Use of restraints in ambulances: a state survey.


PURPOSE:To determine the requirements in all states and the District of Columbia for use of restraints on patients in ambulances. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A structured telephone survey was conducted with all state Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies or the agency responsible for the regulation of ambulances. Questions were asked regarding restraint of patients in ambulances. The age definition of a pediatric patient was also queried. RESULTS:Ambulances are regulated in 47% of states by EMS, 14% by law enforcement, 3% by a public safety agency, and in some states by other agencies such as the Department of Motor Vehicles. In 27% of the states no agency is responsible for ambulance regulations. Most states do not require patients of any age to be restrained in ambulances; however, the drivers and passengers are required to wear seat belts. Most of the states with laws regulating ambulance restraints for infants and children were in the northeast. There is great variance in the age that defines a pediatric patient for EMS. CONCLUSION:A means of safely restraining infants and children in ambulances is needed. Until new restraints are available, ambulances should restrain infants and children in car seats and on gurneys. A national age standard for defining a pediatric patient using EMS is needed.


Pediatr Emerg Care


Pediatric emergency care


Seidel JS,Greenlaw J




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00












  • Reduced use of occult bacteremia blood screens by emergency medicine physicians using immunization registry for children presenting with fever without a source.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examined whether utilization of the Florida State Health Online Tracking System (SHOTS) immunization registry to determine Haemophilus influenzae type B and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7) vaccine status impacts the protocolized decision to perform a screening blood draw for occult bacte...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeretzke CM,McIntosh MS,Kalynych CJ,Wylie T,Lott M,Wood D

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Glass thermometer injuries: it is not just about the mercury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Glass mercury thermometers were once used as the criterion standard for measuring core body temperature. Once broken, however, there is the dual hazard of broken glass and exposure to mercury. Previous studies have focused only on the mercury hazard rather than injuries related to thermometer glass. OBJECTI...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aprahamian N,Lee L,Shannon M,Hummel D,Johnston P,Kimia A

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preliminary experience with 2-octylcyanoacrylate in a pediatric emergency department.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Documentation of use of octylcyanoacrylate adhesives in a pediatric emergency department with reference to patient selection, complications, and parent satisfaction. DESIGN:Retrospective and concurrent chart review of the first 100 patients on which 2-octylcyanoacrylate (2-OCA, Dermabonda) was used in a pedi...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Resch KL,Hick JL

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Observational study of helmet use among children skiing and snowboarding.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to observe the use of helmets among school-age children while skiing and snowboarding and to determine factors that influenced helmet use in children. METHODS:This was a prospective observational study. Children estimated to be school age (5-17 years of age) were observed a...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lawrence L,Shaha S,Lillis K

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal care and infant emergency department use.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the relationship between mothers' use of prenatal care and pediatric emergency department (ED) use by their infants in the first 3 months of life. METHODS:This is a retrospective, cohort-control study of well, full-term infants who use a children's hospital ED. Using logistic regression, the lik...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donovan EF,Perlstein PH,Atherton HD,Kotagal UR

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Case-Control Study of Injury Intervention for Preschool Children in Henggang, Shenzhen.

    abstract:AIM:To explore effective interventions for child accidental injury prevention and to reduce the incidence of injury. METHODS:Cluster random sampling method was adopted, and children in 19 kindergartens in Henggang, Shenzhen and their parents were selected as the objects of study. Nineteen kindergartens were randomly d...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Liu YX,Deng WJ,Yang WJ,Wang F

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • The edematous toddler: a case of pediatric Ménétrier disease.

    abstract::Ménétrier disease is a protein-losing gastroenteropathy, characterized clinically by nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms and generalized edema, biochemically by hypoalbuminemia, and pathologically by enlarged gastric folds. Distinct from its adult counterpart, Ménétrier disease of childhood usually remits spontaneou...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blackstone MM,Mittal MK

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Provision of Guideline-Based Pediatric Asthma Care in US Emergency Departments.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:National guidelines for routine pediatric acute asthma care recommend providing corticosteroids, and discourage routinely obtaining chest radiographs (CXRs) and using antibiotics. We examined rates of adherence to all 3 of these aspects during emergency department (ED) visits and compared performance between...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hudgins JD,Neuman MI,Monuteaux MC,Porter J,Nelson KA

