Angiotensin, thirst, and sodium appetite.

Abstract:

:Angiotensin (ANG) II is a powerful and phylogenetically widespread stimulus to thirst and sodium appetite. When it is injected directly into sensitive areas of the brain, it causes an immediate increase in water intake followed by a slower increase in NaCl intake. Drinking is vigorous, highly motivated, and rapidly completed. The amounts of water taken within 15 min or so of injection can exceed what the animal would spontaneously drink in the course of its normal activities over 24 h. The increase in NaCl intake is slower in onset, more persistent, and affected by experience. Increases in circulating ANG II have similar effects on drinking, although these may be partly obscured by accompanying rises in blood pressure. The circumventricular organs, median preoptic nucleus, and tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle in the lamina terminalis (AV3V region) provide the neuroanatomic focus for thirst, sodium appetite, and cardiovascular control, making extensive connections with the hypothalamus, limbic system, and brain stem. The AV3V region is well provided with angiotensinergic nerve endings and angiotensin AT1 receptors, the receptor type responsible for acute responses to ANG II, and it responds vigorously to the dipsogenic action of ANG II. The nucleus tractus solitarius and other structures in the brain stem form part of a negative-feedback system for blood volume control, responding to baroreceptor and volume receptor information from the circulation and sending ascending noradrenergic and other projections to the AV3V region. The subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and area postrema contain ANG II-sensitive receptors that allow circulating ANG II to interact with central nervous structures involved in hypovolemic thirst and sodium appetite and blood pressure control. Angiotensin peptides generated inside the blood-brain barrier may act as conventional neurotransmitters or, in view of the many instances of anatomic separation between sites of production and receptors, they may act as paracrine agents at a distance from their point of release. An attractive speculation is that some are responsible for long-term changes in neuronal organization, especially of sodium appetite. Anatomic mismatches between sites of production and receptors are less evident in limbic and brain stem structures responsible for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure control. Limbic structures are rich in other neuroactive peptides, some of which have powerful effects on drinking, and they and many of the classical nonpeptide neurotransmitters may interact with ANG II to augment or inhibit drinking behavior. Because ANG II immunoreactivity and binding are so widely distributed in the central nervous system, brain ANG II is unlikely to have a role as circumscribed as that of circulating ANG II. Angiotensin peptides generated from brain precursors may also be involved in functions that have little immediate effect on body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure control, such as cell differentiation, regeneration and remodeling, or learning and memory. Analysis of the mechanisms of increased drinking caused by drugs and experimental procedures that activate the renal renin-angiotensin system, and clinical conditions in which renal renin secretion is increased, have provided evidence that endogenously released renal renin can generate enough circulating ANG II to stimulate drinking. But it is also certain that other mechanisms of thirst and sodium appetite still operate when the effects of circulating ANG II are blocked or absent, although it is not known whether this is also true for angiotensin peptides formed in the brain. Whether ANG II should be regarded primarily as a hormone released in hypovolemia helping to defend the blood volume, a neurotransmitter or paracrine agent with a privileged role in the neural pathways for thirst and sodium appetite of all kinds, a neural organizer especially in sodium appetit

journal_name

Physiol Rev

journal_title

Physiological reviews

authors

Fitzsimons JT

doi

10.1152/physrev.1998.78.3.583

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1998-07-01 00:00:00

pages

583-686

issue

3

eissn

0031-9333

issn

1522-1210

journal_volume

78

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Cellular calcium transport in renal epithelia: measurement, mechanisms, and regulation.

    abstract::The kidneys play a vital role in mineral homeostasis. In this review, the handling of calcium and the methods currently applied to measuring its intracellular concentration are discussed. The bulk of calcium absorption proceeds in proximal tubules, with smaller fractions recovered by thick ascending limbs, distal conv...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1995.75.3.429

    authors: Friedman PA,Gesek FA

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Leukocyte homing, fate, and function are controlled by retinoic acid.

