Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.


:The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites.


Lioy PJ




Has Abstract


1995-04-01 00:00:00








103 Suppl 3


  • Utilization of DNA-protein cross-links as a biomarker of chromium exposure.

    abstract::Human exposure to carcinogenic Cr(VI) compounds is found among workers in a large number of professional groups, and it can also occur through environmental pollution. A significant number of toxic waste sites contain Cr as a major contaminant. In this paper we summarize our efforts to apply measurements of DNA-protei...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhitkovich A,Voitkun V,Kluz T,Costa M

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • A brief survey of butadiene health effects: a role for metabolic differences.

    abstract::1,3-Butadiene is a major monomer in the rubber and plastics industry and is one of the highest-production industrial chemicals in the United States. Although not highly acutely toxic to rodents, inhalation of concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm causes tumors in mice. Butadiene is oncogenic in rats, but much higher expos...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Birnbaum LS

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Polymorphisms in iron homeostasis genes and urinary cadmium concentrations among nonsmoking women in Argentina and Bangladesh.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cadmium (Cd) is a human toxicant and carcinogen. Genetic variation might affect long-term accumulation. Cd is absorbed via iron transporters. OBJECTIVES:We evaluated the impact of iron homeostasis genes [divalent metal transporter 1 (SLC11A2), transferrin (TF), transferrin receptors (TFR2 and TFRC), and fer...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rentschler G,Kippler M,Axmon A,Raqib R,Ekström EC,Skerfving S,Vahter M,Broberg K

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Opportunities and Challenges for Personal Heat Exposure Research.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES:The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion o...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuras ER,Richardson MB,Calkins MM,Ebi KL,Hess JJ,Kintziger KW,Jagger MA,Middel A,Scott AA,Spector JT,Uejio CK,Vanos JK,Zaitchik BF,Gohlke JM,Hondula DM

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • The U.S. EPA Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children: a research agenda.

    abstract::On 15-16 September 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the Conference on Preventable Causes of Cancer in Children. The conference was convened to examine rising trends in reported incidence of childhood cancer and the association of these trends with environmental exposures. This paper summarizes ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives



    authors: Carroquino MJ,Galson SK,Licht J,Amler RW,Perera FP,Claxton LD,Landrigan PJ

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Acrolein depletes the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in sensory nerves in rat respiratory tract.

    abstract::The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Springall DR,Edginton JA,Price PN,Swanston DW,Noel C,Bloom SR,Polak JM

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Occupational Pesticide Use and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Agricultural Health Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Agricultural work and occupational pesticide use have been associated with increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer. However, few prospective studies have investigated links to specific pesticides. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the lifetime use of individual pesticides an...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andreotti G,Beane Freeman LE,Shearer JJ,Lerro CC,Koutros S,Parks CG,Blair A,Lynch CF,Lubin JH,Sandler DP,Hofmann JN

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Metal speciation in environmental and biological systems.

    abstract::Metal ions form complexes with naturally occurring complexing agents or ligands released from industrial activity. The metal complexes are thereby mobilized and transported in environmental and biological systems. The impact of such metal complexes depends on the metal complex species that are kinetically and thermody...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernando Q

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of chlorocamphene on the isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase in rat serum and liver.

    abstract::Rats were used to study the general activity and the isoenzyme spectrum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during single-instance and long-term introduction of polychlorocamphene. Total lactate dehydrogenase activity decreases in the liver during the single-instance introduction of half the LD50 (120 mg/kg). The isoenzyme...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuz'minskaya UA,Alekhina SM

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and tumor promotion in liver.

    abstract::Chronic exposure of rodents to high dose levels of drugs, food additives and environmental chemicals frequently results in liver enlargement. Several of these compounds have been found to enhance the incidence of liver tumors in animals briefly exposed previously to hepatocarcinogens. Accordingly, it has been advanced...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kunz HW,Tennekes HA,Port RE,Schwartz M,Lorke D,Schaude G

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.

    abstract::This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 4...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pichini S,Basagaña XB,Pacifici R,Garcia O,Puig C,Vall O,Harris J,Zuccaro P,Segura J,Sunyer J

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Consequences of the AF-2 incident in Japan.

    abstract::The discovery of the potent mutagenicity of AF-2, which was once used in Japan as a food preservative, has exerted a great influence not only on screening procedures for carcinogenic compounds but also on legislative approaches to mutagenic substances. It promoted the synthesis of exceedingly sensitive and reliable te...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tazima Y

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mycotoxins: toxicity, carcinogenicity, and the influence of various nutritional conditions.

    abstract::Toxicologic diseases of man and animals, associated with molds growing on foods, have been recognized for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have these mycotoxicoses received the attention of many laboratories and skilled scientists around the world in a broad inter-disciplinary effort. This review covers the l...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Newberne PM

    更新日期:1974-12-01 00:00:00

  • Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. IV. Influence on the oxygen-binding properties of guinea pig blood.

    abstract::Whole blood oxygen equilibrium curves (O2 ECs), blood buffer lines, and several hematologic properties were determined for adult guinea pigs exposed to 700 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 15 min. MIC inhalation effected a significant reduction of blood O2 affinity; the half-saturation pressure (P50) at 38 degrees C in...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maginniss LA,Szewczak JM,Troup CM

