Coacute heparin: a new simple monotest for monitoring heparin treatment.


:Anti-factor Xa methods have been generally accepted for the monitoring of heparin treatment mainly due to their sensitivity to LMWH and excellent performance on automated equipment. When such equipment is not available, as in small laboratories or on the night shift, there is a need for a simple manual method. In the present method, activated Factor X and a chromogenic peptide substrate are colyophilized in plastic cuvettes under conditions that avoid reaction between the two constituents. The assay is performed accordingly. Plasma (200 microliters) is diluted in 3.0 ml predispensed Tris buffer containing dextran sulfate 8000 to avoid losses of heparin due to platelet factor 4, for example. The diluted plasma (400 microliters) is added to a cuvette. The reagents are rapidly dissolved and the reactions start. The rate of Factor Xa inhibition is proportional to the heparin activity. During the incubation, the substrate is also hydrolyzed by the remaining enzyme. This combination of reactions is insensitive to changes in temperature making it possible to perform the assay at room temperature. After 10 minutes incubation, the reaction is stopped by adding 400 microliters of 5% acetic acid. The absorbance is read in a well-calibrated photometer and the results plotted on a graph available in the kit. Eleven commercially available heparins have been tested with the assay and they all fell within a narrow range, showing the relevance of using a standard plot for all heparins. The LMWH behaved differently and it may also be that they demand different therapeutic strategies.


Semin Thromb Hemost


Friberger P,Krig E,Eriksson-Skoog L,Svensson S,Isacson C


Has Abstract


1993-01-01 00:00:00








19 Suppl 1


  • Biologic tolerance of two different low molecular weight heparins.

    abstract::Heparin preparations have been used for prophylaxis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis for many years. Several biologic effects of heparin are known. Since 1978, there have been several reports about reversible elevation in serum values of AST and ALT in patients and healthy volunteers given heparin in small and hi...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Christiansen HM,Lassen MR,Borris LC,Sørensen JV,Rahr HB,Jørgensen LN,Jørgensen PW,Hauch O

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of polycythemia vera.

    abstract::The selection of treatment for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) still is the subject of much discussion among hematologists. It is emphasized that important physiologic and pathogenic components of the illness relate not only to the erythroid cell, but also to the megakaryocyte. Both play essential roles in causin...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silver RT

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis.

    abstract::Homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic and thrombotic disease. Both arterial (cerebrovascular, carotid, coronary, and peripheral arterial) and veno-occlusive disease, jointly termed vascular occlusive disease (VOD) in this review, have been associated with hyperhomocysteinem...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guba SC,Fonseca V,Fink LM

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thromboprophylactic effect of low molecular weight heparin started in the evening before elective general abdominal surgery: a comparison with low-dose heparin.

    abstract::A prospective randomized double-blind trial was performed comparing conventional low-dose heparin with a LMWH fragment (Kabi 2165, Fragmin) for thromboprophylaxis in elective general abdominal surgical patients. The first dose of the fragment was given in the evening before surgery, and thereafter every evening. There...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Bergqvist D,Burmark US,Frisell J,Guilbaud O,Hallböök T,Horn A,Lindhagen A,Ljungner H,Ljungström KG,Mätzsch T

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Aspects of the laboratory identification of von Willebrand disease in women.

    abstract::The increased prevalence of the laboratory diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD) in women presenting with menorrhagia has raised concerns regarding certain specifics in vWD testing in women, including when vWD testing should be done in relation to menses and whether testing should be done while the patient is not ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kouides PA

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • The P2 receptors and congenital platelet function defects.

    abstract::Platelets possess three P2 receptors: two (P2Y (1) and P2Y (12)) are receptors for adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and one (P2X1) is a receptor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The P2Y (1) receptor, which is coupled to Gq and phospholipase C-beta, is responsible for mobilization of ionized calcium from internal stores a...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cattaneo M

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Women and von Willebrand disease: controversies in diagnosis and management.

    abstract::von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the commonest bleeding disorder in women. More than 70% of women with vWD suffer from menorrhagia and half of them suffer from dysmenorrhea. There is also the risk of hemorrhage with ovulation and mid-cycle pain. These have a significant effect on all aspects of quality of life. vWD als...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kadir RA,Chi C

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombin Generation and Cirrhosis: State of the Art and Perspectives.

