Mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation by immune signals in the adult rat.

Abstract:

:Immune stimulation increases the activity of the HPA axis, a phenomenon directly or indirectly mediated through cytokines. We have used two models, the peripheral administration of endotoxin (LPS) or turpentine-induced tissue injury to show that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin (VP), hypothalamic peptides released by cytokines, play a dominant role in the increased ACTH measured in these two paradigms. In turn, CRF and VP synthesis and/or release is modulated by catecholamines, prostaglandins (PGs), and nitric oxide (NO). These secretagogues are produced in the periphery and/or the central nervous system (CNS) in response to increased cytokine levels and act on CRF/VP neurons and nerve terminals. Finally, endotoxemia and local tissue inflammation may upregulate brain levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and/or interleukin-6, providing yet another mechanism through which the occurrence of systemic inflammation is conveyed to the brain. The relative importance of brain or peripheral intermediates appears to depend on the site at which cytokine levels are increased. We have shown, for example, that peripheral, but not brain, PGs are important in mediating the neuroendocrine influence of blood-borne cytokines, while PGs in the CNS play a role in situations characterized by elevated brain immune proteins. NO, on the other hand, restrains the response of the HPA axis to circulating, but not brain cytokines. These results illustrate the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the stimulation of the HPA axis and suggest that their specific involvement depends on the type, intensity, and duration of immune stimulation.

journal_name

Ann N Y Acad Sci

authors

Turnbull AV,Lee S,Rivier C

doi

10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09582.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1998-05-01 00:00:00

pages

434-43

eissn

0077-8923

issn

1749-6632

journal_volume

840

pub_type

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