Acoustic startle and anticipatory anxiety in humans: effects of monaural right and left ear stimulation.


:The startle reflex elicited by binaural acoustic startle stimuli is potentiated by the threat of electric shock. The present study explored the lateralization of this fear-potentiated startle reflex effect using acoustic startle stimuli delivered binaurally or monaurally to the left or right ear and recorded from the left and right orbicularis oculi muscles. Consistent with previous results, the acoustic startle to binaural stimulation was potentiated during the anticipation of shock. This effect was also present for monaural stimulation but was greater when startle stimuli were delivered to the right than to the left ear. The results are discussed in terms of hemispheric lateralization during shock anticipation.






Grillon C,Davis M




Has Abstract


1995-03-01 00:00:00












  • Aerobic fitness, physical activity, and psychophysiological reactions to mental tasks.

    abstract::The association between aerobic fitness, exercise, and psychophysiological reactivity was assessed in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Seventy-five healthy but sedentary adults carried out a sub-maximal exercise test and easy and difficult problem solving tasks. Blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance le...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steptoe A,Moses J,Mathews A,Edwards S

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • A simple method for computer quantification of stage REM eye movement potentials.

    abstract::We describe a simple method for computer quantification of eye movement (EM) potentials during REM sleep. This method can be applied by investigators using either period-amplitude (PA) or Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral EEG analysis without special hardware or computer programming. It provides good correlations ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Tan X,Campbell IG,Feinberg I

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of short-term aerobic training versus CPAP therapy on heart rate variability in moderate to severe OSA patients.

    abstract::We compared the effects of 2-month CPAP or exercise training (ET) therapies on the autonomic balance in moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Thirty-nine OSA patients were divided into CPAP (n = 18) and ET (n = 21) groups, being further split into hypertensive ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cipriano LHC,Borges YG,Mill JG,Mauad H,Martins de Araújo MT,Gouvea SA

    更新日期:2021-01-22 00:00:00

  • One-year test-retest reliability of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to tones of increasing intensity.

    abstract::The one-year reliability of auditory evoked potential (AEP) amplitude/stimulus intensity slopes (obtained for single channels and with dipole source analysis) and the stability and criterion validity of alternative measures to the conventional AEPs augmenting/reducing (A/R) linear slope were explored in a sample of 21...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Carrillo-de-la-Peña MT

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Somatosensory mu activity reflects imagined pain intensity of others.

    abstract::In accordance with simulation theories of empathy, the somatosensory cortex is involved in the perception of pain of others. Cognitive processes, like perspective taking, can alter empathy-related activity within the somatosensory cortex. The current study investigates whether this modulation is caused by the imagined...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoenen M,Lübke KT,Pause BM

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Frontal asymmetry as a mediator and moderator of emotion: An updated review.

    abstract::For over 35 years, research has examined frontal alpha EEG asymmetry, discussed in terms of relative left frontal activity (rLFA) in the present review, as a concurrent and prospective marker of affective processing and psychopathology. Because rLFA may index (a) neural correlates of frontal asymmetry, or (b) psycholo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reznik SJ,Allen JJB

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preattentive extraction of abstract feature conjunctions from auditory stimulation as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    abstract::Brain mechanisms extracting invariant information from varying auditory inputs were studied using the mismatch-negativity (MMN) brain response. We wished to determine whether the preattentive sound-analysis mechanisms, reflected by MMN, are capable of extracting invariant relationships based on abstract conjunctions b...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Paavilainen P,Simola J,Jaramillo M,Näätänen R,Winkler I

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • The human brain processes hierarchical structures of meter and harmony differently: Evidence from musicians and nonmusicians.

    abstract::The processing of temporal structure has been widely investigated, but evidence on how the brain processes temporal and nontemporal structures simultaneously is sparse. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined how the brain responds to temporal (metric) and nontemporal (harmonic) structures in music simultan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun L,Thompson WF,Liu F,Zhou L,Jiang C

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac awareness and autonomic cardiac reactivity during emotional picture viewing and mental stress.

