S 50131 and S 51434, two novel small molecule glucokinase activators, lack chronic efficacy despite potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in diabetic mice.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Small molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) have been associated with potent antidiabetic efficacy and hepatic steatosis in rodents. This study reports the discovery of S 50131 and S 51434, two novel GKAs with an original scaffold and an atypical pharmacological profile. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Activity of the compounds was assessed in vitro by measuring activation of recombinant glucokinase, stimulation of glycogen synthesis in rat hepatocytes and increased insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Efficacy and safety in vivo were evaluated after oral administration in db/db mice by measuring glycaemia, HbA1c and dyslipidaemia-associated events. KEY RESULTS:S 50131 and S 51434 activated GK and stimulated glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Unexpectedly, while both compounds effectively lowered glycaemia after acute oral administration, they did not decrease HbA1c after a 4-week treatment in db/db mice. This lack of antidiabetic efficacy was associated with increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), contrasting with the effect of GKA50 and N00236460, two GKAs with sustained HbA1c lowering activity but neutral regarding plasma FFAs. S 50131, but not S 51434, also induced hepatic steatosis, as did GKA50 and N00236460. However, a shorter, 4-day treatment resulted in increased hepatic triglycerides without changing the plasma FFA levels, demonstrating dynamic alterations in the lipid profile over time. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:In addition to confirming the occurrence of dyslipidaemia with GKAs, these findings provide new insights into understanding how such compounds may sustain or lose efficacy over time.

journal_name

Br J Pharmacol

authors

De Ceuninck F,Kargar C,Charton Y,Goldstein S,Perron-Sierra F,Ilic C,Caliez A,Rolin JO,Sadlo M,Harley E,Vinson C,Ktorza A

doi

10.1111/bph.12172

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2013-07-01 00:00:00

pages

999-1010

issue

5

eissn

0007-1188

issn

1476-5381

journal_volume

169

pub_type

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