    abstract::Although vitamin A was recognized as an "anti-infective vitamin" over 90 years ago, the mechanism of how vitamin A regulates immunity is only beginning to be understood. Early studies which focused on the immune responses in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) animals clearly demonstrated compromised immunity and consequently i...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00032.2013

    authors: Guo Y,Brown C,Ortiz C,Noelle RJ

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide hormone regulation of angiogenesis.

    abstract::It is now apparent that regulation of blood vessel growth contributes to the classical actions of hormones on development, growth, and reproduction. Endothelial cells are ideally positioned to respond to hormones, which act in concert with locally produced chemical mediators to regulate their growth, motility, functio...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00024.2009

    authors: Clapp C,Thebault S,Jeziorski MC,Martínez De La Escalera G

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Properties of the glomerular barrier and mechanisms of proteinuria.

    abstract::This review focuses on the intricate properties of the glomerular barrier. Other reviews have focused on podocyte biology, mesangial cells, and the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). However, since all components of the glomerular membrane are important for its function, proteinuria will occur regardless of which lay...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00055.2006

    authors: Haraldsson B,Nyström J,Deen WM

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human.

    abstract::Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic assembly of MA...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1999.79.1.143

    authors: Widmann C,Gibson S,Jarpe MB,Johnson GL

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Primary Aldosteronism: Changing Definitions and New Concepts of Physiology and Pathophysiology Both Inside and Outside the Kidney.

    abstract::In the 60 years that have passed since the discovery of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone, much has been learned about its synthesis (both adrenal and extra-adrenal), regulation (by renin-angiotensin II, potassium, adrenocorticotrophin, and other factors), and effects (on both epithelial and nonepithelial tiss...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00026.2015

    authors: Stowasser M,Gordon RD

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular physiology of vertebrate Na+/H+ exchangers.

    abstract::This review describes recent progress concerning the molecular aspects of the Na+/H+ exchanger. The Na+/H+ exchanger is an important regulator for intracellular pH, cell volume, and transepithelial Na+ transport. It exists in virtually all cells with cell type-dependent pattern of isoform expression, and it is regulat...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1997.77.1.51

    authors: Wakabayashi S,Shigekawa M,Pouyssegur J

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • The unfolded protein response: integrating stress signals through the stress sensor IRE1α.

    abstract::Stress induced by accumulation of unfolded proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a classic feature of secretory cells and is observed in many tissues in human diseases including cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegeneration. Cellular adaptation to ER stress is achieved by the activation of the unfolded prot...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00001.2011

    authors: Hetz C,Martinon F,Rodriguez D,Glimcher LH

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cytotoxic action of Shiga toxin and ricin.

    abstract::Protein toxins such as ricin and Shiga toxin with intracellular targets have to be endocytosed and translocated to the cytosol to inhibit the protein synthesis and thereby kill the cell. Ricin is internalized by both clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic mechanisms, whereas Shiga toxin seems to be taken up exc...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1996.76.4.949

    authors: Sandvig K,van Deurs B

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Arp2/3 Regulatory System and Its Deregulation in Cancer.

    abstract::The Arp2/3 complex is an evolutionary conserved molecular machine that generates branched actin networks. When activated, the Arp2/3 complex contributes the actin branched junction and thus cross-links the polymerizing actin filaments in a network that exerts a pushing force. The different activators initiate branched...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00006.2017

    authors: Molinie N,Gautreau A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulatory binding partners and complexes of NHE3.

    abstract::NHE3 is the brush-border (BB) Na(+)/H(+) exchanger of small intestine, colon, and renal proximal tubule which is involved in large amounts of neutral Na(+) absorption. NHE3 is a highly regulated transporter, being both stimulated and inhibited by signaling that mimics the postprandial state. It also undergoes downregu...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00030.2006

    authors: Donowitz M,Li X

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Beyond neurons: evidence that immune and glial cells contribute to pathological pain states.

