Structure of the pineal gland in the adult cat.


:The ultrastructure of the pineal gland in the adult cat is described and compared with that of other mammals. Connective tissue spaces showed capillaries with nonfenestrated endothelia and numerous unmyelinated nerve fibers. In the proximal region of the gland, myelinated nerve fibers coming from the anterior commissure were also found. Cat pinealocytes showed a nucleus with prominent nucleoli, a well developed Golgi apparatus, centrioles, granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, abundant microtubuli and enlarged mitochondria. Pinealocytes showed several long processes with bulbous endings filled with clear vesicles and scarce "synaptic" ribbons. Pineal astrocytes and their processes were characterized by the presence of abundant filaments.


J Pineal Res


Boya J,Calvo JL,Rancaño D




Has Abstract


1995-03-01 00:00:00












  • Potentiation of antiproliferative effects of tamoxifen and ethanol on mouse hepatoma cells by melatonin: possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of apoptosis.

    abstract::Melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland, is in focus of many research areas because of its ability to scavenge free oxygen radicals and thereby protect cells and tissues from radical damage. Some studies suggest melatonin may be a possible therapeutic agent with potential clinical applications again...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hermann R,Podhajsky S,Jungnickel S,Lerchl A

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prevention of ERK activation involves melatonin-induced G(1) and G(2) /M phase arrest in the human osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19.

    abstract::Melatonin regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling pathways. The MAPK family mainly includes extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our previous study documented that melatonin delays osteoblast proliferation; however, the mechanism of action of ...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu L,Zhu Y,Xu Y,Reiter RJ

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Exogenous melatonin modifies the circadian rhythm but does not increase the level of some immune parameters in the chicken.

    abstract::The effect of daily injection of the pineal hormone melatonin and naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, on the circadian rhythm and the level of immune parameters (plaque forming cell [PFC] number, serum agglutinin titer, lymphoid gland weight, total white blood cells (WBC) and their fraction number, and serum lysozyme [L...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Skwarło-Sońta K,Thaela MJ,Midura M,Lech B,Głuchowska B,Drela N,Kozłowska E,Kowalczyk R

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of pinealectomy and autonomic denervation on crypt cell proliferation in the rat small intestine.

    abstract::Previously it has been found that pinealectomy in rats was associated with increased small bowel crypt cell proliferation. The hypothalamus is thought to play a role in the neural control of crypt cell proliferation and the pineal gland is known to be functionally connected with this component of the autonomic nervous...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Callaghan BD

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Role of postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the beta-adrenergic stimulation of melatonin production in the Syrian hamster pineal gland in organ culture.

    abstract::The role played by postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stimulation of pineal melatonin production was investigated in the Syrian hamster. The studies were conducted using organ cultured pineal glands collected from both anatomically intact and superior cervical ganglionectomized hamsters. Results obtained i...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santana C,Guerrero JM,Reiter RJ,Menendez-Pelaez A

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin effects on bone: potential use for the prevention and treatment for osteopenia, osteoporosis, and periodontal disease and for use in bone-grafting procedures.

    abstract::An important role for melatonin in bone formation and restructuring has emerged, and studies demonstrate the multiple mechanisms for these beneficial actions. Statistical analysis shows that even with existing osteoporotic therapies, bone-related disease, and mortality are on the rise, creating a huge financial burden...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maria S,Witt-Enderby PA

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of melatonin on the cell cycle kinetics and "estrogen-rescue" of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    abstract::Melatonin has been shown to have a direct inhibitory action on the proliferation of estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture. In the present study, we examined by flow cytometry whether this inhibitory effect might be exerted on the G1 phase of the cell cycle, thus causing a transition delay into...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cos S,Blask DE,Lemus-Wilson A,Hill AB

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of subchronic and chronic melatonin treatment on somatostatin binding and its effects on adenylyl cyclase activity in the rat frontoparietal cortex.

    abstract::Melatonin and somatostatin are known to exert similar effects on locomotor activity. We have previously demonstrated that acute melatonin treatment regulates somatostatin receptor function in the rat frontoparietal cortex. However, the effects of subchronic and chronic melatonin treatment on the somatostatin receptor-...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Izquierdo-Claros RM,Boyano-Adánez Mdel C,Arilla-Ferreiro E

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Persistence of photic evoked responses in pineal gland after its pedunculotomy and superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    abstract::The present study analyzes the participation of pineal stalk and superior cervical ganglia (SCG) in the conduction of photic evoked potentials (PEP) to the pineal body (PB) in unanesthetized freely moving rats implanted with semimicroelectrodes. The PEPs were recorded in PB, lateral hypothalamus (LH), and habenular co...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barajas-López C,Barrientos-Martinez MA,Reyes-Vázquez C

