Early language development in children exposed to or infected with human immunodeficiency virus.


OBJECTIVES:To compare language development in infants and young children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to language development in children who had been exposed to HIV but were uninfected, and (among subjects with HIV infection) to compare language development with cognitive and neurologic status. DESIGN:Prospective evaluation of language development in infected and in exposed but uninfected infants and young children. SETTING:Pediatric Infectious Disease Clinic, State University of New York-Health Science Center at Syracuse. SUBJECTS:Nine infants and young children infected with HIV and 69 seropositive but uninfected infants and children, age 6 weeks to 45 months. RESULTS:Mean Early Language Milestone Scale, 2nd edition (ELM-2) Global Language scores were significantly lower for subjects with HIV infection, compared with uninfected subjects (89.3 vs 96.2, Mann-Whitney U test). The proportion of subjects scoring >2 SD below the mean on the ELM-2 on at least one occasion also was significantly greater for subjects with HIV infection, compared with uninfected subjects (4 of 9 infected subjects, but only 5 of 69 uninfected subjects; Fisher's exact test). Seven of the 9 subjects with HIV infection manifested deterioration of language function. Four manifested unremitting deterioration; only 1 of these 4 demonstrated unequivocal abnormality on neurologic examination. Three subjects with HIV infection and language deterioration showed improvement in language almost immediately after the initiation of antiretroviral drug treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the brain were performed in 6 of 7 infected subjects with language deterioration, and findings were normal in all 6. ELM-2 Global Language scaled scores showed good agreement with the Bayley Mental Developmental Index or the McCarthy Global Cognitive Index (r = 0. 70). Language deterioration, or improvement in language after initiation of drug therapy, coincided with or preceded changes in global cognitive function, at times by intervals of up to 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:Language deterioration occurs commonly in infants and young children with HIV infection, is seen frequently in the absence of abnormalities on neurologic examination or central nervous system imaging, and may precede evidence of deterioration in global cognitive ability. Periodic assessment of language development should be added to the developmental monitoring of infants and young children with HIV infection as a means of monitoring disease progression and the efficacy of drug treatment.






Coplan J,Contello KA,Cunningham CK,Weiner LB,Dye TD,Roberge L,Wojtowycz MA,Kirkwood K




Has Abstract


1998-07-01 00:00:00












  • An investigation into the benefits of resiting nasoenteric feeding tubes.

    abstract::Partial nasal obstruction in preterm infants increases the airway resistance. In spite of this, nasal feeding tubes are often used, if only because oral tubes are difficult to secure. A palatal appliance has been devised that maintains the position of oroenteric feeding tube(s) and is not associated with local complic...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: van Someren V,Linnett SJ,Stothers JK,Sullivan PG

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized trial of nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for postdischarge preterm infants.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Preterm infants are frequently discharged from the hospital growth retarded and show reduced growth throughout childhood. In a large efficacy and safety trial, we tested the hypothesis that nutritional intervention in the first 9 months postterm would reverse postdischarge growth deficits and improve neurode...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lucas A,Fewtrell MS,Morley R,Singhal A,Abbott RA,Isaacs E,Stephenson T,MacFadyen UM,Clements H

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood Assets and Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Research shows that the development of cardiometabolic disease can begin early in life with risk factors accumulating over time, but less is known about protective pathways to positive health. In this study, we use prospective data to test whether childhood assets predict a greater likelihood of being in opt...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qureshi F,Koenen KC,Tiemeier H,Williams MA,Misra S,Kubzansky LD

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Factors influencing the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    abstract::The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection was studied in 245 healthy children (between 3 and 20 years of age) who presented for day surgery at Arkansas Children's Hospital. H pylori infection was identified serologically using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the presence of IgG against the high ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fiedorek SC,Malaty HM,Evans DL,Pumphrey CL,Casteel HB,Evans DJ Jr,Graham DY

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Does bed sharing affect the risk of SIDS? American Academy of Pediatrics. Task Force on Infant Positioning and SIDS.

    abstract::The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses and accepts as its policy the position on bed sharing as articulated below by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The Panel attended a conference sponsored by the NICHD entitled "Infant Sleep Environment and SI...