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Chelation of cadmium.

    abstract::The toxicity of cadmium is determined by chelation reactions: in vivo, Cd2+ exists exclusively in coordination complexes with biological ligands, or with administered chelating agents. The Cd2+ ion has some soft character, but it is not a typical soft ion. It has a high degree of polarizability, and its complexes with...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersen O

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Human cell exposure assays of Bacillus thuringiensis commercial insecticides: production of Bacillus cereus-like cytolytic effects from outgrowth of spores.

    abstract::Most contemporary bioinsecticides are derived from scaled-up cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis (Bti) and kurstaki (Btk), whose particulate fractions contain mostly B. thuringiensis spores (> 10(12)/L) and proteinaceous aggregates, including crystal-like parasporal inclusion bodies (PIB). Based ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tayabali AF,Seligy VL

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    abstract::Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subs...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Markaverich BM,Webb B,Densmore CL,Gregory RR

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    abstract::In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extrac...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arrieta DE,Ontiveros CC,Li WW,Garcia JH,Denison MS,McDonald JD,Burchiel SW,Washburn BS

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Gestational and lactational exposure of rats to xenoestrogens results in reduced testicular size and sperm production.

    abstract::This study assessed whether exposure of male rats to two estrogenic, environmental chemicals, 4-octylphenol (OP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) during gestation or during the first 21 days of postnatal life, affected testicular size or spermatogenesis in adulthood (90-95 days of age). Chemicals were administered via...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharpe RM,Fisher JS,Millar MM,Jobling S,Sumpter JP

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of benzene-induced leukemia predicted from the Pliofilm cohort.

    abstract::This report updates the risk assessment by Crump and Allen for benzene-induced leukemia that was based on a cohort exposed to benzene in the manufacture of Pliofilm. The present study derives new risk estimates using data from follow-up through 1987 (whereas the earlier assessment only had follow-up available through ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crump KS

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of persistent organic pollutants for lifetime exposure assessment: a new tool in breast cancer epidemiologic studies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite experimental evidence, most epidemiologic studies to date have not supported an association between exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) and breast cancer incidence in humans. This may be attributable to difficulties in estimating blood/tissue POP concentration at critical time periods of ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verner MA,Charbonneau M,López-Carrillo L,Haddad S

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • The role of airway mucus in pulmonary toxicology.

    abstract::Airway mucus is a complex airway secretion whose primary function as part of the mucociliary transport mechanism is to to serve as renewable and transportable barrier against inhaled particulates and toxic agents. The rheologic properties necessary for this function are imparted by glycoproteins, or mucins. Some respi...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Samet JM,Cheng PW

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada.

    abstract::The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the Unit...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu S,Krewski D,Shi Y,Chen Y,Burnett RT

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects.

    abstract::Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Although the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear, it has been hypothesized that altered autonomic function and pulmonary/systemic inflammation may play a role. In this study we exp...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pope CA 3rd,Hansen ML,Long RW,Nielsen KR,Eatough NL,Wilson WE,Eatough DJ

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transfer and Metabolism of the Xenoestrogen Zearalenone in Human Perfused Placenta.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy is a sensitive condition during which adverse environmental exposures should be monitored thoroughly and minimized whenever possible. In particular, the hormone balance during gestation is delicate, and disturbance may cause acute or chronic long-term health effects. A potential endocrine disruptio...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warth B,Preindl K,Manser P,Wick P,Marko D,Buerki-Thurnherr T

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Air pollution exposure and markers of placental growth and function: the generation R study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might affect placental growth and function, perhaps leading to pregnancy complications. OBJECTIVE:We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with markers of placental growth and function among 7,801 pregnant women in the Netherlands...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van den Hooven EH,Pierik FH,de Kluizenaar Y,Hofman A,van Ratingen SW,Zandveld PY,Russcher H,Lindemans J,Miedema HM,Steegers EA,Jaddoe VW

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Oxidatively damaged DNA in rats exposed by oral gavage to C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:C60 fullerenes and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are projected to be used in medicine and consumer products with potential human exposure. The hazardous effects of these particles are expected to involve oxidative stress with generation of oxidatively damaged DNA that might be the initiating event i...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folkmann JK,Risom L,Jacobsen NR,Wallin H,Loft S,Møller P

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental Effects of the ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II Chemicals in Caenorhabditis elegans and Corresponding Responses in Zebrafish, Rats, and Rabbits.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Modern toxicology is shifting from an observational to a mechanistic science. As part of this shift, high-throughput toxicity assays are being developed using alternative, nonmammalian species to prioritize chemicals and develop prediction models of human toxicity. METHODS:The nematode Caenorhabditis elegan...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boyd WA,Smith MV,Co CA,Pirone JR,Rice JR,Shockley KR,Freedman JH

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE:We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutant...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robledo CA,Yeung E,Mendola P,Sundaram R,Maisog J,Sweeney AM,Barr DB,Louis GM

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is it worth a dam?

    abstract::Once a sign of modernization and growth, dams are often seen today as symbols of environmental and social devastation. Over 800,000 dams have been built worldwide to provide drinking water, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, navigation, and water storage. Dams do indeed provide these things,but at the cost of seve...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joyce S

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00