The mechanical efficiency of front crawl swimming.

Abstract:

:In this study the gross efficiency of swimming was determined in a group of male (N = 6) and female (N = 4) competitive swimmers. The gross efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output (W) to the power input (W). In a range of swimming velocities (0.95-1.6 m.s-1), the power input (rate of energy expenditure, 445-1137 W) was calculated from the oxygen uptake values (1.33-3.25 1 O2.min-1). The total power output (26-108 W) was directly measured during front crawl swimming using a system of underwater push-off pads instrumented with a force transducer (MAD-system). Using the MAD-system, the effect on total body drag due to the addition of the respiratory apparatus was evaluated to be negligible. The gross efficiency ranged from 5 to 9.5%. At equal swimming speed, the male competitive swimmers demonstrated a higher gross efficiency. However, this was due to the higher power output required by the male swimmers at a given speed. Gross efficiency was dependent on the absolute power output such that as power output increased so did the calculated gross efficiency. At the same power output, the values for the gross efficiency do not differ between the male and female competitive swimmers.

journal_name

Med Sci Sports Exerc

authors

Toussaint HM,Knops W,De Groot G,Hollander AP

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1990-06-01 00:00:00

pages

402-8

issue

3

eissn

0195-9131

issn

1530-0315

journal_volume

22

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Physiologic responses to shoveling and thermal stress in men with cardiac disease.

    abstract::To investigate the effect of temperature stress on responses to static-dynamic work in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), 10 men with IHD shoveled gravel for 30 min in a warm (29 degrees C), neutral (24 degrees C), and cold (-8 degrees C) environment (on separate days). A pace of 15 lifts.min-1 was set, and t...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/00005768-199307000-00006

    authors: Dougherty SM,Sheldahl LM,Wilke NA,Levandoski SG,Hoffman MD,Tristani FE

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Esophageal reflux in conditioned runners, cyclists, and weightlifters.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a disorder in which gastric contents move from stomach to esophagus. Exercise is a recognized contributing factor to reflux in healthy volunteers and is reported to be proportional to exercise intensity and the type of exercise. Our aim was to explore changes in physiolog...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000064937.99001.56

    authors: Collings KL,Pierce Pratt F,Rodriguez-Stanley S,Bemben M,Miner PB

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac autonomic imbalance in an overtrained athlete.

    abstract:PURPOSE:In order to investigate overtraining-related adaptations in the autonomic nervous system, cardiac autonomic activity was examined in a junior cross-country skier who presented with reduced performance in competitions, early breathlessness during training sessions, and accumulated central fatigue. METHODS:Power...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-200009000-00001

    authors: Hedelin R,Wiklund U,Bjerle P,Henriksson-Larsén K

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure.

    abstract::Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O3) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm ...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:

    authors: Schelegle ES,Adams WC

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromuscular characteristics and muscle power as determinants of 5-km running performance.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate neuromuscular characteristics and muscle power as determinants of distance running performance. METHODS:Seventeen male endurance athletes performed a 5-km time trial (5K) that included three separate constant-velocity 200-m laps during the course and a maximal 20-m ...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-199901000-00020

    authors: Paavolainen LM,Nummela AT,Rusko HK

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Life Events and Longitudinal Effects on Physical Activity: Adolescence to Adulthood.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Common life events, such as getting married or gaining employment, may be opportunities to intervene on health behaviors like physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) associated with several common life events from adolescenc...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001839

    authors: Miller J,Nelson T,Barr-Anderson DJ,Christoph MJ,Winkler M,Neumark-Sztainer D

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of aerobic fitness on fat oxidation and body fatness.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the contributions of physical fitness and body composition to 24-h fat oxidation in adults under sedentary conditions in a whole-room calorimeter. METHODS:The following measurements were studied in 109 adults (49 male/45 female) at least 36 h after a bout of exercise: 1) aerobic fitne...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-200004000-00013

    authors: Kriketos AD,Sharp TA,Seagle HM,Peters JC,Hill JO

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Development and characterization of an overtraining animal model.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Development of an endurance training-overtraining protocol for Wistar rats that includes increased workload and is characterized by analyses of performance and biomarkers. METHODS:The running protocol lasted 11 wk: 8 wk of daily exercise sessions followed by 3 wk of increasing training frequency (two, three, a...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318191259c

    authors: Hohl R,Ferraresso RL,De Oliveira RB,Lucco R,Brenzikofer R,De Macedo DV

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of cycling cadence on subsequent running performance in triathletes.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different cycling cadences on metabolic and kinematic parameters during subsequent running. METHODS:Eight triathletes performed two incremental tests (running and cycling) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) va...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1097/00005768-200203000-00022

    authors: Vercruyssen F,Brisswalter J,Hausswirth C,Bernard T,Bernard O,Vallier JM

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Physical Activity, Television Viewing Time, and DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Physical activity may affect health via DNA methylation. The epigenetic influences of sedentary behaviors such as television viewing are unknown. We performed a genomewide study of DNA methylation in peripheral blood in relation to physical activity and television viewing time. METHODS:DNA methylation was...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001827

    authors: VAN Roekel EH,Dugué PA,Jung CH,Joo JE,Makalic E,Wong EEM,English DR,Southey MC,Giles GG,Lynch BM,Milne RL