    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章



    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric medical complexity algorithm: a new method to stratify children by medical complexity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to develop an algorithm based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes for classifying children with chronic disease (CD) according to level of medical complexity and to assess the algorithm's sensitivity and specificity. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simon TD,Cawthon ML,Stanford S,Popalisky J,Lyons D,Woodcox P,Hood M,Chen AY,Mangione-Smith R,Center of Excellence on Quality of Care Measures for Children with Complex Needs (COE4CCN) Medical Complexity Working Group.

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Heliox therapy in bronchiolitis: phase III multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy in bronchiolitis. Earlier studies suggest that helium-oxygen therapy may be beneficial, but evidence is limited. We aimed to compare efficacy of 2 treatment gases, Heliox and Airox (21% oxygen + 79% helium or nitrogen, respectively), on length of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Chowdhury MM,McKenzie SA,Pearson CC,Carr S,Pao C,Shah AR,Reus E,Eliahoo J,Gordon F,Bland H,Habibi P

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • A cluster of children with seizures caused by camphor poisoning.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Isolated cases of camphor-induced seizures have been reported in young children after gastrointestinal, dermal, and inhalation exposure. In 1982, after a series of unintentional ingestions of camphor products, the US Food and Drug Administration restricted the camphor content to <11% in some products intende...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khine H,Weiss D,Graber N,Hoffman RS,Esteban-Cruciani N,Avner JR

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Secondhand smoke exposure and neurobehavioral disorders among children in the United States.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The association between parent-reported postnatal secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in the home and neurobehavioral disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and conduct disorders) among children younger than 12 years in the United States was examined using the 2007 National...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kabir Z,Connolly GN,Alpert HR

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Parental attitudes about confidentiality in a pediatric oncology clinic.

    abstract::Children and parents who attend pediatric oncology clinics often develop close relationships with other patients and may question clinic staff about another child's disease, therapy, or status. To assess parental attitudes concerning the dissemination of information by the clinic staff, questionnaires were mailed to t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patno KM,Young PC,Dickerman JD

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by solid food proteins.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, cell-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity typically provoked by cow's milk or soy. Solid foods are rarely considered a cause. OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical characteristics and natural history of FPIES provoked by soli...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Nowak-Wegrzyn A,Sampson HA,Wood RA,Sicherer SH

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: neurologic deterioration despite treatment.

    abstract::Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an idiopathic vasculitis confined to the central nervous system. In children with PACNS, small-vessel (SV) involvement is characterized clinically by progressive neurologic symptoms, multifocal lesions on brain imaging, occasional pseudo-tumor presentation, and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Tiège X,Van Bogaert P,Aeby A,Salmon I,Parpal H,Poppe AY,Maris C,Lanthier S

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • High-risk periods for childhood injury among siblings.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the risk of unintentional injury requiring emergency department (ED) or inpatient care in children is transiently increased over a 90-day period after injury to a sibling. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort. SETTING:King County, Washington. Participants. A total of 41 242 children 0 to 15 year...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston BD,Grossman DC,Connell FA,Koepsell TD

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Trisomy 18 and complex congenital heart disease: seeking the threshold benefit.

    abstract::A prenatal diagnosis of ductal-dependent, complex congenital heart disease was made in a fetus with trisomy 18. The parents requested that the genetic diagnosis be excluded from all medical and surgical decision-making and that all life-prolonging therapies be made available to their infant. There was conflict among t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boss RD,Holmes KW,Althaus J,Rushton CH,McNee H,McNee T

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reassessment of the indications for ribavirin therapy in respiratory syncytial virus infections. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases.

    abstract::The purpose of this statement is to inform practitioners about new information concerning lack of demonstrated clinical effectiveness of ribavirin in the treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. The intent of the new recommendation is to allow practitioners to decide whether ribavirin thera...


