Trail Making Test A improves performance characteristics of the International HIV Dementia Scale to identify symptomatic HAND.


:Although HIV-associated dementia (HAD) occurs in less than 5 % of individuals with access to combination antiretroviral therapy, rates of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are much higher. We sought to define an optimal cut point for the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in Thailand for the identification of symptomatic HAND, defined as both HAD and mild neurocognitive disorder. We then sought to determine if adding a simple test from a larger neuropsychological battery could improve the performance characteristics for identifying symptomatic HAND. In this study, subjects comprising 75 seropositive adults in Bangkok, Thailand, completed neuropsychological tests and underwent a full neurological assessment. HAND diagnoses were determined by consensus conference using the 2007 Frascati criteria, blinded to the IHDS results. The optimal IHDS cut point was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis with cross-validation. Individual neuropsychological tests were then evaluated and combined with the IHDS to test performance characteristics. The IHDS was poor at detecting symptomatic HAND at the optimized cut point of ≤ 10 (sensitivity, 53.3 %; specificity, 89.8 %). Trail Making Test A was most effective in improving performance characteristics when combined with the IHDS, with net sensitivity of 86 % and specificity of 79 %. In this setting, the IHDS performed poorly in identifying symptomatic HAND, but was substantially improved by the addition of Trail Making Test A, which typically requires less than 2 min to complete. This combination should be validated in a larger setting since it may address the critical need for HAND screening instruments in international settings.


J Neurovirol


Journal of neurovirology


Chalermchai T,Valcour V,Sithinamsuwan P,Pinyakorn S,Clifford D,Paul RH,Tipsuk S,Fletcher JL,Degruttola V,Ratto-Kim S,Hutchings N,Shikuma C,Ananworanich J,SEARCH 007 and 011 study groups.




Has Abstract


2013-04-01 00:00:00












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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology



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  • Characterization of antibodies raised against bovine-PrP-peptides.

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    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebrospinal fluid CD4+ T cells from a multiple sclerosis patient cross-recognize Epstein-Barr virus and myelin basic protein.

    abstract::Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD4+ T cells could be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, provided they can gain entry to the intrathecal compartment. The authors have previously demonstrated that cerebrospinal fluid T cells from multiple sclerosis patients recognize autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transform...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holmøy T,Kvale EØ,Vartdal F

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Neural dysregulation during a working memory task in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and hepatitis C coinfected individuals.

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    authors: Caldwell JZ,Gongvatana A,Navia BA,Sweet LH,Tashima K,Ding M,Cohen RA

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  • Viral protein R polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated acute ischaemic stroke: a case-control study.

    abstract::HIV-1 viral proteins have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction, which is a major determinant of ischaemic stroke risk in HIV-infected individuals. Polymorphisms in HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) may alter its potential to promote endothelial dysfunction, by modifying its effects on viral replication, reactivation o...

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    更新日期:2021-01-18 00:00:00

  • Association of HIV serostatus and metabolic syndrome with neurobehavioral disturbances.

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  • Neither B cells nor T cells are required for CNS demyelination in mice persistently infected with MHV-A59.

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matthews AE,Lavi E,Weiss SR,Paterson Y

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Alzheimer's disease neuropathology may not predict functional impairment in HIV: a report of two individuals.

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

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    authors: Morgello S,Jacobs M,Murray J,Byrd D,Neibart E,Mintz L,Meloni G,Chon C,Crary J

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Patterns of white matter injury in HIV infection after partial immune reconstitution: a DTI tract-based spatial statistics study.

    abstract::HIV-infected individuals with severe immune suppression are more likely to develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders than those with preserved immune function. While partial immune reconstitution occurs in those with severe immune suppression after starting combined antiretroviral therapy, it is not established ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu T,Zhong J,Hu R,Tivarus M,Ekholm S,Harezlak J,Ombao H,Navia B,Cohen R,Schifitto G

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term virological effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid and relationship with genotypic resistance.

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bestetti A,Presi S,Pierotti C,Bossolasco S,Sala S,Racca S,Carrera P,Lazzarin A,Cinque P

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

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  • Update on multiple sclerosis rehabilitation.

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    authors: Lake JE,Popov M,Post WS,Palella FJ,Sacktor N,Miller EN,Brown TT,Becker JT

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

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    authors: Becker KM,Heinrichs-Graham E,Fox HS,Robertson KR,Sandkovsky U,O'Neill J,Swindells S,Wilson TW

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

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    authors: Eberwein P,Hansen LL,Agostini HT

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  • Effort and neuropsychological performance in HIV-infected individuals on stable combination antiretroviral therapy.

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    authors: Paul R,Rhee G,Baker LM,Vaida F,Cooley SA,Ances BM

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  • Peripheral polyneuropathy associated with Chikungunya virus infection.

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    authors: Silva VP,Costa DS,Carvalho VCCVL,Garcês TCCS,Barros ELT,Oliveira JS,Pereira ACTC,Ferreira GP

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sacktor N,Skolasky R,Selnes OA,Watters M,Poff P,Shiramizu B,Shikuma C,Valcour V

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of the HIV Tat C30C31S dicysteine substitution on neuropsychological function in patients with clade C disease.

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    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ndhlovu LC,Umaki T,Chew GM,Chow DC,Agsalda M,Kallianpur KJ,Paul R,Zhang G,Ho E,Hanks N,Nakamoto B,Shiramizu BT,Shikuma CM

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The article "Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rituximab-treated rheumatic diseases: a rare event," written by Joseph R. Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, and Patricia B. Lehane3, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink). ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Berger JR,Malik V,Lacey S,Brunetta P,Lehane PB

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • The latency-related gene encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 can suppress caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage during productive infection.

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henderson G,Perng GC,Nesburn AB,Wechsler SL,Jones C

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sumner C,Shinohara T,Durham L,Traub R,Major EO,Amemiya K

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arimura K,Nakagawa M,Izumo S,Usuku K,Itoyama Y,Kira J,Osame M

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bjugstad KB,Flitter WD,Garland WA,Philpot RM,Kirstein CL,Arendash GW

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mitchell BM,Bloom DC,Cohrs RJ,Gilden DH,Kennedy PG

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00