[Measuring the effect of eyeglasses on determination of squint angle with Purkinje reflexes and the prism cover test].


BACKGROUND:The alternating prism and cover test is the conventional test for the measurement of the angle of strabismus. The error induced by the prismatic effect of glasses is typically about 27-30%/10 D. Alternatively, the angle of strabismus can be measured with methods based on Purkinje reflex positions. This study examines the differences between three such options, taking into account the influence of glasses. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The studied system comprised the eyes with or without glasses, a fixation object and a device for recording the eye position: in the case of the alternate prism and cover test, a prism bar was required; in the case of a Purkinje reflex based device, light sources for generation of reflexes and a camera for the documentation of the reflex positions were used. Measurements performed on model eyes and computer ray traces were used to analyze and compare the options. RESULTS:When a single corneal reflex is used, the misalignment of the corneal axis can be measured; the error in this measurement due to the prismatic effect of glasses was 7.6%/10 D, the smallest found in this study. The individual Hirschberg ratio can be determined by monocular measurements in three gaze directions. CONCLUSIONS:The angle of strabismus can be measured with Purkinje reflex based methods if the fundamental differences between these methods and the alternate prism and cover test, and if the influence of glasses and other sources of error are accounted for.


Klin Monbl Augenheilkd


Barry JC,Backes A




Has Abstract


1998-04-01 00:00:00












  • [Goals of blood glucose regulation in prevention of diabetic retinopathy].

    abstract::In several studies a correlation between blood glucose levels and HbA1 (A1c) and the prevalence of retinopathy was documented. Minimal risk for the onset of retinopathy was observed when HbA1 was below 9% from the beginning of diabetes mellitus. This HbA1 (A1c) value corresponds with values above 7 mmol of blood gluco...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berger W

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • [New technique of ultrasonic biometry (author's transl)].

    abstract::A new measuring system for echo return times is described, which renders it possible to measure simultaneously the three axial lengths of the living eye (length of cornea plus anterior chamber, length of the lens and of the vitreous) with ultrasound in real time and to process the data numerically. The repetition rate...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lepper RD,Trier HG,Reuter R

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • [Independence of retinopathy and optic atrophy in the DIDMOAD syndrome].

    abstract::A brother and a sister with DIDMOAD syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, etc.) are described. The 15-year-old girl was suffering from severe optic atrophy, severe sensorineural hearing loss but only slight diabetic retinopathy. The 16-year-old boy presented with symptoms which were...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hennekes R,Koletzko S,Hockauf H

    更新日期:1984-08-01 00:00:00

  • [Use of an automatic laboratory rinsing machine for cleaning and disinfection of ophthalmosurgical instruments (author's transl)].

    abstract::A report is given on the use of an automatic rinsing machine for the cleaning of surgical eye instruments combining the processes of disinfection, cleaning and drying in one operation and thus providing good protection against corrosion and optimal protective treatment of the cutting blades. To allow use in ophthalmol...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dausch D,Brewitt H

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • [Comparative investigation of the etiology of visual field defects after epimacular surgery].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sectorial visual field defects after macular hole surgery were described by several authors. The intraocular gas tamponade is discussed to be a possible causative factor for this complication. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Goldmann perimetry and threshold perimetry were performed preoperatively and 6 weeks postopera...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dillinger P,Lägel H,Mester U

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Clinical and pathologic-anatomical results following the application of a mobile argon-laser beam in aphakic pupillary block glaucoma (author's transl)].

    abstract::In the last four years we have treated with the mobile argon-laser beam 25 cases of aphakic pupillary block glaucoma (p. b. g.). According to the time of manifestation of the p. b. g. the patients were divided into an "early" and a "late" group. In the "early" group (17 eyes) the glaucoma manifested itself 1--4 days a...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Theodossiadis G,Kouris-Bairaktari E,Velissaropoulos P

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • [A contribution to the management of paracentral retinal branch vein obstruction (author's transl)].

    abstract::11 eyes (11 patients) with cystoid macular edema secondary to central retinal branch vein occlusion were treated with Laser-coagulations. In 11 eyes macular edema disappeared completely. In 10 eyes visual acuity improved during the next months. One eye developed a macular hole with decrease of visual acuity. The resul...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paulmann H

    更新日期:1976-04-01 00:00:00

  • [Corneal cross-linking in microbial keratitis to prevent à chaud keratoplasty: a retrospective case series].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Corneal cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin is being used more frequently for the treatment of therapy-resistant microbial keratitis, since increasing drug resistance and specific pathogens, e.g. contact lens-associated Acanthamoeba, make this therapy appear as an attractive option to avoid a keratoplasty à ...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ammermann C,Cursiefen C,Hermann M

