,Salim PH,Ewald G,Jobim M,Magalhães JA,Jobim LF

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Morphology of sweat glands in determining time of death.

    abstract::This study demonstrates post-mortem autolytic alterations in the skin at cellular and subcellular levels and identifies parameters which may assist in determining the time of death in the first few hours post-mortem. Serial skin samples from the ventral surface of the arm were taken at intervals of 3, 6, 9 and 12 h af...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cingolani M,Osculati A,Tombolini A,Tagliabracci A,Ghimenton C,Ferrara SD

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Updating the risk profile of fatal head trauma: an autopsy study with focus on age- and sex-dependent differences.

    abstract::Fatal head trauma (FHT) represents one of the most frequent causes of death diagnosed in forensic pathology. However, profound statistic autopsy data on FHT is still sparse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances and injury patterns of FHT with particular focus on age and sex, and ad...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kronsbein K,Karger B,Budczies J,Pfeiffer H,Wittschieber D

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • miRNA analysis in vitreous humor to determine the time of death: a proof-of-concept pilot study.

    abstract::We hypothesized that miRNAs present in vitreous humor could be a sort of "biological black box," storing information about physiological and environmental circumstances at death. As a proof of concept, we analyzed the vitreous humor miRNA signature to explore its forensic potential applications, such as determining th...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Odriozola A,Riancho JA,de la Vega R,Agudo G,García-Blanco A,de Cos E,Fernández F,Sañudo C,Zarrabeitia MT

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • On the physics of momentum in ballistics: can the human body be displaced or knocked down by a small arms projectile?

    abstract::Shooting incidents are often portrayed as resulting in a sometimes violent backwards displacement of the victim. This opinion is also not infrequently held by expert witnesses. The physical force responsible for this would be momentum (mass x velocity). The physics of momentum in ballistic injury is explained in detai...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Karger B,Kneubuehl BP

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Estimating trace deposition time with circadian biomarkers: a prospective and versatile tool for crime scene reconstruction.

    abstract::Linking biological samples found at a crime scene with the actual crime event represents the most important aspect of forensic investigation, together with the identification of the sample donor. While DNA profiling is well established for donor identification, no reliable methods exist for timing forensic samples. He...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ackermann K,Ballantyne KN,Kayser M

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Single nucleotide polymorphism typing with massively parallel sequencing for human identification.

    abstract::The Ion AmpliSeq™ HID single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, a primer pool of 103 autosomal SNPs and 33 Y-SNPs, was evaluated using the Ion 314™ Chip on the Ion PGM™ Sequencer with four DNA samples. The study focused on the sequencing of DNA at three different initial target quantities, related interpretation iss...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seo SB,King JL,Warshauer DH,Davis CP,Ge J,Budowle B

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Allele frequency data of 15 autosomal STR loci in four major population groups of South Africa.

    abstract::Allele frequency distributions for 15 tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler Plus™ PCR amplification kit. There was little evidence of departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or association of alleles of different loci in the population samples. The probability of ...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lucassen A,Ehlers K,Grobler PJ,Shezi AL

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Tumoural specimens for forensic purposes: comparison of genetic alterations in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    abstract::In certain circumstances, tumour tissue specimens are the only DNA resource available for forensic DNA analysis. However, cancer tissues can show microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity which, if concerning the short tandem repeats (STRs) used in the forensic field, can cause misinterpretation of the res...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ananian V,Tozzo P,Ponzano E,Nitti D,Rodriguez D,Caenazzo L

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • DNA methylation levels and telomere length in human teeth: usefulness for age estimation.

    abstract::In the last decade, increasing knowledge of epigenetics has led to the development of DNA methylation-based models to predict age, which have shown high predictive accuracy. However, despite the value of teeth as forensic samples, few studies have focused on this source of DNA. This study used bisulfite pyrosequencing...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Márquez-Ruiz AB,González-Herrera L,Luna JD,Valenzuela A

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Postmortem interrogation of cardiac implantable electrical devices may clarify time and cause of death.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postmortem interrogation of cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIED) in autopsy is not routinely performed. Thus, it remains unclear whether an interrogation might clarify time and cause of death. METHODS:Seventy of 4401 patients (1.6%) undergoing autopsy in 2014 and 2015 presented with a CIED. The exp...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Riesinger L,Fichtner S,Schuhmann CG,Estner HL,Czermak T,Graw M,Fischer F,Lackermair K

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impact energy of everyday items used for assault.

    abstract::Blunt force is a frequently used type of violence especially because it can be performed with basically every object of our daily lives or with bare hands or feet. The injuries and medical consequences have been widely examined, whereas the forces and especially the energies acting on impact have rarely been analyzed....

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siegenthaler L,Sprenger FD,Kneubuehl BP,Jackowski C

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of urinary catecholamines and metanephrines in cardiac deaths.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to measure catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites in urine and vitreous humor collected in cardiac deaths and noncardiac control cases that underwent medicolegal investigations. Our first goal was to assess whether cardiac events of different types are characterized by different ca...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hervet T,Grouzmann E,Grabherr S,Mangin P,Palmiere C

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Detainees in police custody in the Paris, France area: medical data and high-risk situations (a prospective study over 1 year).