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle Characteristics and Substrate Energetics in Lifelong Endurance Athletes.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The goal of this study was to explore the effect of lifelong aerobic exercise (i.e., chronic training) on skeletal muscle substrate stores (intramyocellular triglyceride [IMTG] and glycogen), skeletal muscle phenotypes, and oxidative capacity (ox), in older endurance-trained master athletes (OA) compared with n...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000789

    authors: Dubé JJ,Broskey NT,Despines AA,Stefanovic-Racic M,Toledo FG,Goodpaster BH,Amati F

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Predictive accuracy of skinfold equations for estimating body density of African-American women.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive accuracy of previously published skinfold (SKF) equations for estimating body density of 134 premenopausal African-American women (18 to 40 yr). METHODS:The equations cross-validated were: the sum of seven skinfolds equation (JPW7) and the sum of three sk...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-199811000-00015

    authors: Irwin ML,Ainsworth BE,Stolarczyk LM,Heyward VH

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Early rehabilitative exercise training in the recovery from pediatric burn.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of early outpatient exercise on muscle mass, function, and fractional synthetic rate in severely burned children. METHODS:Forty-seven children with ≥40% total body surface area burn performed a 12-wk standard of care rehabilitation (SOC, n = 23) or rehabil...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000296

    authors: Hardee JP,Porter C,Sidossis LS,Børsheim E,Carson JA,Herndon DN,Suman OE

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Gender differences in head impacts sustained by collegiate ice hockey players.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study aimed to quantify the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts sustained by male and female collegiate ice hockey players during two seasons of play. METHODS:During two seasons, 88 collegiate athletes (51 females, 37 males) on two female and male National Collegiate Athletic Association va...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822b0ab4

    authors: Brainard LL,Beckwith JG,Chu JJ,Crisco JJ,McAllister TW,Duhaime AC,Maerlender AC,Greenwald RM

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • The fall and rise of the gender difference in elite anaerobic performance 1952-2006.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To compare the historical evolution of performance for males and females in anaerobically dominated sprint events in three different sports: running, swimming, and speed skating. METHODS:Times of the top six finishers in a total of 283 men's and women's Olympic and world championship finals held between 1952 a...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000247005.17342.2b

    authors: Seiler S,De Koning JJ,Foster C

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol and college athletes.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study examines heavy episodic alcohol consumption and associated harms in collegiate athletes in the United States. The factors which may promote or deter such use are explored. METHODS:Randomly selected students in a nationally representative sample of 4-yr colleges in the United States completed self-re...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-200101000-00008

    authors: Nelson TF,Wechsler H

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Can Creatine Combat the Mental Fatigue-associated Decrease in Visuomotor Skills?

    abstract:PURPOSE:The importance of the brain in sports was recently confirmed by the negative effect of mental fatigue (MF) on sport-specific psychomotor skills. Creatine supplementation improves strength but can also improve cognitive functioning. To explore the role of creatine in combating MF, we evaluated whether creatine s...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002122

    authors: VAN Cutsem J,Roelands B,Pluym B,Tassignon B,Verschueren JO,DE Pauw K,Meeusen R

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Do skinfolds accurately assess changes in body fat in obese children and adolescents?

    abstract:PURPOSE:Obesity is epidemic in Western societies, with rapid rates of increase in the young. Various methods exist for the assessment of body composition, but these have not been compared in obese children and adolescents. This study compared methods of body composition assessment in obese young people to determine whe...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000191160.07893.2d

    authors: Watts K,Naylor LH,Davis EA,Jones TW,Beeson B,Bettenay F,Siafarikas A,Bell L,Ackland T,Green DJ

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Arterial morphology and blood volumes of rats following 10-14 weeks of tail suspension.

