A comparison of venous versus capillary measurements of drug concentration.


:Accessing patient's veins for drug level sampling is not always feasible. The use of capillary sampling techniques is often utilized when venous access is hampered. In the therapeutic monitoring of patients, unexpected drug level results often occur that can be caused by a number of different factors. The possibility that differences in assay results might occur if samples were collected by capillary stick vs. venous phlebotomy was examined by simultaneous sampling in 18 patients. Although correlation was very high (0.999) and percentage differences fairly low (range of 0 to 15.4%), a statistical difference was noted in the sampling methods. The precision was 6.5 +/- 6.58% and there was a slight negative bias (-3.76%), with capillary samples less than venous samples. Although there were statistical differences for the drugs studied in the concentration ranges evaluated, capillary samples should provide fairly small errors when compared to venous samples.


Ther Drug Monit


Murphy JE,Peltier T,Anderson D,Ward ES




Has Abstract


1990-05-01 00:00:00












  • Monitoring of plasma methadone: intercorrelation between immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    abstract::Determination of plasma methadone is essential in connection with dose adjustments for patients participating in methadone maintenance programs. We successfully adapted the existing fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) kit intended for urinary methadone to plasma assays. A concentration interval of 50-900 ng/m...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beck O,Boreus LO,Borg S,Jacobsson G,Lafolie P,Stensiö M

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of POR and CYP3A5 Polymorphisms on Trough Concentration to Dose Ratio of Tacrolimus in the Early Post-operative Period Following Kidney Transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tacrolimus, a critical dose drug, is widely used in transplantation. Knowing the contribution of genetic factors, which significantly influence tacrolimus variability, is beneficial in the personalization of its starting dose. The significant impact of CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms on tacrolimus exposure has been r...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Phupradit A,Vadcharavivad S,Ingsathit A,Kantachuvesiri S,Areepium N,Sra-Ium S,Auamnoy T,Sukasem C,Sumethkul V,Kitiyakara C

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Simple and Accurate Quantitative Analysis of 16 Antipsychotics and Antidepressants in Human Plasma by Ultrafast High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In psychopharmacology, treatment with psychotropic drugs is often suboptimal, mainly because of the high interindividual variability in pharmacokinetic properties. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be a valuable tool for monitoring the individual effects of a prescribed dosage in a patient, and it facili...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Huang H,Yao Q,Lu Y,Zheng Q,Cheng Y,Xu X,Zhou Q,Wu D,Zhang M,Li X,Zhang J

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ability of a first-pass pharmacokinetic model to characterize cyclosporine blood concentrations after administrations of Sandimmune or Neoral formulations.

    abstract::Most recent cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetic (PK) studies have focused on noncompartmental analysis. Because CsA undergoes significant first-pass elimination after oral dosing, the most appropriate compartment model may need to take this process into account for the construction of a valid population PK model for Sa...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ducharme MP,Verret L,Brouillette D,Sirois G

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • A simple method to calculate cyclosporine dosage to obtain a target C2 drug level.

    abstract::C(2) Cyclosporine (CsA) level, as a surrogate of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) 0-4 hours, is a good predictor of drug absorption and clinical outcome after kidney transplantation. It has been difficult to define the optimal C(2) level in the individual case and given the broad range of C(2) due to inte...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morales J,Buckel E,Fierro A,Zehnder C,Herzog C,Mañalich J

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Simultaneous determination of seven tricyclic antidepressant drugs in human plasma by direct-injection HPLC-APCI-MS-MS with an ion trap detector.

    abstract::A sensitive and specific direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass-spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS) method has been developed for the rapid identification and quantitation of seven tricyclic antidepressants-amitriptyline, nortriptyline, doxepin, dosulepi...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kollroser M,Schober C

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil after short systemic infusion: plasma level at the end of the distribution phase as an indicator of the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve.

    abstract::The correlation between single plasma concentration (CP) values of 5-fluorouracil (FU) after a 10-minute i.v. infusion and the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) has been studied in 26 cancer patients. FU dose was either 320-550 mg/m2 (seven patients, 13 treatments) or 610-960 mg/m2 (19 patient...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Port RE,Edler L,Herrmann R,Feldmann U

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • A retrospective TDM database analysis of interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in HIV-infected adults.

    abstract::Lopinavir is one of the most-widely used protease inhibitors in the treatment of HIV-1 infected patients. Concentration-effect relationships have been described for both antiviral activity and toxicity. Less is known about patient characteristics that may determine interpatient variability in lopinavir plasma concentr...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Leur MR,Burger DM,la Porte CJ,Koopmans PP

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of MPA and MPAG removal by continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and continuous venovenous hemofiltration.