    abstract::This study investigated the relationship between autonomic cardiovascular reactivity and cardiac awareness during the following conditions: baseline, emotional picture viewing, mental stress, and heartbeat tracking. Cardiac parameters were examined by using power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability and impedan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herbert BM,Pollatos O,Flor H,Enck P,Schandry R

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intolerance of uncertainty and threat generalization: A replication and extension.

    abstract::Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic risk factor for internalizing disorders. Prior work has found that IU may be associated with either increased reactivity to threat or, alternatively, with decreased differential responding between threat and nonthreat/safety cues (i.e., threat generalization). For e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bauer EA,MacNamara A,Sandre A,Lonsdorf TB,Weinberg A,Morriss J,van Reekum CM

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Preceding stimulus sequence effects on the oddball-P300 in young and healthy older adults.

    abstract::The present study examined the mechanisms underlying stimulus sequence effects on the parietal P300 and frontal P3a elicited by infrequent targets in an oddball paradigm and compared these effects between young and older adults. Fifty young and 50 healthy older adults completed a simple visual oddball task including a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamp SM

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • You see what you have learned. Evidence for an interrelation of associative learning and visual selective attention.

    abstract::Besides visual salience and observers' current intention, prior learning experience may influence deployment of visual attention. Associative learning models postulate that observers pay more attention to stimuli previously experienced as reliable predictors of specific outcomes. To investigate the impact of learning ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Feldmann-Wüstefeld T,Uengoer M,Schubö A

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Saccadic tasks are widely used to study cognitive processes, effects of pharmacological treatments, and mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. In genetic studies, it is assumed that saccadic endophenotypes are traits. While internal consistency and temporal stability of saccadic performance is high for most of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meyhöfer I,Bertsch K,Esser M,Ettinger U

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between developmental changes in error-related brain activity and executive functions in early childhood.

    abstract::Behavioral evidence indicates that skills associated with children's cognitive control (e.g., response inhibition and attentional control) undergo rapid development during early childhood. A particularly important time is the transition to elementary school. Yet, at present, relatively little is known about developmen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grammer JK,Gehring WJ,Morrison FJ

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Load-dependent modulation of alpha oscillations during working memory encoding and retention in young and older adults.

    abstract::Working memory (WM) is vulnerable to age-related decline, particularly under high loads. Visual alpha oscillations contribute to WM performance in younger adults, and although alpha decreases in power and frequency with age, it is unclear if alpha activity supports WM in older adults. We recorded electroencephalograph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sghirripa S,Graetz L,Merkin A,Rogasch NC,Semmler JG,Goldsworthy MR

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Genome-wide scans of genetic variants for psychophysiological endophenotypes: introduction to this special issue of Psychophysiology.

    abstract::This special issue addresses the heritability and molecular genetic basis of 17 putative endophenotypes involving resting EEG power, P300 event-related potential amplitude, electrodermal orienting and habituation, antisaccade eye tracking, and affective modulation of the startle eye blink. These measures were collecte...




    authors: Iacono WG

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • An ERP developmental study of repetition priming by auditory novel stimuli.

    abstract::Event-related potentials were recorded from participants 5-7, 9-11, 14-16, and 22-28 years old during an auditory novelty oddball task. In this task, stimuli about which the participant is not instructed (i.e., novel or uncategorized) typically elicit a more frontally oriented P3 scalp topography (novelty P3). In cont...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cycowicz YM,Friedman D,Rothstein M

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Tracking the voluntary control of auditory spatial attention with event-related brain potentials.

    abstract::A lateralized event-related potential (ERP) component elicited by attention-directing cues (ADAN) has been linked to frontal-lobe control but is often absent when spatial attention is deployed in the auditory modality. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ERP activity associated with frontal-lobe control of auditory sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Störmer VS,Green JJ,McDonald JJ

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of humor-related communication elements in natural dyadic interactions on interpersonal physiological synchrony.

    abstract::Evidence suggests that in dyadic conversations some alignment occurs at the physiological level, but relatively little is known about the conditions that may facilitate physiological synchrony of two interlocutors. In the present interdisciplinary study, the impact of specific linguistic features of ongoing dialogues-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lackner HK,Feyaerts K,Rominger C,Oben B,Schwerdtfeger A,Papousek I