    abstract::We hypothesized that the structure of systemic arteries would be altered following 10-14 wk of hindlimb unloading (tail suspension) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tail suspension resulted in atrophy of the soleus muscle (P < or = 0.01) but no significant differences in the mass of the extensor digitorum muscle, heart,...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-199710000-00005

    authors: Chew HG Jr,Segal SS

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of Training Intensity on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Training intensity may play a key role in magnifying the protective effect of physical exercise against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PURPOSE:This study aimed to test the hypothesis that vigorous-intensity and interval training is as effective as moderate-intensity and continuous exercise traini...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000595

    authors: Cho J,Kim S,Lee S,Kang H

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Proximal Aortic Compliance in Young Male Endurance Athletes: An MRI Study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:High-intensity endurance training can elicit profound cardiac adaptations; however, the current evidence as to its impact on the proximal aorta is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional characteristics of the proximal aorta in endurance athletes. METHODS:Fif...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002508

    authors: Tarumi T,Yamabe T,Fukuie M,Kimura R,Zhu DC,Ohyama-Byun K,Maeda S,Sugawara J

    更新日期:2020-08-31 00:00:00

  • Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities.

    abstract::We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code t...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00005768-200009001-00009

    authors: Ainsworth BE,Haskell WL,Whitt MC,Irwin ML,Swartz AM,Strath SJ,O'Brien WL,Bassett DR Jr,Schmitz KH,Emplaincourt PO,Jacobs DR Jr,Leon AS

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cocaine and exercise: physiological responses of cocaine-conditioned rats.

    abstract::To compare the physiological response to a cocaine-exercise challenge in cocaine-conditioned animals with that of acute-cocaine animals, rats were injected i.p. with either cocaine (20 mg.kg-1) or saline, twice daily for 14 consecutive days. On the 15th day (test day) cocaine-conditioned rats received an i.v. injectio...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Kelly KP,Han DH,Fellingham GW,Winder WW,Conlee RK

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Drink composition and the electrolyte balance of children exercising in the heat.

    abstract::Twelve 9- to 12-year-old children (6 boys, 6 girls) performed four exercise-in-heat (35 degrees C, 45% RH) trials which differed in the composition of the fluids they drank. In each trial, subjects cycled for one 20-min and two 15-min bouts at 50% peak VO2 with 10-min rest periods in between. In a fourth bout, they cy...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Meyer F,Bar-Or O,MacDougall D,Heigenhauser GJ

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Regression analysis in biological research: sample size and statistical power.

    abstract::Regression analysis is often used to demonstrate associations among variables believed to be biologically related. Failure to demonstrate a "significant" relationship may be due to two factors: 1) the variables are truly unrelated, or 2) a relationship exists but goes undetected due to inadequate statistical power. In...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Sharp DS,Gahlinger PM

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Association of Fish Oil and Physical Activity on Mobility Disability in Older Adults.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study aimed to examine whether long-term fish oil (FO) supplementation is associated with a lower risk of mobility disability and enhances benefits of physical activity (PA). METHODS:A total of 1635 sedentary adults age 70 to 89 yr from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders single-blinde...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002195

    authors: Balachandran A,Gundermann DM,Walkup MP,King AC,Ambrosius WT,Kritchevsky SB,Pahor M,Newman AB,Manini TM

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of crank length and crank-axle height on standing arm-crank (grinding) power.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the optimal crank length and crank-axle height for maximum power production during standing arm cranking ("grinding"). METHODS:Nine elite professional America's Cup grinders (age = 36 +/- 2 yr, body mass = 104 +/- 1 kg, body fat = 13% +/- 2%) performed eight maximal 6-s sprints on an adjustable ...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b46f3a

    authors: Neville V,Pain MT,Kantor J,Folland JP

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Scheduled exercise phase shifts the circadian clock in skeletal muscle.

    abstract:PURPOSE:It has been well established in mammals that circadian behavior as well as the molecular clockwork can be synchronized to the light-dark cycle via the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN). In addition to light, it has been demonstrated that nonphotic time cues, such as restricting the time of food ...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318255cf4c

    authors: Wolff G,Esser KA

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Supervised Resistance Exercise for Patients with Persistent Symptoms of Lyme Disease.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The rapidly increasing incidence of Lyme disease has become a serious public health problem. Persistent symptoms of Lyme disease occur in over 40% of the 300,000 new cases diagnosed annually in the United States and often include debilitating musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and poor health-related quality of lif...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000683

    authors: D'Adamo CR,McMillin CR,Chen KW,Lucas EK,Berman BM

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Energy flow during Olympic weight lifting.

    abstract::Data obtained from 16-mm film of world caliber Olympic weight lifters performing at major competitions were analyzed to study energy changes during body segment and barbell movements, energy transfer to the barbell, and energy transfer between segments during the lifting movements contested. Determination of barbell a...

    journal_title:Medicine and science in sports and exercise

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Garhammer J

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00