    abstract::The study assessed the removal of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its major glucuronide metabolite (MPAG) during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in 4 heart transplant recipients treated for at least 6 days with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in addition to cyc...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cussonneau X,Bolon-Larger M,Prunet-Spano C,Bastien O,Boulieu R

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of action and overview of OKT3.

    abstract::OKT3 is a murine monoclonal antibody of the immunoglobulin IgG2a isotype. The target of OKT3, CD3, is a 17-20 kilodalton (kD) molecule that is part of a multimolecular complex found only on mature T cells and medullary thymocytes. This complex is uniquely situated next to the T-cell receptor for antigen. An interactio...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norman DJ

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding HIV-1 drug resistance.

    abstract::Infection with drug-resistant HIV-1 may result from the acquisition of mutant strains or from their selection within the individual; either can compromise the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Drug-resistance testing is recommended to assist in the choice of ART. Herein, factors that contribute to the selectio...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Frenkel LM,Tobin NH

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Experience with cost-effective in-house reagents for the assay of carbamazepine in serum, using the Abbott TDx.

    abstract::The development of inexpensive in-house reagents for the assay of carbamazepine in serum, using a commercially available derivative and antiserum is described. They were adapted for use on the Abbott TDx as direct replacements for commercial reagents. Comparison with a high-performance liquid chromatography method is ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colbert DL,Turner GJ

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Analytical Validation and Cross-Validation of an NFAT-Regulated Gene Expression Assay for Pharmacodynamic Monitoring of Therapy With Calcineurin Inhibitors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Analysis of residual gene expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-regulated genes has been developed as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to monitor therapy with calcineurin inhibitors. The availability of commercial primer sets (Search-LC) and the well-established assay protocol makes this bio...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdel-Kahaar E,Giese T,Sommerer C,Rieger H,Shipkova M,Wieland E

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of significant correlation between circadian profiles of valproic acid serum levels and epileptiform electroencephalographic activity.

    abstract::Using mobile long-term electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring in 7 absence epilepsy patients, the course of spike-wave discharge rate before and during valproate monotherapy was measured and compared to the profile of valproic acid serum level. Correlation analysis was done, taking into account an eventual time dela...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burr W,Froescher W,Hoffmann F,Stefan H

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Small effects of valproic acid on the plasma concentrations of clozapine and its major metabolites in patients with schizophrenic or affective disorders.

    abstract::Two separate studies were carried out to assess the effect of valproic acid on the steady-state plasma concentrations of clozapine and its major metabolites norclozapine and clozapine N-oxide in psychotic patients. In the first study, concentrations of clozapine and metabolites were compared between patients treated w...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Facciolà G,Avenoso A,Scordo MG,Madia AG,Ventimiglia A,Perucca E,Spina E

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Bayesian pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic forecasting of prothrombin response to warfarin therapy: preliminary evaluation.

    abstract::The ability of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic Bayesian forecasting computer program to predict prothrombin response to warfarin therapy was investigated. The performance of the program was evaluated retrospectively in an inpatient study population of 45 subjects. Predictions of prothrombin response at discharge, ba...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Svec JM,Coleman RW,Mungall DR,Ludden TM

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of limited sampling strategies for estimation of 12-hour mycophenolic acid area under the plasma concentration-time curve in adult renal transplant patients.

    abstract::Mycophenolate mofetil, the oral prodrug of mycophenolic acid, is indicated as immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation. To aid in the investigation of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of mycophenolic acid in the clinical setting, limited blood sampling strategies have been proposed, and model...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willis C,Taylor PJ,Salm P,Tett SE,Pillans PI

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of cocaine and metabolites in human oral fluid and correlation with plasma concentrations after controlled administration.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix for drug testing with a noninvasive and directly observed collection, but there are few controlled cocaine administration studies to guide interpretation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:While residing on a closed research unit for up to 10 weeks under constant medical s...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheidweiler KB,Spargo EA,Kelly TL,Cone EJ,Barnes AJ,Huestis MA

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Liquid chromatographic separation and measurement of optical isomers of aminoglutethimide and its acetyl metabolite in plasma, saliva, and urine.

    abstract::An accurate and specific liquid chromatographic method for the separation and analysis of the R(+) and S(-) enantiomers of both aminoglutethimide (AG) and its acetylated metabolite (AcAG) in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. The separation was achieved by use of two serial Chiralcel OD columns [cellulose tris(3,...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alshowaier IA,el-Yazigi A,Ezzat A,el-Warith AA,Nicholls PJ

