Reduction of all-trans-retinal limits regeneration of visual pigment in mice.


:Absorption of photons by pigments in photoreceptor cells results in photoisomerization of the chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, to all-trans-retinal and activation of opsin. Photolysed chromophore is converted back to the 11-cis-configuration via several enzymatic steps in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells. We investigated the levels of retinoids in mouse retina during constant illumination and regeneration in the dark as a means of obtaining more information about the rate-limiting step of the visual cycle and about cycle intermediates that could be responsible for desensitization of the visual system. All-trans-retinal accumulated in the retinas during constant illumination and following flash illumination. Decay of all-trans-retinal in the dark following constant illumination occurred without substantial accumulation of all-trans-retinal, generated by constant approximately equal to visual pigment regeneration (t1/2 approximately 5 and t1/2 approximately 7 min, respectively). All-trans-retinal, generated by constant illumination, decayed approximately 3 times more rapidly than that generated by a flash and, as shown previously, the rate of rhodopsin regeneration following a flash was approximately 4 times slower than after constant illumination. The retinyl ester pool (> 95% all-trans-retinyl ester) did not show a statistically significant change in size or composition during illumination. In addition, constant illumination increased the amount of photoreceptor membrane-associated arrestin. The results suggest that the rate-limiting step of the visual cycle is the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol by all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase. The accumulation of all-trans-retinal during illumination may be responsible, in part, for the reduction in sensitivity of the visual system that accompanies photobleaching and may contribute to the development of retinal pathology associated with light damage and aging.


Vision Res


Vision research


Saari JC,Garwin GG,Van Hooser JP,Palczewski K




Has Abstract


1998-05-01 00:00:00














  • Calculation of crystalline lens power in chickens with a customized version of Bennett's equation.

    abstract::This paper customizes Bennett's equation for calculating lens power in chicken eyes from refraction, keratometry and biometry. Previously published data on refraction, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens radii of curvature, axial length and eye power in chickens aged 10-90 days were used to est...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iribarren R,Rozema JJ,Schaeffel F,Morgan IG

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Latencies and discharge patterns of color-opponent neurons in the rainbow trout optic tectum.

    abstract::Although color-opponent neurons appear to subserve color vision, precisely how these cells encode hue is still not clear. Single-unit, extracellular recordings from the rainbow trout optic tectum were made in order to examine the possible role of action potential timing in coding chromatic stimuli. We found that color...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDonald CG,Hawryshyn CW

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Optic nerve blockade influences the retinal responses to flash in rabbits.

    abstract::The presence of retinopetal fibers in mammals has been debated many times in the past two decades. Do rabbits have a retinopetal system? This question is addressed with the present investigations. In anesthetized and paralysed rabbits the b-wave and the oscillatory potentials (OP) are recorded at the cornea. The optic...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molotchnikoff S,Lachapelle P,Casanova C

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Larval and adult visual pigments of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio.

    abstract::Photoreceptors of adult and larval zebrafish were assayed by microspectrophotometry to characterize their visual pigments, and to determine when the visual pigments first appear during development. Short single cone outer segments contained a pigment with a lambdamax near 417 nm. Long single cones and long members of ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nawrocki L,BreMiller R,Streisinger G,Kaplan M

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Movement aftereffect of bi-vectorial transparent motion.

    abstract::Two moving random-pixel arrays (RPAs) were presented simultaneously in the same target field. These RPAs are perceived as two superimposed transparent moving sheets. Although two directions are perceived simultaneously during stimulus presentation, the movement aftereffect (MAE) is unidirectional. The visual system av...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verstraten FA,Fredericksen RE,van de Grind WA

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Short test flashes produce large tilt aftereffects.

    abstract::Using a staircase method, the tilt aftereffect (TAE) was measured with test flashes of durations ranging from 10 to 600 msec. The TAE is largest with brief duration test stimuli and reaches an asymptotic value at a test flash duration of 200-300 msec. A series of control experiments rule out a variety of explanations ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolfe JM

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cone-rod interaction over time and space.

    abstract::Scotopic background stimulation can elevate photopic increment thresholds by more than 2 log units. This cone-rod interaction is greatest on small backgrounds (less than 1 degree diameter), but is found consistently on large backgrounds as well. Interaction develops and disappears quickly as backgrounds are turned on ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buck SL

