Insomnia symptoms and subsequent psychotropic medication: a register-linked study with 5-year follow-up.


PURPOSE:This study examined the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent psychotropic medication, reflecting mental health. METHODS:Postal baseline surveys among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland, were collected in 2000-2002 (N = 6,227, response rate 67%, 78% women) and longitudinally linked with national register data on prescribed reimbursed medication. Insomnia symptoms at baseline comprised difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, and non-restorative sleep. All purchased psychotropic medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline was included. Outcomes were any psychotropic medication; antidepressants; and anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives. Covariates included socio-demographic and work-related factors, health behaviors, lifetime mental disorders, and prior psychotropic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:Insomnia symptoms were associated with higher frequency of subsequent psychotropic medication prescriptions. The associations were strongest for frequent insomnia symptoms (women OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.64-4.77; men OR 4.64, 95% CI 2.49-8.66, adjusted for age and prior medication), but also rare and occasional symptoms were associated with psychotropic medication. Further adjustments had negligible effects. CONCLUSIONS:Insomnia symptoms were associated with prescribed psychotropic medication during follow-up in a dose-response manner. Attention should be given to the prevention of insomnia symptoms to curb subsequent mental problems.


Haaramo P,Lallukka T,Lahelma E,Hublin C,Rahkonen O




Has Abstract


2014-12-01 00:00:00












  • Reasons for the diagnostic discordance between clinicians and researchers in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The diagnosis of schizophrenia by clinicians is not always accurate in terms of operational diagnostic criteria despite the fact that these diagnoses form the basis of case registers and routine statistics. This poses a challenge to psychiatric research. We studied the reasons for diagnostic discordance betw...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moilanen K,Veijola J,Läksy K,Mäkikyrö T,Miettunen J,Kantojärvi L,Kokkonen P,Karvonen JT,Herva A,Joukamaa M,Järvelin MR,Moring J,Jones PB,Isohanni M

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring the economic costs of discrimination experienced by people with mental health problems: development of the Costs of Discrimination Assessment (CODA).

    abstract:PURPOSE:Stigma and discrimination are faced by many with mental health problems and this may affect the uptake of services and engagement in leisure and recreational activities. The aims of this study were to develop a schedule to measure the impact of stigma and discrimination on service use, employment and leisure ac...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wright S,Henderson C,Thornicroft G,Sharac J,McCrone P

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Psychiatric civil and forensic inpatient satisfaction with care: the impact of provider and recipient characteristics.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The goal of the study was to understand what characteristics of the provider and recipient of psychiatric care on inpatient civil and forensic units impact satisfaction ratings. Specifically, we explored how demographic variables (age, race), psychiatric diagnosis (psychotic, affective, substance-related),...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shiva A,Haden SC,Brooks J

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of mental disorders and their outcome in a community based cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Only a limited number of population-based studies have been able to prospectively follow the mental health of their participants. We aimed to describe diagnostic changes in a population based cohort over a two year period, and to explore associations between a range of individual factors and recovery from, o...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beard JR,Heathcote K,Brooks R,Earnest A,Kelly B

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Frequently hospitalised psychiatric patients: a study of predictive factors.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting readmission and the interval between readmissions to psychiatric hospital during the early 1990s in Finland. Data were retrieved using the national register of all discharges from psychiatric hospitals during the early 1990s. Frequently admitted patie...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Korkeila JA,Lehtinen V,Tuori T,Helenius H

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring common mental disorders in women in Ethiopia: reliability and construct validity of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is a dearth of methodological studies critically evaluating reliability, validity and feasibility of measures of common mental disorders (CMD) in low-income countries. METHODS:Test-retest and inter-rater reliability of categorisation of CMD caseness, according to locally agreed criteria using the Comp...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hanlon C,Medhin G,Alem A,Araya M,Abdulahi A,Tesfaye M,Wondimagegn D,Taha H,Anbesse B,Baheretibeb Y,Dewey M,Prince M

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Bipolar disorders in Australia. A population-based study of excess costs.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the excess costs associated with bipolar disorders in Australia, based on prevalence (using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ)) and associated excess burden-of-illness costs. METHODS:Using data from the 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (HOS), a weighted cross-sectional survey of 3,0...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher LJ,Goldney RD,Dal Grande E,Taylor AW,Hawthorne G