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • [The slit-lamp as operating microscope a personal device (author's transl)].

    abstract::Instead of the operating doublemicroscope described by Harms the Zeiss slit-lamp was suspended on the microscope stand by means of two special couplings in form of two stairs, so that the biomicroscopy in the optic section can be performed also when operating, especially in surgery of the retina when using contact gla...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kleberger E

    更新日期:1977-05-01 00:00:00

  • [The effect of lens haptics on postoperative anterior chamber depth in PMMA posterior chamber lenses].

    abstract::In two groups of patients with two different posterior chamber intraocular lenses, very different correlations were found between postoperative and calculated anterior chamber depth, and between postoperative anterior chamber depth and axial length. Since it has long been known that there are positive correlations bet...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thill-Schwaninger M,Giers U

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus: report of a patient and review of the literature].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Juvenile xanthogranuloma is an uncommon benign skin disease primarily affecting infants and young children. Ocular involvement is rare and most often affecting the iris. Isolated xanthogranulomas of the corneoscleral limbus are reported in the literature in only a few patients. HISTORY AND FINDINGS:A 10-yea...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Spraul CW,Lang GE,Lang GK

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Lacrimal Duct Obstruction in Adults].

    abstract::The tearing eye (epiphora) is the guiding symptome of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Depending on the localization of stenosis, mucopurulent lacrimal discharge occurs additionally. These symptoms induce alterations of the optical system and can cause severe complications such as acute phlegmonous dacryocystitis. The g...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heichel J,Struck HG

    更新日期:2020-11-18 00:00:00

  • [Vibration, a new way of cutting in ophthalmic surgery (author's transl)].

    abstract::Rapid movement (vibration) of a movable scissor blade against a stationary blade at alternating current frequency (50 Hz) provides considerable improvement of cutting power and decreases distortion and crushing of the tissue. The article describes vibrational scissors for cataract surgery. ...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spitznas M,Kreiger A

    更新日期:1975-04-01 00:00:00

  • [Results of 1-year use of local pindolol in open-angle glaucoma].

    abstract::In a randomized and controlled study (already published) the efficacy and safety of Pindolol eye drops 1% were compared with Timolol eye drops 0.5% in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma over a period of 6 months. With the exception of some allergic reactions there was no difference between the two with regard to IOP...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stryz JR,Merté HJ

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • [A New Way to Look Up. Solar Retinopathy Risks and Methods of Prevention Prior to the 2015 Solar Eclipse].

    abstract::A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsatsos M,MacGregor C,Gousia D,Moschos M,Detorakis E

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Experimental findings with a fibrin tissue adhesive in conjunctival and skleral surgery in a rabbit model (author's transl)].

    abstract::The authors investigated the wound closure of conjunctival wounds with fibrin adhesive as compared to a suture technique in rabbits. Similarly, the fixation of a transplant of lyophilized dura mater on the sclera by fibrin adhesive was also compared with a suture technique. Both clinically and histologically, there we...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Härting F,Mellin KB

    更新日期:1981-07-01 00:00:00

  • [Examination of stereoscopic vision with the phase-difference haloscope (author's transl)].

    abstract::The authors report on the possibilities for examination of the stereoscopic vision at 2 or 4 meters by the phase-difference-haploscope. Besides a gross-qualitative test, methods of estmating realdepth acuity are described. There is a great variability of test-conditions for special scientific problems. During the rout...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herzau V,Aulhorn E

    更新日期:1975-09-01 00:00:00

  • Advanced Cases of Birdshot HLA-A29 Retinochoroiditis: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To establish the prevalence, morphological, and functional characteristics and evolution of advanced cases of birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS:A retrospective review of all BRC cases seen at the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care, Lausanne, Switzerland, with at least 3 years of follow-up since the...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elahi S,Lages V,Jeannin B,Herbort CP

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • [Bilateral congenital microblepharon with ectropion and microphthalmus (author's transl)].

    abstract::A very rare combination of congenital malformations of the eyelids and eyes in a 6-month-old boy is reported. The main symptoms are a bilateral microblepharon associated with ectropion and bilateral aphakic microphthalmus. The pathogenesis of these changes is discussed. ...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klauss V,Mnyalla ND,Dechant W,Riedel K

