Effects of diphenhydramine on human eye movements.


:Peak saccadic eye movement velocity (SEV) and average smooth pursuit gain (SP) are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by diazepam and provide reliable, quantitative measures of benzodiazepine agonist effects. To evaluate the specificity of these eye movement effects for agents acting at the central GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and the role of sedation in benzodiazepine effects, we studied eye movement effects of diphenhydramine, a sedating drug which does not act at the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. Ten healthy males, aged 19-28 years, with no history of axis I psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, received 50 mg/70 kg intravenous diphenhydramine or a similar volume of saline on separate days 1 week apart. SEV, saccade latency and accuracy, SP, self-rated sedation, and short-term memory were assessed at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after drug administration. Compared with placebo, diphenhydramine produced significant SEV slowing, and increases in saccade latency and self-rated sedation. There was no significant effect of diphenhydramine on smooth pursuit gain, saccade accuracy, or short-term memory. These results suggest that, like diazepam, diphenhydramine causes sedation, SEV slowing, and an increase in saccade latency. Since the degree of diphenhydramine-induced sedation was not correlated with changes in SEV or saccade latency, slowing of saccadic eye movements is unlikely to be attributable to sedation alone. Unlike diazepam, diphenhydramine does not impair smooth pursuit gain, saccadic accuracy, or memory. Different neurotransmitter systems may influence the neural pathways involved in SEV and smooth pursuit again.




Hopfenbeck JR,Cowley DS,Radant A,Greenblatt DJ,Roy-Byrne PP




Has Abstract


1995-04-01 00:00:00












  • Beta-2 adrenergic receptors mediate stress-evoked reinstatement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and increases in CRF mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in mice.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Understanding the mechanisms responsible for stress-induced relapse is important for guiding treatment strategies aimed at minimizing the contribution of stress to addiction. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms involve interactions between noradrenergic systems and the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McReynolds JR,Vranjkovic O,Thao M,Baker DA,Makky K,Lim Y,Mantsch JR

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Brain serotonin receptors and transporters: initiation vs. termination of escalated aggression.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Recent findings have shown a complexly regulated 5-HT system as it is linked to different kinds of aggression. OBJECTIVE:We focus on (1) phasic and tonic changes of 5-HT and (2) state and trait of aggression, and emphasize the different receptor subtypes, their role in specific brain regions, feed-back regul...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Takahashi A,Quadros IM,de Almeida RM,Miczek KA

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Effects of diazepam on exploratory behavior of pigs (author's transl)].

    abstract::The exploratory behavior of pigs was studied in two successive daily 20-mn sessions in a two-compartment box by counting the number of crossings from one compartment to the other and observing the activity patterns. Injection of 1 mg/kg diazepam before the first session increased the number of crossings without affect...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dantzer R

    更新日期:1977-03-16 00:00:00

  • Trait differences in response to chronic nicotine and nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Understanding an individual's vulnerability to drug addiction has important implications for the development of effective personal treatment plans. Although theories acknowledge impulsive behaviour as a key component of drug addiction, little is known about the influence of trait impulsivity on an individu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kolokotroni KZ,Rodgers RJ,Harrison AA

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of chronic buprenorphine on intake of heroin and cocaine in rats and its effects on nucleus accumbens dopamine levels during self-administration.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Buprenorphine reduces both heroin and cocaine intake in opioid addicts, but the mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES:To determine the effects of chronic buprenorphine treatment on intake of heroin and/or cocaine and measure nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) levels during self-administration. METHODS:In...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sorge RE,Stewart J

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Smokers deprived of cigarettes for 72 h: effect of nicotine patches on craving and withdrawal.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Research on the effects of nicotine abstinence and nicotine replacement has not provided consistent information about the impact of replacement therapies on tobacco withdrawal and craving. OBJECTIVE:. This study investigated craving and withdrawal symptoms over a 72-h period of abstinence from cigarettes. M...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Teneggi V,Tiffany ST,Squassante L,Milleri S,Ziviani L,Bye A

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of perinatal anoxia on the acute locomotor response to repeated amphetamine administration in adult rats.

    abstract::We examined the possibility that anoxia at birth can alter behavioral sensitization to amphetamine during adulthood. Male rats born either vaginally or by Cesarean section with or without an additional 15-min period of anoxia received five once-daily injections of either d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle or n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brake WG,Boksa P,Gratton A

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • The D2 antagonist sulpiride modulates the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli in healthy volunteers.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Animal studies indicate that dopamine pathways in the ventral striatum code for the motivational salience of both rewarding and aversive stimuli, but evidence for this mechanism in humans is less established. We have developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) model which permits examination of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McCabe C,Huber A,Harmer CJ,Cowen PJ