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The annual number of detainees held in police custody in France is approximately 700,000. Medical data regarding arrestees are scarce across countries. We present the medical characteristics of detainees kept in police custody, including addictive behaviours and high-risk medical situations. M...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chariot P,Beaufrère A,Denis C,Dang C,Vincent R,Boraud C

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • The STR systems HumVWA and HumACTBP2 in a Hungarian population.

    abstract::Allele frequencies of the Short tandem repeat systems HumVWA and HumACTBP2 were determined from 105 unrelated individuals from the area of Szeged, Hungary. A total of 8 alleles was detected for VWA, and 23 alleles were found for ACTBP2. In both systems no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. A com...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Csete K,Schürenkamp M,Varga T

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intravenous methadone application as a serious risk factor for an overdose death: methadone-related fatalities in Hamburg from 2007 to 2012.

    abstract::Methadone plays an increasing role in drug-related deaths in Hamburg. To find out whether intravenous application of methadone plays a relevant role in methadone-related deaths, body fluids of all methadone-positive cases (n=130) and three buprenorphine-positive cases where a urine sample was available (n=58+3) were i...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iwersen-Bergmann S,Jungen H,Andresen-Streichert H,Müller A,Elakkary S,Püschel K,Heinemann A

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Likelihood ratios for mixed stains when the number of donors cannot be agreed.

    abstract::Suppose that part of the prosecution's evidence in some crime case is analysis of a blood stain, and that the traits E discovered in the stain suggest multiple donors. Then the prosecution will probably allege some specific inculpatory hypothesis H0 about the sources of the stain, and P (E [symbol: see text] H0) can b...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brenner CH,Fimmers R,Baur MP

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genotyping of 75 SNPs using arrays for individual identification in five population groups.

    abstract::Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing offers promise to forensic genetics. Various strategies and panels for analyzing SNP markers for individual identification have been published. However, the best panels with fewer identity SNPs for all major population groups are still under discussion. This study aimed to f...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hwa HL,Wu LS,Lin CY,Huang TY,Yin HI,Tseng LH,Lee JC

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Catalonian population study of the tetranucleotide repeat loci D3S1358, D8S1179, D18S51 and D19S253.

    abstract::Allele frequencies for four short tandem repeat loci were determined in a population sample from Catalonia (NE Spain). After denaturing PAGE electrophoresis, 8 alleles were identified for D3S1358 (n=201), 10 alleles for D8S1179 (n=198), 13 alleles for D18S51 (n=197) and 11 alleles for D19S253 (n=201). No deviation fro...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gené M,Piqué E,Borrego N,Carracedo A,Huguet E,Moreno P

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Factors affecting accuracy and precision of thermal summation models of insect development used to estimate post-mortem intervals.

    abstract::This paper investigates the effects that different summary statistics (minimum, median, mean, or maximum), temporal sampling resolutions (duration between sampling events), and sample sizes (number of individuals sampled per sampling event) had on the accuracy and precision of the regression coefficients of a typical ...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richards CS,Villet MH

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Are coding systems of frontal sinuses anatomically reliable? A study of correlation among morphological and metrical features.

    abstract::Frontal sinuses are of special interest for personal identification thanks to their high variability. A common procedure for comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem material is based on coding systems classifying frontal sinuses according to their morphological and metrical characteristics. However, the calculation of p...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibelli D,Cellina M,Gibelli S,Oliva AG,Termine G,Sforza C

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Population genetics of 26 Y-STR loci for the Han ethnic in Hunan province, China.

    abstract::To study the population data of Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) of Han population resided in Hunan province, we analyzed haplotypes of 26 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, DYS38...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jiang W,Gong Z,Rong H,Guan H,Zhang T,Zhao Y,Fu X,Zha L,Jin C,Ding Y

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sudden aortic death-proposal for a comprehensive diagnostic approach in forensic and in clinical pathology practice.

    abstract:BACKGROUNDS:Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease related, differs sub...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Boer HH,Dedouit F,Chappex N,van der Wal AC,Michaud K

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial DNA sequences for 118 individuals from northeastern Spain.

    abstract::A population database was generated from 118 unrelated Caucasoid individuals living in Spain. Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, hypervariable regions I and II (HVRI and HVRII) were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. A total of 102 different...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crespillo M,Luque JA,Paredes M,Fernández R,Ramírez E,Valverde JL

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Allergic reactions following contrast material administration: nomenclature, classification, and mechanisms.

    abstract::In forensic pathology routine, fatal cases of contrast agent exposure can be occasionally encountered. In such situations, beyond the difficulties inherent in establishing the cause of death due to nonspecific or absent autopsy and histology findings as well as limited laboratory investigations, pathologists may face ...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Palmiere C,Comment L,Mangin P

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic analysis of 29 Y-STR loci in Han population from Dongfang, Southern China.

    abstract::In the present study, blood samples of 984 unrelated Han individuals were collected from Dongfang, Southern China, after informed consent. A total of 29 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) were analyzed, including DYF387S1, DYS19, DYS385ab, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS43...

    journal_title:International journal of legal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang J,Mo X,Shang L,Jin X,Chen D,Zhu H,Zhang Y,Kang B,Li W,Ye J

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00