Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease.


:As the substantia nigra degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD), the nigrostriatal pathway is disrupted, reducing striatal dopamine and producing PD symptoms. Although dopamine does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, its precursor, levodopa, does. Levodopa is absorbed in the small bowel and is rapidly catabolized by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Because gastric AADC and COMT degrade levodopa, the drug is given with inhibitors of AADC (carbidopa or benserazide), and inhibitors of COMT will also enter clinical use. Although the exact site of decarboxylation of exogenous levodopa to dopamine in the brain is unknown, most striatal AADC is located in nigrostriatal dopaminergic nerve terminals. Newly synthesized dopamine is stored in the terminals and then released, stimulating postsynaptic dopamine receptors and mediating the antiparkinsonian action of levodopa. Dopamine agonists act directly on postsynaptic dopamine receptors, thus obviating the need for metabolic conversion, storage, and release. How the actions of dopaminergic drugs produce side effects and how these side effects should be managed are discussed.






Koller WC,Rueda MG




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00


S11-4; discussion S44-8


6 Suppl 6








  • Prevalence and types of dementia in the very old: results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

    abstract::We report on the prevalence of dementia in Canadians age 85 years and older. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of dementia continued to increase in the very old, and to define the types of dementia and their relative proportions in this age group. We collected data as part of the Canadi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ebly EM,Parhad IM,Hogan DB,Fung TS

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in the United States.

    abstract::HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is endemic in the Caribbean basin and Japan. Because of the close proximity of the United States to the Caribbean and the presence of HTLV-I-seropositive persons in the United States, we sought reports of patients who were HTLV-I seropositive and had ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Janssen RS,Kaplan JE,Khabbaz RF,Hammond R,Lechtenberg R,Lairmore M,Chiasson MA,Punsalang A,Roberts B,McKendall RR

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristics of CADASIL in Korea: a novel cysteine-sparing Notch3 mutation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To elucidate the phenotype, genotype, and MRI findings of Korean patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and mutation carriers. METHODS:The authors studied 40 members of nine unrelated Korean CADASIL families. After genetic analysis o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim Y,Choi EJ,Choi CG,Kim G,Choi JH,Yoo HW,Kim JS

    更新日期:2006-05-23 00:00:00

  • Implementing standardized provider documentation in a tertiary epilepsy clinic.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To incorporate standardized documentation into an epilepsy clinic and to use these standardized data to compare patients' perception of epilepsy diagnosis to provider documentation. METHODS:Using quality improvement methodology, we implemented interventions to increase documentation of epilepsy diagnosis, se...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones FJS,Smith JR,Ayub N,Herman ST,Buchhalter JR,Fureman BE,Cash SS,Hoch DB,Moura LMVR

    更新日期:2020-07-14 00:00:00

  • Risk factors and outcome of patients with carotid artery stenosis presenting with lacunar stroke. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Group.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between carotid artery stenosis, other risk factors, and lacunar stroke. BACKGROUND:Carotid artery stenosis in patients presenting with lacune stroke may be coincidental or causal. The distinction by risk factor profile is uncertain. The risk and cause of subsequent stroke, and be...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inzitari D,Eliasziw M,Sharpe BL,Fox AJ,Barnett HJ

    更新日期:2000-02-08 00:00:00

  • Correlating phenotype and genotype in the periodic paralyses.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Periodic paralyses and paramyotonia congenita are rare disorders causing disabling weakness and myotonia. Mutations in sodium, calcium, and potassium channels have been recognized as causing disease. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the clinical phenotype of patients with and without discernible genotype and to identif...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller TM,Dias da Silva MR,Miller HA,Kwiecinski H,Mendell JR,Tawil R,McManis P,Griggs RC,Angelini C,Servidei S,Petajan J,Dalakas MC,Ranum LP,Fu YH,Ptácek LJ

    更新日期:2004-11-09 00:00:00

  • Combined azathioprine and prednisone in chronic inflammatory-demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    abstract::Twenty-seven patients with static or worsening chronic inflammatory-demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy were randomly assigned to alternate day decremental prednisone therapy alone or with azathioprine (2 mg/kg) for 9 months. No statistically significant alterations were demonstrated between these treatment schedules...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dyck PJ,O'Brien P,Swanson C,Low P,Daube J

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adult fucosidosis: histochemical and ultrastructural studies of rectal mucosa biopsy.

    abstract::Three sisters with adult fucosidosis showed prominent psychomotor retardation, gargoyle features, and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, meeting the criteria for type II fucosidosis. By histochemical and ultrastructural studies, biopsy of rectal mucosa revealed many abnormal macrophages that were filled with fucose-rich...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeda S,Kondo K,Oguchi K,Yanagisawa N,Horigome R,Murata F

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of inheritance in familial ALS.