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of different nocturnal illuminances on melatonin, prolactin, and gonadotropins in male rats.

    abstract::We studied the role of nocturnal illuminance as a possible regulatory factor in the production and secretion of reproductive hormones. Adult male rats were kept under artificial lighting conditions (LD 12/12 hours) where the daily illuminance was 520-550 lx and the nocturnal illuminance 0, less than 0.1, or 1-1.5 lx. ...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laakso ML,Porkka-Heiskanen T,Alila A,Kajander S,Stenberg D,Johansson G

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin, hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidative damage, and aging: a hypothesis.

    abstract::Melatonin is a very potent and efficient endogenous radical scavenger. The pineal indolamine reacts with the highly toxic hydroxyl radical and provides on-site protection against oxidative damage to biomolecules within every cellular compartment. Melatonin acts as a primary non-enzymatic antioxidative defense against ...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Poeggeler B,Reiter RJ,Tan DX,Chen LD,Manchester LC

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin prevents oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced increase of myosin light chain kinase activation and expression in HUVEC through ERK/MAPK signal transduction.

    abstract::Melatonin, the main secretary product of the pineal gland, is potentially effective in the prevention of a number of diseases in which free radical processes are involved. The development of hypercholesterolemia is a multifactorial process in which elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels play a centr...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu HQ,Cheng XW,Xiao LL,Jiang ZK,Zhou Q,Gui SY,Wei W,Wang Y

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Malaria: therapeutic implications of melatonin.

    abstract::Malaria, which infects more than 300 million people annually, is a serious disease. Epidemiological surveys indicate that of those who are affected, malaria will claim the lives of more than one million individuals, mostly children. There is evidence that the synchronous maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasi...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Srinivasan V,Spence DW,Moscovitch A,Pandi-Perumal SR,Trakht I,Brown GM,Cardinali DP

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Histopathologic features of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in blind-underfed, blind-anosmic, and blind cold-exposed rats: influence of the pineal gland.

    abstract::The influence of the pineal gland on the histopathologic changes induced in mammary glands by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) has been studied. To achieve the maximum expression of pineal action in animals, 28-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to one of the following treatments: blindness + olf...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cos S,Garijo F,Corral J,Mediavilla MD,Sánchez-Barceló EJ

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic melatonin consumption prevents obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and protects the heart against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in a prediabetic model of diet-induced obesity.

    abstract::Obesity, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. Melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant, has powerful cardioprotective effects in lean animals but its efficacy in obesity is unknown. We investigated the effects of...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nduhirabandi F,Du Toit EF,Blackhurst D,Marais D,Lochner A

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin improves mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and liver morphology in ob/ob mice.

    abstract::In previous studies, we have shown that mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity is decreased in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and in ob/ob mice and that peroxynitrite plays a pathogenic role. The present study examined whether melatonin, a peroxynitrite scavenger, prevents: (i) the in vitro effects...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solís-Muñoz P,Solís-Herruzo JA,Fernández-Moreira D,Gómez-Izquierdo E,García-Consuegra I,Muñoz-Yagüe T,García Ruiz I

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effect of melatonin against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell death in neonatal rats.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine whether melatonin treatment would mitigate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in the developing retina following a hypoxic insult. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations, expression of vascular end...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaur C,Sivakumar V,Robinson R,Foulds WS,Luu CD,Ling EA

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Genome-wide profiling in melatonin-exposed human breast cancer cell lines identifies differentially methylated genes involved in the anticancer effect of melatonin.

    abstract::Epigenetic alterations have emerged as an important mechanism involved in tumorigenesis. The epigenetic impact of DNA methylation in various types of human cancer is not completely understood. Previously, we observed melatonin-induced differential expression of miRNA and miRNA-related genes in human breast cancer cell...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SE,Kim SJ,Yoon HJ,Yu SY,Yang H,Jeong SI,Hwang SY,Park CS,Park YS

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through attenuation of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein.

    abstract::Melatonin plays an important role in regulating circadian rhythms. It also acts as a potent antioxidant and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, although the exact action mechanism is not clear. The α2-HS-glycoprotein gene (AHSG) and its protein, fetuin-A (FETUA), are one of the hepatokines and are known to be asso...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heo JI,Yoon DW,Yu JH,Kim NH,Yoo HJ,Seo JA,Kim SG,Choi KM,Baik SH,Choi DS,Kim NH

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin improves endothelial function in vitro and prolongs pregnancy in women with early-onset preeclampsia.