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in negative affective response during nicotine withdrawal.

    abstract::This study examined physiological indicants of the neurobiological mediators of negative affect during acute nicotine withdrawal. Eighty subjects (41 male) were assigned to one of four groups (24-h deprived or nondeprived dependent smokers, occasional smokers, and nonsmokers) and participated in an instructed fear con...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hogle JM,Curtin JJ

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • After the P3: late executive processes in stimulus categorization.

    abstract::Two experiments examined the hypothesis that dual systems of stimulus evaluation for categorization can be observed in event-related potentials: one whose duration is indexed by the latency of the P3 component, and a second evident in a later frontal potential. Subjects categorized artificial animals by a "two out of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folstein JR,van Petten C

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Postauricular and superior auricular reflex modulation during emotional pictures and sounds.

    abstract::The postauricular reflex is a relatively new psychophysiological measure of appetitive emotional processing during picture viewing. However, the degree to which other auricular (i.e., superior and anterior auricular) muscles might exhibit reflexive activity congruent with that found in the postauricular muscle has not...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benning SD

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sensitivity of medial frontal cortex to response and nonresponse conflict.

    abstract::The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) holds a prominent place in models of the neural architecture supporting cognitive control and conflict processing. The findings of empirical and computational work lead to the prediction that the ACC is sensitive to response conflict and insensitive to nonresponse conflict. We teste...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: West R,Bowry R,McConville C

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Temporary inhibitory tagging at previously attended locations: evidence from event-related potentials.

    abstract::Recent studies propose that a mechanism termed "inhibitory tagging" acts upon the processing of the target at the attended location by temporarily blocking the stimulus-response mapping. Here we combined the cue-target paradigm with the Stroop task and measured event-related potential (ERP) responses to the color of a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang Y,Zhou X,Zhang M

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Startle reflex facilitation as a function of classical eyeblink conditioning in humans.

    abstract::I investigated whether classical eyeblink conditioning increases the activating effect of the conditional stimulus (CS) on the relevant alpha motoneuron pool in the facial nucleus. The activating effect was measured by the reflex modification method, where startle reflexes, sharing the facial nerve motor pathway with ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flaten MA

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • Resonances in the cardiovascular system caused by rhythmical muscle tension.

    abstract::Paced 0.1 Hz breathing causes high-amplitude HR oscillation, triggering resonance in the cardiovascular system (CVS). This oscillation is considered to be a primary therapeutic factor in HRV biofeedback treatments. This study examined whether rhythmical skeletal muscle tension (RSMT) can also cause 0.1 Hz resonance in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaschillo EG,Vaschillo B,Pandina RJ,Bates ME

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Psychophysiological arousal and inter- and intraindividual differences in risk-sensitive decision making.

    abstract::The current study assessed peripheral responses during decision making under explicit risk, and tested whether intraindividual variability in choice behavior can be explained by fluctuations in peripheral arousal. Electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) were monitored in healthy volunteers (N = 68) during the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Studer B,Scheibehenne B,Clark L

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neural correlations of the influence of self-relevance on moral decision-making involving a trade-off between harm and reward.

    abstract::Although economists have suggested that humans generally prioritize maximizing their own self-interest rather than others' when distributing rewards, recent psychological studies have shown that people are hyperaltruistic when allocating physical harm to themselves and others during moral decision-making. However, lit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhan Y,Xiao X,Tan Q,Li J,Fan W,Chen J,Zhong Y

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular effects of brief mindfulness meditation among perfectionists experiencing failure.

    abstract::Research links perfectionism, the tendency to hold and pursue unrealistically high standards, to negative mental health outcomes such as eating disorders, anxiety, and depression. Previous research used high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) to measure recovery from stress during a mindfulness meditation in pe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koerten HR,Watford TS,Dubow EF,O'Brien WH

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac responses to phobia-relevant and disgust-specific emotion provocation in blood-injection-injury phobia with and without fainting history.

    abstract::The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remai...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simon E,Meuret AE,Ritz T

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00