    abstract::We investigated 185 families with ALS for evidence of anticipation and mitochondrial inheritance. Although initial analysis demonstrated significant anticipation of age at death between generations in patients with familial ALS, further analysis demonstrated features of regression to the mean, suggesting that the perc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bradley M,Bradley L,de Belleroche J,Orrell RW

    更新日期:2005-05-10 00:00:00

  • Nav1.7-related small fiber neuropathy: impaired slow-inactivation and DRG neuron hyperexcitability.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Although small fiber neuropathy (SFN) often occurs without apparent cause, the molecular etiology of idiopathic SFN (I-SFN) has remained enigmatic. Sodium channel Na(v)1.7 is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small-diameter peripheral axons....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Han C,Hoeijmakers JG,Ahn HS,Zhao P,Shah P,Lauria G,Gerrits MM,te Morsche RH,Dib-Hajj SD,Drenth JP,Faber CG,Merkies IS,Waxman SG

    更新日期:2012-05-22 00:00:00

  • The incidence and significance of anti-natalizumab antibodies: results from AFFIRM and SENTINEL.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence and clinical effects of antibodies that develop during treatment with natalizumab. METHODS:In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (natalizumab safety and efficacy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis [MS, AFFIRM] and safety and efficacy of natalizumab in c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Calabresi PA,Giovannoni G,Confavreux C,Galetta SL,Havrdova E,Hutchinson M,Kappos L,Miller DH,O'Connor PW,Phillips JT,Polman CH,Radue EW,Rudick RA,Stuart WH,Lublin FD,Wajgt A,Weinstock-Guttman B,Wynn DR,Lynn F,Panzar

    更新日期:2007-10-02 00:00:00

  • Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome respond to the pain cries of other people.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Recent publications show that using imagery instructions, brain activation patterns indicating consciousness can be found in approximately 10% of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; previously called vegetative state). It is possible, however, that patients who cannot follow instructions (be...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu T,Lang S,Vogel D,Markl A,Müller F,Kotchoubey B

    更新日期:2013-01-22 00:00:00

  • Accuracy and yield of ICD-9 codes for identifying children with ischemic stroke.

    abstract::The medical records of all children at our hospital with International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD-9) codes 342, 433 to 438, or 767 from May 1999 to May 2004 were reviewed to assess whether they had stroke (any type) or, specifically, arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Code accuracy ranged from 37 to 88%...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Golomb MR,Garg BP,Saha C,Williams LS

    更新日期:2006-12-12 00:00:00

  • Preclinical detection of Parkinson's disease: biochemical approaches.

    abstract::Dysfunction of NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. While simple assays of complex I activity are unlikely to be useful in the preclinical detection of Parkinson's disease, other more sophisticated physical...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Parker WD Jr

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of age at onset on progression and mortality in Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::We examined longitudinal disability scores in 54 patients with Parkinson's disease followed for 6 years at UCLA. We sorted data into 3 groups based on age at onset of symptoms: group A, onset under 50 years; group B, 50 to 59 years; group C, 60 years or older. There were no significant differences between groups initi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Diamond SG,Markham CH,Hoehn MM,McDowell FH,Muenter MD

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Perfusion fMRI detects deficits in regional CBF during memory-encoding tasks in MCI subjects.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine how memory-encoding tasks elicit functional perfusion change in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS:Twelve subjects with aMCI and 14 age-matched cognitively normal (CN) subjects were recruited for this study. Arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI) was employe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu G,Antuono PG,Jones J,Xu Y,Wu G,Ward D,Li SJ

    更新日期:2007-10-23 00:00:00

  • Linking MRI to daily life experience: the example of poststroke depression.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The state-of-the-art tools of neurology, in particular modern neuroimaging techniques, have yet to benefit from the revolution in mobile technologies that provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying clinical syndromes. This study demonstrates the manner in which mobile technologies may provide informa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lassalle-Lagadec S,Allard M,Dilharreguy B,Schweitzer P,Swendsen J,Sibon I

    更新日期:2012-01-31 00:00:00

  • Clinical and electrophysiologic correlates of elevated anti-GM1 antibody titers.

    abstract::We reviewed the clinical and electrophysiologic features of 36 patients with increased titers of IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. Mildly elevated titers of up to 3,200 were not associated with any particular clinical syndrome or disease. Clinically, 14 of 16 patients with highly elevated titers of 6,400 or higher had progress...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinsella LJ,Lange DJ,Trojaborg W,Sadiq SA,Younger DS,Latov N

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To delineate the features of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS:We compared absolute CMRglc in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DLB, 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 12 normal volunteers (NC), using 18...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishii K,Imamura T,Sasaki M,Yamaji S,Sakamoto S,Kitagaki H,Hashimoto M,Hirono N,Shimomura T,Mori E

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Microdysgenesis in resected temporal neocortex: incidence and clinical significance in focal epilepsy.