    abstract::Epidemiological and laboratory studies performed in the last decades have changed our understanding of coagulopathy in cirrhosis, from a condition at increased risk of hemorrhagic events to one at higher thrombotic risk. However, it is not clear whether the decrease in factors that promote (except factor [F] VIII) ver...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lebreton A,Sinegre T,Lecompte T,Talon L,Abergel A,Lisman T

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Alpha-thrombin stimulates expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in skin fibroblasts.

    abstract::Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is induced by various stimuli such as wounds and infection and regulates inflammatory and immunological responses. To date, we have found increased expression of MIF during the wound healing process in rat skin. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated enhanced expression ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimizu T,Ohkawara A,Mizue Y,Nishihira J

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Tissue factor de-encryption, thrombus formation, and thiol-disulfide exchange.

    abstract::Tissue factor (TF) by forming a complex with factor VIIa (FVIIa) initiates blood coagulation. It was traditionally believed that the separation of FVIIa in circulation from subendothelial TF was the main control that was preventing spontaneous initiation of thrombosis and that circulating cells and endothelium did not...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chen VM

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Coagulation factor deficiencies and pregnancy loss.

    abstract::Of all the coagulation factor deficiencies, only deficiency of factor XIII (FXIII) and fibrinogen are associated with pregnancy loss. FXIII deficiency and a complete or partial deficiency of fibrinogen are associated with bleeding since childhood, impaired wound repair, and recurrent spontaneous abortions. Both FXIII ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Inbal A,Muszbek L

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Factor XII in Hemostasis and Thrombosis: Active Player or (Innocent) Bystander?

    abstract::Coagulation factor XII (FXII), formerly known as Hageman factor, is a plasma glycoprotein which exerts a kaleidoscope of biological functions, including the initiation of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, the activation of the kallikrein-kinin system, and the generation of bradykinin and angiotensin. The lar...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Danese E,Montagnana M,Lippi G

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Preventing or Eradicating Factor VIII Antibody Formation in Patients with Hemophilia A: What Can We Learn from Other Disorders?

    abstract::Eradication of factor VIII (FVIII) specific neutralizing antibodies (also known as inhibitors) by the traditional method of immune tolerance induction (ITI) is costly and unsuccessful in one out of three patients. Furthermore, effective inhibitor prevention strategies are presently lacking. An overview is given in thi...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hassan S,Fijnvandraat K,van der Bom JG,Gouw SC

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment options for clinically recognized disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    abstract::Current concepts of etiology and pathophysiology resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) form the basis of treatment of this hemostatic disorder. Due to the heterogeneous triggering diseases and different kinds of DIC, clinical symptoms such as predominant bleeding, thromboembolic complications or or...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Riewald M,Riess H

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease in The Netherlands.

    abstract::In the Netherlands, specialized care for patients with a bleeding disorder, including hemophilia, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and allied disorders, is concentrated in 13 Hemophilia Treatment Centers. The Dutch Hemophilia Treaters Society, the Dutch Hemophilia Nurses' Society, and the Netherlands Hemophilia Patients ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Wee EM,Leebeek FW,Eikenboom JC

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Fibrin D-dimer in thrombogenic disorders.

    abstract::Measurement of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) is important for determining not only the activation of fibrinolysis but also the severity of a hypercoagulable state. However, fibrin degradation products are in variable, and the reactivity to cross-linked fibrin degradation products produced during fibrin degradat...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Matsuo T,Kobayashi H,Kario K,Suzuki S

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Consequences of homocysteine export and oxidation in the vascular system.

    abstract::The risk for arteriosclerosis and thrombosis of patients with severe hyperhomocysteinemia is reduced by homocysteine-lowering therapy. Whether this is the case in patients with mild hyperhomocysteinemia remains to be proved. Another challenge for researchers is to establish a satisfying pathological mechanism of the v...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blom HJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anticoagulants and extracorporeal circuits.

    abstract::Anticoagulants are pivotal to achieve circulation in extracorporeal circuits. In this review we discuss several anticoagulants in clinical use or in the preclinical phase. In hemodialysis the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) appear to be as effective and safe as standard heparin (SH). The main advantages of LMWHs...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beijering RJ,ten Cate H,Nurmohamed MT,ten Cate JW

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Protective Effects of Statins Administration in European and North American Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Meta-analysis.