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • [Driving behavior of patients before cataract operation--is an unlimited driver's license justifiable? Results of an analysis of 1,124 patients of the ophthalmology department of a central hospital].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to evaluate the driving habits and patterns of those patients, who underwent cataract-surgery during a one year period at the Landesaugenklinik Salzburg and to compare the preoperative visual acuity with the legal requirements in effect in Austria. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The best-cor...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruckhofer J,Grabner G

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Investigations into mucous membrane compatibility using the Endorfer Jod-Thermalsole treatment of the conjunctivae of rabbits (author's transl)].

    abstract::The conjunctivae of nine rabbits of the same breed were used to compare the local compatibility of the Endorfer Jod-Thermalsole with that of a physiological NaCl solution. The neuroleptanalgesics were administered using perfusion techniques. The reddening thus caused was used to measure the degree of inflammation. The...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirsch E

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • [Medallion lenses, 500 implantations].

    abstract::A report is given on the implantation of 500 Medallion lenses, most of which were implanted after intracapsular cataract operation (88%) and were kept under observation for between 3 and 88 months (average 22 months). In 1.2% a severe keratopathy resulted from an operation that was too traumatic, from decentration of ...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fechner PU

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Die randunscharfe Papille: eine diagnostische Herausforderung.

    abstract::Correct differential diagnosis in cases of blurred optic disc margins is a challenging task for ophthalmologists. The reliable differentiation of pseudopapilloedema and true papilloedema has significant implications for proper patient management. Conditions that give rise to pseudopapilloedema include small crowded di...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Biermann J,Lagrèze WA

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU syndrome) - comorbidity and complications in four patients].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:TINU syndrome probably is a frequently overlooked disease where uveitis occurs in association with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Diagnostic criteria have been published recently. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this retrospective case series the charts of four consecutive patients with TINU syndrome (follow-u...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hudde T,Heinz C,Neudorf U,Hoeft S,Heiligenhaus A,Steuhl KP

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • [Can fixation disparity be detected reliably by measurement and correctional techniques according H.J. Haase (MKH)?].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The theory of the "Measuring and Correction Methods of H.-J. Haase" (MCH) states that a small misalignment of one eye, called fixation disparity, indicates a difficulty in overcoming a "vergence position of rest" that is different from ortho position. This difficulty, so the theory, can cause asthenopic comp...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Gerling J,de Paz H,Schroth V,Bach M,Kommerell G

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Exudative retinal detachment, pigment epithelium tear and subretinal exudate in a case of central serous retinopathy].

    abstract::A thirty year old patient with central serous chorioretinopathy on his right eye is presented. The signs of his disease were exsudative retinal detachment with shifting fluid, rip of the retinal pigmentepithelium and a mass of whitish-yellowish subretinal protein. After the diagnosis was made light-coagulation was per...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weiler W,Foerster MH,Wessing A

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • [Pronounced physiological pupillary hippus].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The term "hippus" describes pupillary oscillations of variable amplitude and frequency and may be physiological or part of a pathological entity. Thus, pupillary hippus is often the target of extensive clinical investigation. CASE REPORT:A 9-year-old boy was seen in our emergency room in March 1998. Examina...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hafezi F,Boltshauser E,Landau K

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Trepanation with scleral flap (Elliot-Fronimopoulos) in acute narrow-angle glaucoma (author's transl)].

    abstract::120 eyes with acute closed angle glaucoma were operated by goniotrepanation (Elliot-Fronimopoulos). The follow-up controls showed excellent results. Especially the quick restoration of the anterior chamber and the increase in its depth must be emphasized. There are very rare complications and the resulting eye pressur...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doden W,Hosch W

    更新日期:1976-12-01 00:00:00

  • [Topographic relation of dislocated lenses to the ciliary body and vitreous base].

    abstract::There are three forms of lens dislocation in the posterior segment: intravitreal, prebasal, and intrabasal. The location of the dislocated lens depends on gravity and the condition of the vitreous body. As a rule the dislocated lens lies at the bottom of the vitreous cavity; it may be completely embedded in the vitreo...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slezak H,Arocker-Mettinger E

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • [Topography-assisted correction of superficial irregularities of the cornea with the excimer laser].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A retinal image performance distorted by an asymmetric or irregular corneal surface cannot be compensated for with spherocylindric glasses completely. The best-corrected visual acuity is markedly decreased and contact lens fitting often impossible. The purpose of this study was to calculate the differential ...

    journal_title:Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Langenbucher A,Seitz B,Kus MM,van der Heyd GJ

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00