    abstract::Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There have been no material advances in the treatment of preeclampsia for nearly 50 years. Combining in vitro studies and a clinical trial, we aimed to determine whether melatonin could be a useful adjuvant therapy. In a xanthine/x...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hobson SR,Gurusinghe S,Lim R,Alers NO,Miller SL,Kingdom JC,Wallace EM

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • The circadian rhythm of melatonin modulates the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in the rat.

    abstract::Melatonin, an antioxidant, protects the pancreas against acute inflammation but, although this indole is released mainly at night, no study has been undertaken to determine circadian changes of plasma melatonin levels and the severity of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare the severity of c...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaworek J,Konturek SJ,Tomaszewska R,Leja-Szpak A,Bonior J,Nawrot K,Palonek M,Stachura J,Pawlik WW

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin is required for H2 O2 - and NO-mediated defense signaling through MAPKKK3 and OXI1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    abstract::Melatonin influences plant innate immunity through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the most upstream MAPK component in melatonin signaling and the dependence of generation of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst on melatonin synthesis and signaling remain unclear. In this study, treatmen...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee HY,Back K

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone combination: does this treatment exert a synergistic effect during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection?

    abstract::Previous studies showed that melatonin or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances the immune response against parasitic pathogens. The present study investigated the in vitro activity of melatonin combined with DHEA in a period of 24 hr during the course of in vivo T. cruzi infection. The in vitro activity of melatonin...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuehn CC,Rodrigues Oliveira LG,Santos CD,Ferreira DS,Alonso Toldo MP,de Albuquerque S,do Prado JC Jr

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Modeling melanopsin-mediated effects of light on circadian phase, melatonin suppression, and subjective sleepiness.

    abstract::A physiologically based model of arousal dynamics is improved to incorporate the effects of the light spectrum on circadian phase resetting, melatonin suppression, and subjective sleepiness. To account for these nonvisual effects of light, melanopic irradiance replaces photopic illuminance that was used previously in ...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tekieh T,Lockley SW,Robinson PA,McCloskey S,Zobaer MS,Postnova S

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Responsiveness of pineal N-acetyltransferase and melatonin in the cotton rat exposed to either artificial or natural light at night.

    abstract::In three separate experiments, the effect of acute exposure to either artificial or natural light during darkness of pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content was studied in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). The exposure of animals to an artificial-light irradiance of 160,000 microW/cm2 during ...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nürnberger F,Joshi BN,Heinzeller T,Milin J,Reiter RJ

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain distribution of 14C-melatonin in rat: a biochemical and autoradiographic study.

    abstract::The distribution of 14C-Melatonin (14C-MT) after systemic injection was studied in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain of rats. Chromatographic analysis (thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography) indicated that the radioactivity from biological samples taken at various times fo...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vitte PA,Harthe C,Lestage P,Claustrat B,Bobillier P

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Age-related changes of neuronal responsiveness to melatonin in the striatum of sham-operated and pinealectomized rats.

    abstract::The age-related changes and the acute effects of intravenous melatonin on the activity of striatal neurons of 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month-old sham-operated and pinealectomized rats were investigated. There was a decline in responsiveness from 3- to 18-months of age, although in sham-pinealectomized rats the response...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castillo-Romero JL,Acuña-Castroviejo D,Escamaes G,Vives F

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of recombinant and endogenous mouse melatonin receptors by monoclonal antibodies targeting the C-terminal domain.

    abstract::Melatonin receptors play important roles in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, the immune system, depression, and type 2 diabetes development. Melatonin receptors are approved drug targets for insomnia, non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders, and major depressive disorders. In mammal...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cecon E,Ivanova A,Luka M,Gbahou F,Friederich A,Guillaume JL,Keller P,Knoch K,Ahmad R,Delagrange P,Solimena M,Jockers R

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Elevated production of melatonin in transgenic rice seeds expressing rice tryptophan decarboxylase.

    abstract::A major goal of plant biotechnology is to improve the nutritional qualities of crop plants through metabolic engineering. Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties, including potent antioxidant capability. To generate melatonin-rich rice plants, we first independently ov...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Byeon Y,Park S,Lee HY,Kim YS,Back K

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Morning urinary assessment of nocturnal melatonin secretion in older women.

    abstract::We evaluated the feasibility of using morning urine samples in epidemiological studies aimed at clarifying the relationship between nocturnal melatonin levels and breast cancer risk. Initially, a laboratory-based study of 29 women (40- 70 yr old) was performed to examine the correlation between plasma melatonin levels...

    journal_title:Journal of pineal research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cook MR,Graham C,Kavet R,Stevens RG,Davis S,Kheifets L

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00