    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章,实务指引,评审



    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of meconium-induced cytokine expression and cell apoptosis by pretreatment with captopril.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study whether pretreatment of newborn lungs by captopril inhibits meconium-induced lung injury and inflammatory cytokine expression. DESIGN:Four groups of 2-week-old rabbit pups were used for the study: group 1, saline instilled rabbits; group 2, captopril-pretreated rabbits; group 3, meconium-instilled r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zagariya A,Bhat R,Navale S,Chari G,Vidyasagar D

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Chylothorax in infants and children.

    abstract::Chylothorax, the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space, is a relatively rare cause of pleural effusion in children. It can cause significant respiratory morbidity, as well as lead to malnutrition and immunodeficiency. Thus, a chylothorax requires timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will first discuss the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tutor JD

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Nafcillin-induced neutropenia in children.

    abstract::Neutropenia developed in three pediatric patients treated intravenously with nafcillin. This association has not been, to our knowledge, previously reported in children. One of the patients is the youngest reported who had neutropenia associated with any penicillin; another patient had a prolonged recovery. The litera...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greene GR,Cohen E

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fluoride supplement prescribing and dental referral patterns among academic pediatricians.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine how well the current fluoride supplementation schedule was known by academic pediatricians and to examine the fluoride supplement prescribing and dental referral practices among primary care faculty pediatricians at four medical centers. SETTING:Four university medical centers in North Carolina....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roberts MW,Keels MA,Sharp MC,Lewis JL Jr

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for traumatic infant death in Oregon, 1973 to 1982.

    abstract::A retrospective study of risk factors for traumatic infant deaths in Oregon occurring from 1973 through 1982 was performed using vital records and medical examiner records. A total of 146 such deaths occurred during this period. Relative risks were calculated for various risk factors in the study group compared with a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Emerick SJ,Foster LR,Campbell DT

    更新日期:1986-04-01 00:00:00

  • Toe tourniquet syndrome in association with maternal hair loss.

    abstract::Increased hair loss a few months after delivering an infant is a common postpartum condition known as telogen effluvium. A much less common condition involving young infants is the hair-thread tourniquet syndrome, or toe tourniquet syndrome, which involves hair or thread becoming so tightly wrapped around an appendage...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strahlman RS

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of improved milk intake after frenotomy: a case report.

    abstract::Ankyloglossia (tongue tie) is a well-recognized cause of breastfeeding difficulties and, if untreated, can cause maternal nipple pain and trauma, ineffective feeding, and poor infant weight gain. In some cases, this condition will result in a downregulation of the maternal milk supply. Milk-production measurements (24...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garbin CP,Sakalidis VS,Chadwick LM,Whan E,Hartmann PE,Geddes DT

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Milk intolerance in children with persistent sleeplessness: a prospective double-blind crossover evaluation.

    abstract::From July 1986 to July 1988, 146 children less than 5 years of age were referred by their physicians to our university sleep clinic for continual waking and crying during sleep hours. For 85 children (58.2%), the sleeplessness was attributed to inappropriate sleep habits. For 17 children (11.6%), no explanation was fo...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kahn A,Mozin MJ,Rebuffat E,Sottiaux M,Muller MF

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dimensions of the local health care environment and use of care by uninsured children in rural and urban areas.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gresenz CR,Rogowski J,Escarce JJ

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric patient safety in hospitals: a national picture in 2000.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller MR,Zhan C

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Recent trends in waist circumference and waist-height ratio among US children and adolescents.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li C,Ford ES,Mokdad AH,Cook S

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Osteonecrosis of the hip (Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaughan DM,Mofenson LM,Hughes MD,Seage GR 3rd,Ciupak GL,Oleske JM,Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219 Team.

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bailey DB Jr,Skinner D,Davis AM,Whitmarsh I,Powell C

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rana SR,Sekhsaria S,Castro OL

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation and Referral for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shaw BA,Segal LS,SECTION ON ORTHOPAEDICS.

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00