Control of locomotion in marine mollusk Clione limacina. VIII. Cerebropedal neurons.

Abstract:

:1. The pteropod mollusk Clione limacina swims by rhythmical oscillations of two wings, and its spatial orientation during locomotion is determined by tail movements. The majority of neurons responsible for generation of the wing and tail movements are located in the pedal ganglia. On the other hand, the majority of sensory inputs that affect wing and tail movements project to the cerebral ganglia. The goal of the present study was to identify and characterize cerebropedal neurons involved in the control of the swimming central generator or motor neurons of wing and tail muscles. Cerebropedal neurons affecting locomotion-controlling mechanisms are located in the rostromedial (CPA neurons), caudomedial (CPB neurons), and central (CPC neurons) zones of the cerebral ganglia. According to their morphology and effects on pedal mechanisms, 10 groups of the cerebropedal neurons can be distinguished. 2. CPA1 neurons project through the ipsilateral cerebropedal connective to both pedal ganglia. Activation of a CPA1 by current injection resulted in speeding up of the locomotor rhythm and intensification of the firing of the locomotor motor neurons. 3. CPA2 neurons send numerous thin fibers into the ipsi- and contralateral pedal and pleural ganglia through the cerebropedal and cerebropleural connectives. They strongly inhibit the wing muscle motor neurons and, to a lesser extent, slow down the locomotor rhythm. 4. CPB1 neurons project through the contralateral cerebropedal connective to both pedal ganglia. They activate the locomotor generator. 5. CPB2 neurons also project, through the contralateral cerebropedal connective, to both pedal ganglia. They affect wing muscle motor neurons. 6. CPB3 neurons have diverse morphology: they project to the pedal ganglia either through the ipsilateral cerebropedal connective, or through the contralateral one, or through both of them. They affect putative motor neurons of the tail muscles. 7. CPC1, CPC2, and CPC3 neurons project through the ipsilateral cerebropedal connective to both pedal ganglia. They activate the locomotor generator. 8. CPC4 and CPC5 neurons project through the contralateral cerebropedal connective to the contralateral pedal ganglia. They activate the locomotor generator. 9. Serotonergic neurons were mapped in the CNS of Clione by immunohistochemical methods. Location and size of cells in two groups of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral ganglia appeared to be similar to those of CPA1 and CPB1 neurons. This finding suggests a possible mechanism for serotonin's ability to exert a strong excitatory action on the locomotor generator of Clione. 10. The role of different groups of cerebropedal neurons is discussed in relation to different forms of Clione's behavior in which locomotor activity is involved.

journal_name

J Neurophysiol

authors

Panchin YV,Popova LB,Deliagina TG,Orlovsky GN,Arshavsky YI

doi

10.1152/jn.1995.73.5.1912

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1995-05-01 00:00:00

pages

1912-23

issue

5

eissn

0022-3077

issn

1522-1598

journal_volume

73

pub_type

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