    更新日期:2019-01-07 00:00:00

  • Leaving Without Being Seen From a Pediatric Emergency Department: Identifying Caregivers' Perspectives Using Q-methodology.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:National rates of left (or leaving) without being seen (LWBS) in pediatric emergency departments (PED) are higher than general emergency departments. We investigated coexisting perspectives on LWBS. METHODS:Q-methodology was implemented through a mixed-methods design. Semistructured interviews elicited a con...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moskalewicz RL,Pham PK,Liberman DB,Hall JE

    更新日期:2019-04-11 00:00:00

  • Rapid human immunodeficiency virus testing in the pediatric emergency department: a national survey of attitudes among pediatric emergency practitioners.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a significant public health concern for adolescents and young adults. Since 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended more aggressive routine screening for HIV for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Our objectives...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akhter S,Gorelick M,Beckmann K

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anticoagulation therapy: indications, monitoring, and complications.

    abstract::Anticoagulation for thromboembolic disease and bleeding, the main complication of anticoagulation therapy, are uncommon but are potentially life- or limb-threatening conditions that may present in the pediatric emergency department. Thromboembolic disease in children usually occurs as a complication of vascular access...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Long E,Pitfield AF,Kissoon N

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sedation for pediatric CT scanning: is radiology becoming a drug-free zone?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Cooperation for a diagnostic study is a frequent indication for pediatric procedural sedation. This study examines the continued need for sedation in the era of fast helical computerized tomography (CT) scanners. METHODS:Medical records of children younger than 72 months undergoing CT scans were systemati...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sacchetti A,Carraccio C,Giardino A,Harris RH

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cervical Spine Motion During Airway Management Using Two Manual In-line Immobilization Techniques: A Human Simulator Model Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to evaluate cervical spine motion using 2 manual inline immobilization techniques with the use of a human simulator model. METHODS:Medical students, pediatric and family practice residents, and pediatric emergency medicine fellows were recruited to maintain cervical manual in line im...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Jesus CR,García Peña BM,Lozano JM,Maniaci V

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comminuted lumbar vertebral fracture with spinal cord compromise in an adolescent female after a minor fall.

    abstract::A 17-year-old adolescent girl with no past medical history presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of lower back pain after sustaining a minor fall several hours earlier. Physical examination revealed mild to moderate back tenderness, and the result of review of systems was negative. Laboratory ev...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arhinful E,Rosenthal A

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Which Clinical Features of Children on Initial Presentation to the Emergency Department With Head Injury Are Associated With Clinically Important Traumatic Brain Injury, Classification as Abuse, and Poor Prognosis?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and abusive head trauma (AHT) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Clinicians may not be aware of AHT at presentation to the emergency department (ED). OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine which clinical features associated with head injury ...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burns J,Rohl S,Marth D,Proctor D,Amin R,Sekhon C

    更新日期:2020-09-10 00:00:00

  • Severe hypocalcemic tetany and respiratory failure in an infant given oral phosphate soda.

    abstract::Oral phosphate preparations are used for constipation and bowel preparation in adults but with potential for fatal electrolyte disturbances. Use in children is not recommended due to similar concerns. We report a 7-week-old infant who received an over-the-counter oral phosphate preparation. He developed profound hypoc...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hebbar K,Fortenberry JD,Parks JS

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Calling 911! What role does the pediatrician play?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to compare admission rates and medical interventions among children whose caregivers called their child's primary care provider (PCP) before taking an ambulance to the pediatric emergency department (PED) versus those who did not. METHODS:This was a prospective cohort study of...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grossman D,Kunkov S,Kaplan C,Crain EF

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Physicians' Approach to Anaphylaxis in Childhood.

    abstract::Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening, severe, generalized, or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The incidence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in pediatric age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of the physicians on the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis. METHODS:A questio...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuncel T,Sancakli O,Bag O,Cetin HS,Özdoğru EE

    更新日期:2020-02-24 00:00:00

  • Prenatal Maternal Occupational Exposure and Postnatal Child Exposure to Elemental Mercury.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Young children are highly vulnerable to elemental mercury toxicity, and elementary mercury exposure in young children in China unfortunately occurs regularly because of the wide use of fluorescent lamps, glass thermometers, and other mercury-contained items. This study aimed to summarize such recent cases in...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu J,Yan CH,Hu H,Wu MQ,Shen XM

