Preparticipation sports examinations. Efficient risk assessment in children and adolescents.


:Whether preparticipation sports examinations are necessary and what they should include are matters of debate, especially in the young because of the low yield of new medical diagnoses. The goal of the examining physician is to determine whether the athlete is mentally, developmentally, and physically capable of safely competing in recreational and competitive sports. We recommend that examinations precede the start of an activity by 4 to 6 weeks and be done every 3 years. History taking should include parental input and a private interview with the athlete when possible. The specific areas of the body to be used in a particular sport should be emphasized in the physical examination, and the amount of contact and energy required should be considered. Abnormal findings should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out risk of injury or sudden death before approval to participate is granted.


Postgrad Med


Postgraduate medicine


Bratton RL,Agerter DC


Has Abstract


1995-08-01 00:00:00


123-6, 129-32










  • Office gynecology: fibroids-when not to operate.

    abstract::The mere presence of uterine fibroids is not, since qua non, an indication for their surgical removal. Knowing when not to operate is probably more important for the physician than knowing when to operate. It is easy to fall into diagnostic and therapeutic traps when uterine fibroids are known to be present, especiall...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Russell KP

    更新日期:1976-09-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal treatment of hypertension in African Americans. Reaching and maintaining target blood pressure goals.

    abstract::Treatment of hypertension in African Americans has special challenges, including a lack of objective trial data on which to base decisions and differing benefits and responses than with other patients. However, adequate control is possible and should be the goal of treating physicians. This article describes current "...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bakris GL,Ferdinand KC,Douglas JG,Sowers JR

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Managing community-acquired pneumonia. Factors to consider in outpatient care.

    abstract::Most patients with community-acquired pneumonia are treated as outpatients, and choice of therapy is usually empirical because the etiologic agent is unknown. Therapy should include coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. In geographic areas with highly resistant S pneumoniae, one of the newer fluoroquinolon...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Farber MO

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recognition and management.

    abstract::Elective resection and prosthetic graft replacement of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms 5 cm or more in diameter are dependable measures to counter the formidable threat of rupture. Operative mortality should be less than 5% among patients without severe associated disease. Those patients who have large aneurys...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hertzer NR,Beven EG

    更新日期:1977-02-01 00:00:00

  • Reversal agents in development for the new oral anticoagulants.

    abstract::The new oral anticoagulants have many advantages over vitamin K antagonists, but they are still associated with a troublesome incidence of major bleeding. Additionally, the absence of a reversal agent for the new oral anticoagulants is a barrier to their more widespread use. Currently, there are 3 potential reversal a...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Costin J,Ansell J,Laulicht B,Bakhru S,Steiner S

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • The suicidal patient. The primary care physician's role in evaluation and treatment.

    abstract::Evaluation of the suicidal patient involves careful consideration of risk factors, including attention to subtle clues from the history, and mental status examination. The most urgent decision for the physician to make is whether or not to insist on hospitalization. If the need for inpatient care is uncertain, a "no s...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith CW Jr,Bope ET

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Acute renal failure. 1. Classification, evaluation, and clinical consequences.

    abstract::Urinalysis and urine chemistries are most helpful in determining whether acute renal failure is due to a prerenal, renal, or postrenal cause. A plain film of the abdomen should be obtained, with ultrasound or computed tomography also being done if obstruction is suspected. When prerenal and postrenal causes have been ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harter HR,Martin KJ

    更新日期:1982-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs revisited.

    abstract::Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used to treat inflammatory pain for decades. More recently, newer NSAIDs were developed to target the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX), COX-2, with the aim of reducing gastrointestinal toxicity. While the COX-2 selective inhibitors were effective...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Walker C,Biasucci LM

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Who, me? An employee? The changing schemes of physician compensation.

    abstract::Politicians may have written a temporary obituary for healthcare reform, but as anyone in medicine knows, reform is alive and (debatably) well. Mergers, acquisitions, and practice changes are happening all across the land, and many a physician is going from being a small-business owner to being an employee. Difficult ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodeghero JA

    更新日期:1994-11-15 00:00:00

  • Tailoring therapy to a stroke patient's potential.

    abstract::Stroke survivors can be plagued by numerous medical complications, including aspiration pneumonia, heart disease, depression, and venous thromboembolism. Given the impairment already caused by stroke itself, these patients require careful management by a comprehensive rehabilitation team. Dr Harvey discusses common st...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harvey RL

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sarcoidosis presenting with posterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

    abstract::A young man with exertional dyspnea, maculopapular skin lesions, and generalized lymphadenopathy was found to have a posterior mediastinal density on a chest roentgenogram. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed on the basis of lymph node and skin biopsy findings, and corticosteroid therapy was started. After six months of treatme...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kutty CP,Varkey B

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fertility and cancer therapy.

    abstract::With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this me...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maguire LC

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the bleeding patient.

    abstract::The evaluation of the bleeding patient starts with the integration of data from the history and physical examination. From this results either one probable explanation that can easily be substatniated by laboratory studies or, as more commonly occurs in practice, several possibilities that are reasonable and must be i...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marengo-Rowe AJ,Leveson JE

    更新日期:1977-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence-based therapy for type 2 diabetes. The best and worst of times.

    abstract::Type 2 diabetes, which is increasing in prevalence, is a multifaceted disease that presents a challenge to the primary care physician. In this article, Drs Flemmer and Vinik review the significant findings of several important clinical trials and present a method of comprehensive staged management to improve the quali...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Flemmer MC,Vinik AI

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial or viral meningitis? Measuring lactate in CSF can help you know quickly.