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ultraviolet sensitivity in the torus semicircularis of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    abstract::The spectral sensitivity of single units in the torus semicircularis (TS) of small (< 30 g) and large (> 60 g) juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was investigated. All examined units (n = 39) showed inputs from the long and medium cone mechanisms. In addition, a majority of units (28 of 39) in both size grou...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coughlin DJ,Hawryshyn CW

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Relative shear disparities and the perception of surface inclination.

    abstract::A dichoptic display in which the images are cyclorotated in opposite directions does not appear inclined. This suggests that perceived inclination depends on the difference between horizontal-shear and vertical-shear disparity. Large random-dot stereoscopic displays were presented with various types of shear disparity...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howard IP,Kaneko H

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • The role of feedback in learning a vernier discrimination task.

    abstract::We compare improvement through training in vernier acuity under different feedback conditions in order to clarify the role of feedback during learning of a perceptual task and to test different (neural network) models of perceptual learning. Improvement of performance is measured in 49 observers under feedback, no fee...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herzog MH,Fahle M

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Short-latency disparity-vergence eye movements in humans: sensitivity to simulated orthogonal tropias.

    abstract::Small disparity stimuli applied to large random-dot patterns elicit machine-like vergence eye movements at short latency. We have examined the sensitivity of these eye movements to simulated orthogonal tropias in three normal subjects by recording (1) the effects of vertical disparities on the initial horizontal verge...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang DS,FitzGibbon EJ,Miles FA

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Recognizing partially visible objects.

    abstract::In two experiments we measured object recognition performance as a function of delay. In Experiment 1 we presented half of an image of an object, and then the other half after a variable delay. Objects were subdivided into top versus bottom halves, left versus right halves, or vertical strips. In Experiment 2 we separ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Servos P,Olds ES,Planetta PJ,Keith Humphrey G

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry: perception and neural representation.

    abstract::The predominance of rivalrous targets is affected by surrounding context when stimuli rival in orientation, motion or color. This study investigated the influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry. The predominance of rivalrous chromatic targets was measured in various surrounding contexts. The first exp...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hong SW,Shevell SK

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biological motion influences the visuomotor transformation for smooth pursuit eye movements.

    abstract::Humans are very sensitive to the presence of other living persons or animals in their surrounding. Human actions can readily be perceived, even in a noisy environment. We recently demonstrated that biological motion, which schematically represents human motion, influences smooth pursuit eye movements during the initia...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coppe S,de Xivry JJ,Missal M,Lefèvre P

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Impurity of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 affects the transduction characteristics following subretinal injection in the rat.

    abstract::We recently reported that different purification methods of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2) affect the transduction characteristics following subretinal injection. In this study, we examined the roles of contaminant proteins from the HEK-293 cells and helper adenovirus, inactivation of helper adenovi...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shen WY,Lai YK,Lai CM,Rakoczy PE

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • The electroretinogram of the little owl (Athene noctua).

    abstract::Electroretinographic responses (ERGs) have been recorded from the cornea of the little owl (Athene noctua) in response to single light flashes and to alternating sinusoidal gratings (pattern) at different levels of light adaptation. Both flash- and pattern-evoked ERGs show scotopic as well as photopic components. The ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porciatti V,Fontanesi G,Bagnoli P

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • The photopic ERG luminance-response function (photopic hill): method of analysis and clinical application.

    abstract::With progressively brighter stimuli, the amplitude of the photopic b-wave first increases, briefly saturates and then decreases gradually to reach a plateau, where the amplitude of the b-wave equals that of the a-wave; a phenomenon previously presented as the photopic hill. The unique presentation of this luminance-re...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rufiange M,Dassa J,Dembinska O,Koenekoop RK,Little JM,Polomeno RC,Dumont M,Chemtob S,Lachapelle P

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • An internationally standardised antisaccade protocol.

    abstract::Detailed measurements of saccadic latency--the time taken to make an eye movement to a suddenly-presented visual target--have proved a valuable source of detailed and quantitative information in a wide range of neurological conditions, as well as shedding light on the mechanisms of decision, currently of intense inter...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antoniades C,Ettinger U,Gaymard B,Gilchrist I,Kristjánsson A,Kennard C,John Leigh R,Noorani I,Pouget P,Smyrnis N,Tarnowski A,Zee DS,Carpenter RH

    更新日期:2013-05-24 00:00:00

  • Contrast, spatial frequency and test duration effects on the tilt aftereffect: implications for underlying mechanisms.