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Acute scrotum in children: an 18-year retrospective study.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study aimed to compare clinical manifestations, physical examination findings, laboratory, and radiographic dates in pediatric patients with different pathological diagnoses of acute scrotum as well as to accurately establish the true incidence of various pathological diagnoses of acute scrotum. METHODS:T...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang C Jr,Song B,Liu X,Wei GH,Lin T,He DW

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Two unusual pediatric cases of dilutional hyponatremia.

    abstract::Dilutional hyponatremia, although not uncommon, is an underestimated problem in the pediatric population. In most cases, it results from excessive hydration or water retention, also described as the so-called water intoxication. One of the most known causes is the use of desmopressin in enuretic children. This drug en...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boetzkes S,Van Hoeck K,Verbrugghe W,Ramet J,Wojciechowski M,Jorens PG

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • A Rare Case of Candida Epiglottitis in an Immunocompetent Child.

    abstract::We present a case of acute Candida epiglottitis in an otherwise healthy and Haemophilus influenzae type B-immunized 4-year-old child. A query of the literature reveals this disease to be commonly found in patients who are immunocompromised by problems including human immunodeficiency virus disease and lymphoma and leu...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beil EP,Sole DP

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Accidental isopropanol ingestion in children.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical course and determine the minimal observation period required following isopropanol ingestion in children. METHODS:The emergency department records of children less than 6 years of age with isopropanol ingestion who presented between June 1992 and December 1998 were identified. Demogr...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stremski E,Hennes H

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Computed Tomography Diagnostic Abilities for Open-Globe Injuries in Pediatric Versus Adult Patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare the role of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of open-globe trauma and intraocular foreign body (IOFB) in pediatric and adult age groups. METHODS:Medical records of cases with open-globe trauma at Inonu University Hospital's Ophthalmology Emergency Service were r...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dikci S,Yildirim İO,Firat M,Firat PG,Demirel S,Yilmaz T,Tuncer İ,Genç O

    更新日期:2019-01-29 00:00:00

  • Pediatric pyogenic liver abscess.

    abstract::Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a rare pediatric disease. Typically, PLA is found in adults with biliary disease. There are no typical physical findings or symptoms. Often, pathogenic organisms are not recovered for identification. This case illustrates a teenager presenting with prolonged episodes of fever and vomiti...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Israeli R,Jule JE,Hom J

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical significance of scalp abnormalities in asymptomatic head-injured infants.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:1) To identify clinical features indicating a high risk of skull fracture (SF) and associated intracranial injury (ICI) in asymptomatic head-injured infants. 2) To develop a clinical decision rule to determine which asymptomatic head-injured infants require head imaging. METHODS:We performed a prospective c...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenes DS,Schutzman SA

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric EMS transport: are we treating children in a system designed for adults only?

    abstract::Unlike adults, small children and infants do not require stretchers or ambulances for transport from a prehospital scene to the emergency department (ED). This study was designed to determine the importance of this difference in patient transport needs. A Macintosh Classic computer was programmed to compare the time t...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sacchetti A,Carraccio C,Feder M

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Recurrent pleural effusions in a neonate.

    abstract::Difficulty breathing is a common presenting complaint for infants in the emergency department (ED). Periodic breathing, respiratory or systemic infection, and congenital heart disease are common diagnoses in this age group. We report the case of a male neonate presenting to the ED on multiple occasions with respirator...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim RK,Malik SA

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare: A Diagnostic Conundrum-Learning From Mistakes.

    abstract::Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is an inflammatory lesion occurring in otherwise healthy children. We present 3 pediatric patients with different diagnostic-therapeutic paths depending on the ward they were referred to. The lesions regress spontaneously, and medical or surgical treatments are generally not necessary. ...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pederiva F,Paloni G,Berti I

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Little boy black and blue.

    abstract::Tooth decay is common in US children, especially for children in low-income families. More than half of second-grade children have cavities. Therefore, root canal procedures are becoming more common in children. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with a rare complication of a root canal procedure secondary to sodium...

    journal_title:Pediatric emergency care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greene AE,Roosevelt GE,Grubenhoff JA,Klein U

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00