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of bd and tid dose regimens of quetiapine (Seroquel) in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    abstract::Quetiapine (Seroquel, ICI 204,636) is an atypical antipsychotic that is effective in the treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and has a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. The compound has a relatively short plasma elimination half-life (approximately 7 h). However, since dop...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: King DJ,Link CG,Kowalcyk B

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in response to the aversive properties and activity effects of low dose ethanol in LAS and HAS selectively bred rats.

    abstract::Rats selectively bred for high alcohol sleep times (HAS) and those that are less affected (LAS) by hypnotic doses (3.0-3.6 g/kg) of ethanol were tested for differential responses to the aversive effects of 1.0 g/kg ethanol in a conditioned place preference task. Likewise, the effects of 0.3-1.0 g/kg ethanol on spontan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schechter MD,Krimmer EC

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Response to selection for ethanol-induced locomotor activation: genetic analyses and selection response characterization.

    abstract::Selectively bred FAST mice are highly susceptible, while SLOW mice are less susceptible, to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol. Heritability estimates indicate that approximately 15% of the variance in the FAST lines is of additive genetic origin, while low susceptibility is ostensibly nonheritable. Inbreeding...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Phillips TJ,Burkhart-Kasch S,Terdal ES,Crabbe JC

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Individual and morphological differences in the behavioural response to apomorphine in rats.

    abstract::The topography of stereotyped behaviour produced by apomorphine in rats was studied by using either a scoring system, based on observation in a wire cage, or by quantification of horizontal and vertical activities, and of the total distances run in an open field, using an automatic recording system. The latter design ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Havemann U,Magnus B,Möller HG,Kuschinsky K

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular dopamine, acetylcholine, and activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors after selective breeding for cocaine self-administration in rats.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The low self-administration (LS)/Kgras (LS) and high self-administration (HS)/Kgras (HS) rat lines were generated by selective breeding for low- and high-intravenous cocaine self-administration, respectively, from a common outbred Wistar stock (Crl:WI). This trait has remained stable after 13 generations of b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu H,Das S,Sturgill M,Hodgkinson C,Yuan Q,Goldman D,Grasing K

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabinoid agonists differentially substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in C57BL/6J mice.

    abstract:RATIONALE:A variety of behavioral procedures have been developed to assess cannabinoid activity in mice; however, the feasibility of establishing Delta(9)-THC as a discriminative stimulus in mice has not been documented. OBJECTIVE:One goal was to establish Delta(9)-THC as a discriminative stimulus in mice; after havin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McMahon LR,Ginsburg BC,Lamb RJ

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Is the forced swimming test a suitable model for revealing antidepressant activity?

    abstract::The forced swimming test is reviewed. This test appears to be suitable for detecting antidepressant activity in rats but not in mice. Difference in experimental procedure may account for the different sensitivity to drugs of the two animal species. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Borsini F,Meli A

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reversal of stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats by the synthetic nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist, Ro 64-6198.

    abstract:RATIONALE:(1S,3aS)-8-(2,3,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one (Ro 64-6198), a non-peptidic agonist for the opioid receptor-like1 (ORL1) receptor, exhibits anxiolytic properties in stressful conditions. OBJECTIVE:The present study was aimed at evaluating whether activation of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ciccocioppo R,Biondini M,Antonelli L,Wichmann J,Jenck F,Massi M

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental catalepsy is both enhanced and disrupted by apomorphine.

    abstract::In mice that were scored for the length of time they remained immobile in awkward postures (cataleptic) on an inclined wire grid, a large IP dose of pilocarpine (80 mg/kg) caused a clear catalepsy, which was prevented by both dopamine agonists that were tested, apomorphine (4 or 8 mg/kg, IP) and bromocriptine (8 mg/kg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klemm WR

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cross-site strain comparison of pharmacological deficits in the touchscreen visual discrimination test.

    abstract::The low rate of success for identifying effective treatments for cognitive dysfunction has prompted recent efforts to improve pharmaceutical discovery and development. In particular, investigators have emphasized improving translation from pre-clinical to clinical research. A specific area of focus has been touchscree...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohler EG,Ding Z,Rueter LE,Chapin D,Young D,Kozak R

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of selective dopamine D1-like and D2-like agonists on prepulse inhibition of startle in inbred C3H/HeJ, SPRET/EiJ, and CAST/EiJ mice.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and locomotor activity have been used to investigate the effects of antipsychotic and stimulant drugs and their underlying dopaminergic mechanisms. Whereas D2-like agonists consistently decreased PPI and increased locomotion in rats in previous studies, we recently reported that thes...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ralph RJ,Caine SB