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities: a case-control study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic ...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veling W,Hoek HW,Mackenbach JP

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology and comorbidity of severe mental illnesses in the community: findings from a computerized mental health registry in a large Israeli health organization.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Maccabi Healthcare Services, a large health maintenance organization (HMO) operating in Israel, has recently constructed a computerized registry of patients with severe mental illnesses (SMI). In the present study, we aimed to use this registry to investigate the epidemiology of schizophrenia and bipolar affect...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kodesh A,Goldshtein I,Gelkopf M,Goren I,Chodick G,Shalev V

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • A diagnostic comparison of homeless and nonhomeless patients in an urban mental health clinic.

    abstract::This study compared demographic and diagnostic characteristics of a sample of homeless outpatient mental health clinic attenders with a domiciled comparison group from the same clinic. Data on demographic variables and DSM-III-R psychiatric diagnoses were collected over a two-year period on a consecutive sample of 166...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: North CS,Thompson SJ,Pollio DE,Ricci DA,Smith EM

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Personal continuity versus specialisation of care approaches in mental healthcare: experiences of patients and clinicians-results of the qualitative study in five European countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The current debate on organisation of the mental health care raises a question whether to prioritise specialisation of clinical teams or personal continuity of care. The article explores the experiences of patients and clinicians regarding specialisation (SC) and personal continuity (PCC) of care in five Eur...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klingemann J,Welbel M,Priebe S,Giacco D,Matanov A,Lorant V,Bourmorck D,Soltmann B,Pfeiffer S,Miglietta E,Ruggeri M,Moskalewicz J

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of infantile autism in four French regions.

    abstract::A survey conducted in four French regions identified a sample of 154 autistic children born in the birth cohorts 1972 and 1976. Their mean ages were respectively 6.9 and 5.5 years when their handicaps were registered to local administrative services. The overall prevalence estimate is 4.9/10,000, with little differenc...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fombonne E,du Mazaubrun C

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Parental rearing and problem behaviours in male delinquent adolescents versus controls in northern Russia.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between parental rearing practices and problem behaviours in a sample of male delinquent adolescents versus controls. A total of 133 subjects from a juvenile correction centre and 108 matched school-children in the Arkhangelsk region, Russia, were ass...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruchkin VV,Eisemann M,Hägglöf B

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Developing methods for assessing quality of life in different cultural settings. The history of the WHOQOL instruments.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This review traces the 12-year history of an international collaboration of researchers-the WHOQOL Group-who were brought together by the World Health Organisation to develop and produce a cross-cultural measure of quality of life for use in health and health care. DISCUSSION:The theoretical and philosophic...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Skevington SM,Sartorius N,Amir M

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Family social support, community "social capital" and adolescents' mental health and educational outcomes: a longitudinal study in England.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine the associations between family social support, community "social capital" and mental health and educational outcomes. METHODS:The data come from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, a multi-stage stratified nationally representative random sample. Family social support (parental relat...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rothon C,Goodwin L,Stansfeld S

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • The mental and physical health profile of people who died by suicide: findings from the Suicide Support and Information System.

    abstract:PURPOSE:There is limited research on the associations between factors relating to mental and physical health in people who died by suicide. METHODS:Consecutive suicide cases were included in a psychological autopsy study as part of the Suicide Support and Information System in southern Ireland. Chi-square tests and lo...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leahy D,Larkin C,Leahy D,McAuliffe C,Corcoran P,Williamson E,Arensman E

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Does Expressed Emotion need to be understood within a more systemic framework? An examination of discrepancies in appraisals between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their relatives.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study examined the relationship between discrepancies in beliefs about schizophrenia and Expressed Emotion (EE) in family dyads. METHOD:Illness beliefs were assessed in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and their relatives (N=49 dyads). The degree and the direction of discrepancy were calculat...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lobban F,Barrowclough C,Jones S

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Calculating control variables with age at onset data to adjust for conditions prior to exposure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:When assessing the association between a factor X and a subsequent outcome Y in observational studies, the question that arises is what are the variables to adjust for to reduce bias due to confounding for causal inference on the effect of X on Y. Disregarding such factors is often a source of overestimation...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Höfler M,Brückl T,Lieb R,Wittchen HU