    abstract::Measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a useful test when properly applied to the appropriate clinical situation and can offer information other CSF parameters cannot provide. Except for Gram's stain of CSF, lactate level is the most important CSF parameter in the early differentiation of viral (aseptic) ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bailey EM,Domenico P,Cunha BA

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Management of cancer pain. Safe, adequate analgesia to improve quality of life.

    abstract::Pain is one of the most common problems for cancer patients, and its management is often hindered by barriers created by patients and physicians alike. By avoiding potential barriers and understanding the principles of pain management and drug selection and titration provided here by Dr Hartmann and colleagues, physic...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hartmann LC,Zahasky KM,Grendahl DC

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transdermal estrogens in the changing landscape of hormone replacement therapy.

    abstract::Views and clinical practice on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for postmenopausal women have varied widely over the last several decades. The 1990s showed a dramatic decline in prescribing and only recently are prescription rates increasing again. Use of HRT is first line for women suffering from the symptoms of men...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beck KL,Anderson MC,Kirk JK

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Turkish doctors' cohort: healthy despite low screening.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors of Turkish doctors as compared with the general population and the frequency of compliance with preventive clinical practices among doctors. METHODS:This was an observational, prospective cohort study that enrolled gr...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Unal S,Tanriover MD,Ascioglu S,Demirkazik A,Ertenli I,Eskioglu E,Guler K,Kiraz S,Ozbakkaloglu M,Ozer B,Tukek T,Akyar S,Erdem Y

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of ischemic stroke. Lessons from clinical trials.

    abstract::The tools and methods of epidemiology, particularly the clinical trial, help guide the clinical practice of medicine. Dr Gorelick reviews the results of major clinical trials for prevention of transient cerebral ischemia and atherothrombotic stroke and assesses the effect of these findings on treatment. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gorelick PB

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic neck and shoulder pain. Focusing on myofascial origins.

    abstract::Chronic neck and shoulder pain is a complex, multifactorial problem. Often many months have passed since its onset. During this time the patient may have seen many physicians and tried many medications, some with abuse potential. Most patients are depressed and have lost their ability to cope with the stresses of dail...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grosshandler SL,Stratas NE,Toomey TC,Gray WF

    更新日期:1985-02-15 00:00:00

  • Primary localized breast cancer. Treatment options and informed choices.

    abstract::As understanding of the natural history of breast cancer has increased, radical mastectomy has given way to a preference for breast-sparing surgery and greater reliance on radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Probably the most important factor for selection of treatment is consultation with a multidisciplinary team ski...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schwade JG,Robinson DS,Love N

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease. When antacids aren't enough.

    abstract::Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a very common condition that is usually manifested by heartburn or regurgitation. Reflux esophagitis, caused by mucosal exposure to the backflow of caustic gastric contents, is primarily a result of lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Diagnostic workup varies but commonly include...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutherland JE

    更新日期:1991-05-15 00:00:00

  • Leprosy in the United States. Risks, recognition, regimens, resources.

    abstract::Although leprosy is increasing in incidence in the United States, it is confined almost entirely to immigrants from developing countries and their close contacts. While the clinical disease has not changed, leprosy has diffused more widely throughout the United States as a result of migration. Primary care physicians ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pust RE,Campos-Outcalt D

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Carcinoma of the lung. Who will benefit from surgery?

    abstract::The present staging methods for non-small-cell lung cancer provide little more than epidemiologic assessment of prognosis for grossly defined groups of patients. Except in extreme instances, physicians can tell patients very little about their prognosis or the need for supplemental therapy. More effective and less tox...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Landreneau RJ

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Counseling the parents of birth-defective children.

    abstract::Parents of a child who is diagnosed as defective face a crisis for which they are usually unprepared. They need an opportunity to work through their intense feelings. In addition, they need specific information about how to be of use to their child. Self-help groups composed of parents of children with a similar handi...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vernon M

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the iliac artery.

    abstract::Stenosis in the right common iliac artery of a 61-year-old man was manifested as pain in the right leg and foot and cyanosis of the second and third toes. Dilatation of the lesion was performed using a Grüntzig catheter; arteriography and measurement of femoral artery pressure confirmed a successful result. The patien...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mathis JM,Goncharenko V,Zelenik ME

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comorbidities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation or chronic idiopathic constipation: a review of the literature from the past decade.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) are common functional bowel disorders. Patients with IBS-C or CIC often present with ≥ 1 comorbidity that coincides with either of these conditions. These comorbidities may make underappreciated contributions to the ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nellesen D,Chawla A,Oh DL,Weissman T,Lavins BJ,Murray CW

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Osteomyelitis. A commonsense approach to antibiotic and surgical treatment.

    abstract::Therapy for osteomyelitis requires a multidisciplinary approach. A precise microbiologic diagnosis and adequate debridement of necrotic tissue are essential. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis usually responds to antimicrobial therapy. The presence of an abscess or a metaphyseal cavity in hematogenous osteomyelitis and ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bamberger DM

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Middle ear symptoms while flying. Ways to prevent a severe outcome.

    abstract::In an era when air travel is commonplace, middle ear block is not unusual. Educating patients about the simple techniques they can perform at the first signs of a problem may save a business trip or vacation from becoming a trip to the emergency department and a train ride home. The most important preventive measure i...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brown TP

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Macrolide and fluoroquinolone mediated cardiac arrhythmias: clinical considerations and comprehensive review.

    abstract::While there is evidence for cardiac arrhythmias associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, there is still debate among health care providers as to whether this risk of arrhythmia is overstated. A joint panel of the US Food and Drug Administration suggested that macrolide and fluoroquinolone labels need...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cornett E,Novitch MB,Kaye AD,Pann CA,Bangalore HS,Allred G,Bral M,Jhita PK,Kaye AM

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00