[Neurological disorders and the blood-brain barrier. Strategies and limitations for drug delivery to the brain].

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION:The incidence in the central nervous system diseases has increased with a growing elderly population. Unfortunately, conventional treatments used to treat the mentioned diseases are frequently ineffective due to the presence of the blood brain barrier. AIM:To illustrate the blood-brain barrier properties that limit drug transport into the brain and the main strategies employed to treat neurologic disorders. DEVELOPMENT:The blood-brain barrier is mainly composed of a specialized microvascular endothelium and of glial cells. It constitutes a valuable tool to separate the central nervous system from the rest of the body. Nevertheless, it also represents an obstacle to the delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain. CONCLUSIONS:To be effective, drugs must reach their target in the brain. On one hand, therapeutic agents could be designed to be able to cross the blood brain barrier. On the other hand, drug delivery systems could be employed to facilitate the therapeutic agents' entry into the central nervous system. In vivo models of neurological diseases, in addition to in vitro models of the blood brain barrier, have been widely employed for the evaluation of drugs utilized to treat central nervous system diseases. TITLE:Afecciones neurologicas y barrera hematoencefalica. Limitaciones y estrategias para la liberacion de farmacos al cerebro. :Introduccion. La incidencia de enfermedades del sistema nervioso central (SNC) aumenta a causa del envejecimiento de la sociedad. Desgraciadamente, los tratamientos clasicos para tratarlas no resultan efectivos debido a la presencia de la barrera hematoencefalica. Objetivo. Abordar las propiedades de la barrera hematoencefalica que impiden el transporte de los farmacos al cerebro y las principales estrategias para tratar las afecciones neurologicas. Desarrollo. La barrera hematoencefalica esta compuesta principalmente por un endotelio vascular especializado y las celulas de la glia. Esta constituye una herramienta a disposicion del organismo para aislar al SNC del resto del cuerpo. Sin embargo, tambien supone un impedimento para que muchos farmacos alcancen su diana en el cerebro. Conclusiones. Para poder tratar las afecciones neurologicas, los farmacos deben ser capaces de alcanzar el cerebro. Los agentes terapeuticos pueden diseñarse para que sean capaces de atravesar esta barrera, o bien facilitar su entrada mediante el uso de sistemas de liberacion. Para evaluar la efectividad de los tratamientos dirigidos a enfermedades del SNC, se emplean los modelos animales de enfermedades neurologicas asi como modelos in vitro de barrera hematoencefalica.

journal_name

Rev Neurol

journal_title

Revista de neurologia

authors

Domínguez A,Álvarez A,Suárez-Merino B,Goñi-de-Cerio F

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2014-03-01 00:00:00

pages

213-24

issue

5

eissn

0210-0010

issn

1576-6578

pii

rn2013314

journal_volume

58

pub_type

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