    abstract::Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread rapidly throughout the world, becoming an overwhelming global health emergency. The array of injuries caused by this virus is broad and not limited to the respiratory system, but encompassing also extensive endothelial and systemic tissue damage. Since statins...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Onorato D,Pucci M,Carpene G,Henry BM,Sanchis-Gomar F,Lippi G

    更新日期:2021-01-22 00:00:00

  • New insights into the role of erythrocytes in thrombus formation.

    abstract::The role of erythrocytes in thrombus formation has previously been regarded as passive by their influence on rheology. Erythrocytes are known, due to their abundance and size, to push platelets to the vascular wall (laminar shearing). This results in an increased platelet delivery at the vascular wall enabling platele...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Du VX,Huskens D,Maas C,Al Dieri R,de Groot PG,de Laat B

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Welcome to Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 2019-New (2017) Impact Factor and Most Highly Cited Papers.

    abstract:: ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 社论,历史文章


    authors: Favaloro EJ

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical derivatization as a strategy to study structure-activity relationships of glycosaminoglycans.

    abstract::Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are amenable to a number of chemical modifications that modulate their biological activity. N-sulfate groups can be exposed and N-acylated (usually N-acetylated), specific O-sulfate groups can be removed, and free hydroxyl groups (either preexisting in the original GAG or exposed by ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casu B,Naggi A,Torri G

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical utility of thromboelastography: one size does not fit all.

    abstract::Coagulation management requires the balancing of different components that contribute to clot formation. These components include the interactions between platelets, procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors. The cause of bleeding or thrombotic events is often multifactorial; however, the tests clinicians ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wegner J,Popovsky MA

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombotic microangiopathy in transplantation and malignancy.

    abstract::Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid-organ transplantation is a serious complication that may be associated with diverse clinical conditions. The reported incidence varies widely, in part due to different diagnostic criteria. Currently, the diagnosis is based m...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qu L,Kiss JE

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Shear-, Sound-, and Light-Sensitive Nanoparticles for Thrombolytic Drug Delivery.

    abstract::Thrombotic diseases, as potentially induced by blood clots or vascular embolization, frequently occur with high rates of mortalities worldwide. Current drug thrombolysis, a primary clinical therapy, may increase fatal risk of hemorrhage when thrombolysis agents become systemically distributed. Given current thrombolys...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qu S,Ding X

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Problems and solutions in laboratory testing for hemophilia.

    abstract::A diagnosis of hemophilia A or hemophilia B begins with clinical assessment of the patient and is facilitated by laboratory testing. The influence of the latter on a diagnosis of hemophilia A or hemophilia B is clear-a diagnosis cannot be made without laboratory confirmation of a deficiency of factor FVIII (FVIII) or ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Favaloro EJ,Meijer P,Jennings I,Sioufi J,Bonar RA,Kitchen DP,Kershaw G,Lippi G

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Role of Abnormal Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis in Morbidity and Mortality of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    abstract::Despite the improved therapeutic advances in the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a significant early mortality during induction, also referred to as early death (ED), remains an obstacle for further improvement in outcome. Hemorrhagic complications are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kwaan HC,Weiss I,Tallman MS

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies surrounding platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in percutaneous coronary intervention and acute coronary syndromes.

    abstract::Platelet-dependent thrombosis is an important part of the pathophysiology of both percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data support the use of acute therapies that interfere with platelets to provide clinical benefit to patients presenting with acute cardiovascular disease. The ...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harrington RA

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Hemophilia orthopedic management with emphasis on developing countries.

    abstract::The articular problems of patients with hemophilia begin in infancy when minor injuries result in hemarthroses. Early continuous prophylaxis (from cradle to college) is of paramount importance because the immature skeleton is very sensitive to the complications of hemophilia; severe structural deficiencies may develop...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodriguez-Merchan EC,Heim M

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Involvement of fibrinolytic factors in mid trimester amniotic fluid with development of severe early-onset preeclampsia.

    abstract::Impaired placental development is a well-known pathogenesis in preeclampsia. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the involvement of fibrinolytic factors in amniotic fluid in midtrimester with development of severe early-onset preeclampsia. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis at 15 to 18 weeks of ges...

    journal_title:Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adachi T,Nakabayashi M,Sakura M,Ando K

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00