    abstract::Fifty patients underwent superficial temporal lobectomy for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Total cure rate was 52%, and significant improvement was achieved in 88%. Cytoarchitectural changes in gray and white tissue were analyzed under light microscopy. Neuronal dysgenesis was correlated with the duration of seiz...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hardiman O,Burke T,Phillips J,Murphy S,O'Moore B,Staunton H,Farrell MA

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • CSF detection of the 14-3-3 protein in unselected patients with dementia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the usefulness of the 14-3-3 test in patients with dementia of various causes. BACKGROUND:Recent reports have suggested that the detection of the 14-3-3 protein in the CSF of patients with Creutzfeldt--Jakob disease is a highly sensitive and specific marker of the disease that might be used as a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burkhard PR,Sanchez JC,Landis T,Hochstrasser DF

    更新日期:2001-06-12 00:00:00

  • Neurofilament light and tau as blood biomarkers for sports-related concussion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare neurofilament light (NfL) and tau as blood-based biomarkers for acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and determine whether their concentrations at different time points after the injury are associated with prolonged time to return to play (RTP). METHODS:A total of 288 professional hockey players ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shahim P,Tegner Y,Marklund N,Blennow K,Zetterberg H

    更新日期:2018-05-15 00:00:00

  • Plasma multianalyte profiling in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:While plasma biomarkers have been proposed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), few biomarkers have been validated in independent patient cohorts. Here we aim to determine plasma biomarkers associated with AD in 2 independent cohorts and validate the findings in the multicenter Alzheim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hu WT,Holtzman DM,Fagan AM,Shaw LM,Perrin R,Arnold SE,Grossman M,Xiong C,Craig-Schapiro R,Clark CM,Pickering E,Kuhn M,Chen Y,Van Deerlin VM,McCluskey L,Elman L,Karlawish J,Chen-Plotkin A,Hurtig HI,Siderowf A,Swens

    更新日期:2012-08-28 00:00:00

  • Racial differences in statin adherence following hospital discharge for ischemic stroke.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare nonadherence to statins in older black and white adults following an ischemic stroke. METHODS:We studied black and white adults ≥66 years of age with Medicare fee-for-service insurance coverage hospitalized for ischemic stroke from 2007 to 2012 who filled a statin prescription within 30 days follo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albright KC,Zhao H,Blackburn J,Limdi NA,Beasley TM,Howard G,Bittner V,Howard VJ,Muntner P

    更新日期:2017-05-09 00:00:00

  • Correlation between NF1 genotype and imaging phenotype on whole-body MRI: NF1 radiogenomics.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the genotype-phenotype correlation between neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) germline mutations and imaging features of neurofibromas on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) by using radiomics image analysis techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-nine patients with NF1 who had known germline mutations determined ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu Y,Jordan JT,Bredella MA,Erdin S,Walker JA,Vangel M,Harris GJ,Plotkin SR,Cai W

    更新日期:2020-06-16 00:00:00

  • Predictors of outcome of anterior temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy: a multivariate study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify presurgical and postsurgical factors that are independently predictive of the outcome of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for intractable epilepsy. BACKGROUND:There have been reports of prognostic factors in epilepsy surgery, but little is known about factors that independently predict outcome o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Radhakrishnan K,So EL,Silbert PL,Jack CR Jr,Cascino GD,Sharbrough FW,O'Brien PC

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of subcutaneous sumatriptan in repeated episodes of migraine.

    abstract::This double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, crossover study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan administered for up to three separate migraine attacks. One hundred twenty adults received sumatriptan (SC, 6 mg; three attacks) and placebo (one attack). Patients completed questionnaires asse...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Cady RK,Dexter J,Sargent JD,Markley H,Osterhaus JT,Webster CJ

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia in a cohort study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Evidence of a relation between use of lipid lowering drugs and cognitive outcomes is mixed. This study aimed to test the association between use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) over 5 years of follow-up. METHODS:Data were from a population-based cohort st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cramer C,Haan MN,Galea S,Langa KM,Kalbfleisch JD

    更新日期:2008-07-29 00:00:00

  • The state of clinical research in neurology.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study and provide an update on the state of clinical research in neurology in the United States. METHODS:US American Academy of Neurology members and chairs of departments of neurology were surveyed regarding clinical research in 2016. NIH data on the neuroscience pipeline and extramural grant funding wer...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall DA,Ramos AR,Gelfand JM,Videnovic A,Benatar M,Cahill C,Kluger BM,Goldman M

    更新日期:2018-04-10 00:00:00

  • Optical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular volume in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). BACKGROUND:OCT can quantify damage to retinal ganglion cell axons and can identify abnormalities in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis (ON...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ratchford JN,Quigg ME,Conger A,Frohman T,Frohman E,Balcer LJ,Calabresi PA,Kerr DA

    更新日期:2009-07-28 00:00:00