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Psychological health, self-reported physical health and health service use. Risk differential observed after one year of unemployment.

    abstract::One year after the closure of a furniture factory the health consequences of long-term unemployment were studied among the 215 former employees and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to measure psychological health, self-perceived physical health and health service use. Those remaining unemployed 12 mo...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Studnicka M,Studnicka-Benke A,Wögerbauer G,Rastetter D,Wenda R,Gathmann P,Ringel E

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with long length of stay in an inpatient psychiatric unit in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Studies of factors affecting length of stay during psychiatric hospitalization in sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. A better understanding of such factors may lead to interventions resulting in quicker patient stabilization and discharge, freeing up needed psychiatric beds and reducing health care system expenditu...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnett BS,Kusunzi V,Magola L,Borba CPC,Udedi M,Kulisewa K,Hosseinipour MC

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mental health among older married couples: the role of gender and family life.

    abstract:PURPOSE:As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. METHODS:Using data on a sample of 2,511 married coup...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Read S,Grundy E

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in the experience of depressed mood state over fifteen years.

    abstract::A study was conducted to examine sex differences in frequency, duration and severity of experience of depressed mood state in a non-clinical group and to consider how such findings contribute to the understanding of sex differences in depressive experience. A cohort of 156 subjects, assessed initially in 1978 in their...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilhelm K,Parker G,Asghari A

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Suicide risk among native- and foreign-origin persons in Sweden: a longitudinal examination of the role of unemployment status.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Prior research has documented an association between unemployment and elevated suicide risk. Yet, few Swedish studies have explicitly considered how such risk may vary by different migration background characteristics among persons of foreign-origin, who often experience diverse forms of labor market marginaliz...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dunlavy AC,Juárez S,Toivanen S,Rostila M

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many studies from the Western world have reported on stigmatisation of people with mental illnesses and its negative consequences, but few studies have addressed the issue in traditional rural societies. The present study aimed to estimate the extent and socio-demographic distribution of stigma as perceived ...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shibre T,Negash A,Kullgren G,Kebede D,Alem A,Fekadu A,Fekadu D,Madhin G,Jacobsson L

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Social inequalities in depression and suicidal ideation among older primary care patients.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Depression and suicide are major public health concerns, and are often unrecognized among the elderly. This study investigated social inequalities in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among older adults. METHODS:Data come from 1,226 participants in PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderl...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gilman SE,Bruce ML,Ten Have T,Alexopoulos GS,Mulsant BH,Reynolds CF 3rd,Cohen A

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • The mental health of early retirees-- national interview survey in Britain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is intense political interest in retaining older workers in the workforce, to fund lengthening retirements. While health is important in early exit from work, the health of early retirees has been little studied. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the health status of economically active 5...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buxton JW,Singleton N,Melzer D

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Socioeconomic status and children's mental health: results from the Bergen Child Study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:It is generally accepted that mental health problems are unequally distributed across population strata defined by socioeconomic status (SES), with more problems for those with lower SES. However, studies of this association in children and adolescents are often restricted by the use of global measures of menta...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bøe T,Øverland S,Lundervold AJ,Hysing M

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Panic attacks as risk markers for mental disorders*.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This paper extends previous epidemiological findings linking panic attacks with future episodes of depression and examines whether this relationship is independent of the effects of gender and neuroticism. METHODS:Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) DSM-IV diagnoses from a stratified multi-st...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baillie AJ,Rapee RM

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Concurrent use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioid analgesics with zolpidem and risk for suicide: a case-control and case-crossover study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate whether the concurrent use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioid analgesics with zolpidem increases the risk of suicide or triggers suicide compared with the use of zolpidem alone. METHODS:We conducted a case-control and case-crossover study using the Korean National Health Insurance Serv...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sung HG,Li J,Nam JH,Won DY,Choi B,Shin JY

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive ability, neighborhood deprivation, and young children's emotional and behavioral problems.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children's problem behavior. METHODS:Data from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9 months a...

    journal_title:Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flouri E,Mavroveli S,Tzavidis N

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00