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of Laboratory Practices on Interlaboratory Variability in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    abstract::The immunosuppressants cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and probably also mycophenolic acid require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided dosing to ensure that blood concentrations are kept within the target range in transplant patients. Reliable, accurate, and precise test methods are therefore ess...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christians U,Vinks AA,Langman LJ,Clarke W,Wallemacq P,van Gelder T,Renjen V,Marquet P,Meyer EJ

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of vigabatrin in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    abstract::A method is described for the determination of vigabatrin in 50 microliters of plasma by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The procedure involves protein precipitation with methanol followed by precolumn derivatisation with o-phthaldialdehyde reagent. Separation of the deri...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsanaclis LM,Wicks J,Williams J,Richens A

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of topiramate and its metabolites in plasma and urine of healthy subjects and patients with epilepsy by use of a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay.

    abstract::A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of topiramate (TPM) and its metabolites 10-hydroxy topiramate (10-OH-TPM), 9-hydroxy topiramate (9-OH-TPM), and 4,5-O-desisopropylidene topiramate (4,5-diol-TPM) in plasma and urine. The method uses 0.5 mL of ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Britzi M,Soback S,Isoherranen N,Levy RH,Perucca E,Doose DR,Maryanoff BE,Bialer M

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • The use of TDM data to assess the validity of defined daily doses of antiepileptics: a comparison between a Czech and Swedish University Hospital.

    abstract::Prescribed daily doses (PDDs) of antiepileptic drugs (AED) (N03A ATC group) were recorded for drugs used in monotherapy or in combination therapy in the University Hospitals in Ostrava, Czech Republic and Huddinge, Sweden. Plasma concentrations were used as an indicator of the quality of treatment. PDDs were compared ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Koristkova B,Sjöqvist F,Grundmann M,Bergman U

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical correlates of methylphenidate blood levels.

    abstract::The clinical correlates of methylphenidate blood levels in hyper-active children and normal adults were examined in five studies. Although occasional correlations between blood levels and neuroendocrine response were noted within subjects along the pharmacokinetic time profile of the drug, no significant associations ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gualtieri CT,Hicks RE,Patrick K,Schroeder SR,Breese GR

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Carbamazepine and its epoxide: an open study of efficacy and side effects after carbamazepine dose increment in refractory partial epilepsy.

    abstract::We evaluated the efficacy, development of adverse effects, and possible correlation between the plasma concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its major metabolite, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), in a group of epileptic patients in whom selective increases in CBZ doses were made. Eighteen patients with refracto...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Semah F,Gimenez F,Longer E,Laplane D,Thuillier A,Baulac M

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Extended-Interval Dosing of Gentamicin Aiming for a Drug-Free Period in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Current gentamicin dosing algorithms in adult populations target a high peak concentration (Cmax) assuring efficacy and a drug-free period (concentration <0.5 mg/L) preventing toxicity. In contrast, gentamicin-based regimens in neonatal sepsis often aim for lower peak levels and trough concentrations of 0.5-...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Maarseveen EM,Sprij A,Touw DJ

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Interference of oleandrin and oleandrigenin in digitoxin immunoassays: minimal cross reactivity with a new monoclonal chemiluminescent assay and high cross reactivity with the fluorescence polarization assay.

    abstract::Toxicity from ingestion of the oleander plant is common. Oleandrin, the oleander glycoside, has structural similarity to cardiac glycoside digoxin and is known to cross react with various digoxin immunoassays. The authors studied the cross reactivity of oleandrin and its deglycosylated congener oleandrigenin with a fl...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Datta P,Dasgupta A

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Within-patient variability of mycophenolic acid exposure: therapeutic drug monitoring from a clinical point of view.

    abstract::Exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA) is highly variable among patients on standard dose mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy. In addition, MPA exposure increases with time posttransplant and exposure is predictive for the development of acute rejection. Consequently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA may improve ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Hest RM,Mathot RA,Vulto AG,Ijzermans JN,van Gelder T

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Improved solid-phase extraction technique for plasma flecainide analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    abstract::A method for analyzing flecainide in plasma was developed and assessed. Based on the use of C18 extraction columns eight or fewer times, the rapid and simple extraction procedure provided consistent, high-efficiency flecainide extraction (>85%). Using reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorome...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson KM,Schneider JJ,Ravenscroft PJ

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pentobarbital quantitation using EMIT serum barbiturate assay reagents: application to monitoring of high-dose pentobarbital therapy.

    abstract::Pentobarbital serum concentrations associated with a high-dose therapeutic regimen were determined using EMIT immunoassay reagents. Replicate analyses of serum controls resulted in a within-assay coefficient of variation of 5.0% and a between-assay coefficient of variation of 10%. Regression analysis of 44 serum sampl...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pape BE,Cary PL,Clay LC,Godolphin W

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00