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of exercise on cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Smokers show heightened activation toward smoking-related stimuli and experience increased cravings which can precipitate smoking cessation relapse. Exercise can be effective for modulating cigarette cravings and attenuating reactivity to smoking cues, but the mechanism by which these effects occur remains un...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Janse Van Rensburg K,Taylor A,Benattayallah A,Hodgson T

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Increased relative risk of acute pancreatitis in zolpidem users.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between zolpidem use and the risk of acute pancreatitis in Taiwan. METHODS:In this population-based case-control study using the database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program from 2000 to 2011, we selected 4535 subjects aged 20-84 years ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai SW,Lin CL,Liao KF

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Decreases in recollective experience following acute alcohol: a dose-response study.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Acute alcohol intoxication induces a selective impairment of recognition memory associated with conscious recollection whilst recognition based on familiarity is left intact. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to further elucidate the acute effects of alcohol on recognition memory by assessing three different doses of alco...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bisby JA,Leitz JR,Morgan CJ,Curran HV

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nicotine attenuates place aversion induced by naloxone in single-dose, morphine-treated rats.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Acute physical dependence refers to the withdrawal syndrome precipitated by an opioid antagonist administered several hours after either a single dose or a short-term infusion of an opioid agonist. OBJECTIVES:We examined the mechanism of nicotine-induced attenuation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Araki H,Kawakami KY,Jin C,Suemaru K,Kitamura Y,Nagata M,Futagami K,Shibata K,Kawasaki H,Gomita Y

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Augmented responses to morphine and cocaine in mice with a 12-lipoxygenase gene disruption.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Recent studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway selectively blocks opioid inhibition of GABAergic synaptic currents. A similar mechanism has been shown for the regulation of glutamate release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) during acute withdrawal from morphine, al...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walters CL,Wang BC,Godfrey M,Sun D,Funk CD,Blendy JA

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Place conditioning with dopamine D1 and D2 agonists injected peripherally or into nucleus accumbens.

    abstract::The conditioned place preference technique was used to assess the affective properties of the direct dopamine D1 agonist, SKF38393, and the direct D2 agonist, LY171555 (quinpirole). A three compartment apparatus was used: the animals' pre-experimental preference for the two choice compartments was equal and, within ea...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White NM,Packard MG,Hiroi N

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological indices of acute effects of ethanol on involuntary attention shifting.

    abstract::Dose-related effects of ethanol (placebo, 0.30, and 0.60 g/kg) on behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) indices of involuntary attention shifting of audition were investigated. ERPs were recorded from 11 healthy social drinkers during a forced-choice reaction-time (RT) task. Subjects were presented with 1...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Jääskeläinen IP,Schröger E,Näätänen R

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Microtopography of fear memory consolidation and extinction retrieval within prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    abstract:RATIONALE:The precise neural circuitry that encodes fear memory and its extinction within the brain are not yet fully understood. Fearful memories can be persistent, resistant to extinction, and associated with psychiatric disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigated the microtopog...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacques A,Chaaya N,Hettiarachchi C,Carmody ML,Beecher K,Belmer A,Chehrehasa F,Bartlett S,Battle AR,Johnson LR

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clozapine and olanzapine, but not haloperidol, reverse cold-induced and lipopolysaccharide-induced cutaneous vasoconstriction.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Reduction of body temperature is used as predictor of psychotropic drug action. The cutaneous circulation functions as a heat-loss component of temperature regulation. Clozapine and olanzapine reverse hyperthermia and sympathetically-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction induced by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymetha...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blessing WW

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the metabolism of the three antidepressants amitriptyline, imipramine, and chlorimipramine in vitro in rat liver microsomes.

    abstract::The metabolism of the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline (AMI), imipramine (IMI), chlorimipramine (CMI) and some of their metabolites was studied in vitro in isolated liver microsomes of female Spraque-Dawley rats. Nine metabolites of AMI, seven metabolites of IMI, and 11 metabolites of CMI were quantitatively de...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krüger R,Hölzl G,Kuss HJ,Schefold L

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Self-administration of cocaine on a progressive ratio schedule in rats: dose-response relationship and effect of haloperidol pretreatment.

    abstract::Intravenous cocaine self-administration behavior in rats was investigated using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. The first response on the lever each day produced a drug infusion, whereupon the requirements of the schedule escalated with each reinforcement until the behavior extinguished. The final ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roberts DC,Loh EA,Vickers G

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00