    abstract::The tilt aftereffect (TAE) was measured with a forced-choice technique for gratings of different spatial frequencies, contrasts and adapting and test durations. At short test durations, a 2 c/deg grating gave a larger TAE than a 10 c/deg, while at long test durations the opposite occurred. Low contrast gratings tended...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris JP,Calvert JE

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Accuracy of estimating time to collision using only monocular information in unilaterally enucleated observers and monocularly viewing normal controls.

    abstract::Since individuals who have lost an eye in early life rely on monocular information, one asked if they would better estimate the time to collision (TTC) with an approaching object based on the monocular cue [(θ/(dθ/dt), i.e. tau] than a control group using only monocular information. Estimates of TTC were m...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steeves JK,Gray R,Steinbach MJ,Regan D

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Active vision and the identification of three-dimensional shape.

    abstract::We examined the performance of human observers to identify three-dimensional (3D) shape from motion induced by exploratory head movements. Subjects categorized 3D quadratic surfaces with randomly chosen shape but with a fixed amount of curvature in one of eight shape categories. Human observers had their best performa...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Damme WJ,van de Grind WA

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • The kinetic depth effect and optic flow--II. First- and second-order motion.

    abstract::We use a difficult shape identification task to analyze how humans extract 3D surface structure from dynamic 2D stimuli--the kinetic depth effect (KDE). Stimuli composed of luminous tokens moving on a less luminous background yield accurate 3D shape identification regardless of the particular token used (either dots, ...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landy MS,Dosher BA,Sperling G,Perkins ME

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Achievement of transsaccadic visual stability using presaccadic and postsaccadic visual information.

    abstract::While saccadic eye movements produce rapid shift of images of objects on the retina, the visual world is perceived as stationary (visual stability), but the precise mechanisms involved in such perception remain unclear. We investigated if visual stimuli existing before and/or after a saccade serve to preserve visual s...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Honda H

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • On spectral sensitivity in the goldfish. Evidence for neural interactions between different "cone mechanisms".

    abstract::Spectral sensitivity was measured in freely moving, light adapted goldfish using a behavioral training technique. The curve reveals 3 pronounced maxima at 470, 540 and 660 nm. Compared with the absorption spectra of the cone photopigments with lambda max at 450, 530 and 625 nm, the maxima were much narrower and shifte...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neumeyer C

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct position assignment mechanisms revealed by cross-order motion.

    abstract::Motion perception influences perceived position. It has been shown that first-order (luminance defined) motion shifts perceived position across a wide range of spatial and temporal frequencies. On the other hand, second-order (contrast defined) motion shifts perceived position over a narrow range of temporal frequenci...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pavan A,Mather G

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Kinetic depth effect and optic flow--I. 3D shape from Fourier motion.

    abstract::Fifty-three different 3D shapes were defined by sequences of 2D views (frames) of dots on a rotating 3D surface. (1) Subjects' accuracy of shape identifications dropped from over 90% to less than 10% when either the polarity of the stimulus dots was alternated from light-on-gray to dark-on-gray on successive frames or...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dosher BA,Landy MS,Sperling G

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neural model for processing the influence of visual orientation on visually perceived eye level (VPEL).

    abstract::An individual line or a combination of lines viewed in darkness has a large influence on the elevation to which an observer sets a target so that it is perceived to lie at eye level (VPEL). These influences are systematically related to the orientation of pitched-from-vertical lines on pitched plane(s) and to the leng...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matin L,Li W

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Vernier acuity in the cat: its relation to hyperacuity.

    abstract::Vernier thresholds were measured behaviourally in five cats using offsets in gratings of two spatial frequencies and in single lines. Thresholds ranged from 2.2 to 6.7', and no threshold differences were found across stimuli. These results are discussed in relationships with published spatial resolution data and are r...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belleville S,Wilkinson F

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Responses and receptive fields of amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the salamander retina.

    abstract::Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) have been shown to display large morphological diversity, and here we show that four types of ACs and three types of GCs exhibit physiologically-distinguishable properties. They are the sustained ON ACs; sustained OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang AJ,Wu SM

    更新日期:2010-03-17 00:00:00

  • Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque.

    abstract::There is ample psychophysical evidence that flicker is more salient in the peripheral than the central visual field, but the physiological basis of this eccentricity-dependant change is unclear. Here, we compared responsivity to temporal modulation of ganglion cells in central and peripheral primate retina. Above 30 H...

    journal_title:Vision research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solomon SG,Martin PR,White AJ,Rüttiger L,Lee BB

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00