Toxicity of Guthion and Guthion 2S to Xenopus laevis embryos.

Abstract:

:The development of Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) embryos exposed to the pesticide Guthion (technical grade) and Guthion 2S (commercial formulation) was evaluated in modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay--Xenopus (FETAX) tests. The embryos were exposed to five or six increasing concentrations of pesticide in 10- and 100-ml exposure volumes of test solution for 96 h. Embryos exposed in 10-ml volumes of Guthion exhibited increased mortality, increased deformation, and decreased size as compared to those exposed in 100-ml volumes. LC50s for embryos exposed in the 10-ml Guthion tests ranged from 6.1 to 6.3 mg/L as compared to 10.6 to 11.9 mg/L for those in the 100-ml tests. The percentage of deformities at 3 mg/L Guthion in test survivors in 10-ml tests ranged from 73 to 89%, while in the 100-ml tests less than 2% were deformed at the same concentration. Mean control embryo lengths at test completion were 8.2 and 10.6 mm, respectively, for 10- and 100-ml tests. The LC50 for embryos in 100 ml Guthion 2S was 1.6 mg/L active ingredient, indicating a much greater toxicity of the commercial formulation. NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) values for Guthion and Guthion 2S ranged from 0.48 to 7.96 mg/L, depending upon basis (length, deformity, mortality) and pesticide formulation, and were many times greater than the existing water quality criterion of 0.01 microgram/L.

authors

Schuytema GS,Nebeker AV,Griffis WL

doi

10.1007/BF00214270

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1994-08-01 00:00:00

pages

250-5

issue

2

eissn

0090-4341

issn

1432-0703

journal_volume

27

pub_type

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