    abstract::Chronic pain can occur after peripheral nerve injury, infection, or inflammation. Under such neuropathic pain conditions, sensory processing in the affected body region becomes grossly abnormal. Despite decades of research, currently available drugs largely fail to control such pain. This review explores the possibili...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00011.2002

    authors: Watkins LR,Maier SF

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion.

    abstract::Prolactin is a protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that was originally named for its ability to promote lactation in response to the suckling stimulus of hungry young mammals. We now know that prolactin is not as simple as originally described. Indeed, chemically, prolactin appears in a multiplicity of pos...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.2000.80.4.1523

    authors: Freeman ME,Kanyicska B,Lerant A,Nagy G

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cross-talk between cardiac muscle and coronary vasculature.

    abstract::The cardiac muscle and the coronary vasculature are in close proximity to each other, and a two-way interaction, called cross-talk, exists. Here we focus on the mechanical aspects of cross-talk including the role of the extracellular matrix. Cardiac muscle affects the coronary vasculature. In diastole, the effect of t...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00029.2005

    authors: Westerhof N,Boer C,Lamberts RR,Sipkema P

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of cancer cachexia.

    abstract::Up to 50% of cancer patients suffer from a progressive atrophy of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, called cachexia, resulting in weight loss, a reduced quality of life, and a shortened survival time. Anorexia often accompanies cachexia, but appears not to be responsible for the tissue loss, particularly lean body m...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00016.2008

    authors: Tisdale MJ

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac ionic currents and acute ischemia: from channels to arrhythmias.

    abstract::The aim of this review is to provide basic information on the electrophysiological changes during acute ischemia and reperfusion from the level of ion channels up to the level of multicellular preparations. After an introduction, section II provides a general description of the ion channels and electrogenic transporte...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1999.79.3.917

    authors: Carmeliet E

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Renal autoregulation in health and disease.

    abstract::Intrarenal autoregulatory mechanisms maintain renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) independent of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) over a defined range (80-180 mmHg). Such autoregulation is mediated largely by the myogenic and the macula densa-tubuloglomerular feedback (MD-TGF) responses that regu...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00042.2012

    authors: Carlström M,Wilcox CS,Arendshorst WJ

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Oxygen sensing and molecular adaptation to hypoxia.

    abstract::This review focuses on the molecular stratagems utilized by bacteria, yeast, and mammals in their adaptation to hypoxia. Among this broad range of organisms, changes in oxygen tension appear to be sensed by heme proteins, with subsequent transfer of electrons along a signal transduction pathway which may depend on rea...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1996.76.3.839

    authors: Bunn HF,Poyton RO

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Nonvertebrate hemoglobins: functions and molecular adaptations.

    abstract::Hemoglobin (Hb) occurs in all the kingdoms of living organisms. Its distribution is episodic among the nonvertebrate groups in contrast to vertebrates. Nonvertebrate Hbs range from single-chain globins found in bacteria, algae, protozoa, and plants to large, multisubunit, multidomain Hbs found in nematodes, molluscs a...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.2.569

    authors: Weber RE,Vinogradov SN

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Nutrition and aging: changes in the regulation of energy metabolism with aging.

    abstract::Changes in energy regulation occur during normal aging and contribute to the common phenomenon of weight and fat losses late in life. This review synthesizes data on aging-related changes in energy intake and energy expenditure and on the regulation of energy intake and expenditure. The ability of older adults to accu...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00019.2005

    authors: Roberts SB,Rosenberg I

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Conus venoms: a rich source of novel ion channel-targeted peptides.

    abstract::The cone snails (genus Conus) are venomous marine molluscs that use small, structured peptide toxins (conotoxins) for prey capture, defense, and competitor deterrence. Each of the 500 Conus can express approximately 100 different conotoxins, with little overlap between species. An overwhelming majority of these peptid...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00020.2003

    authors: Terlau H,Olivera BM

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biosynthesis and degradation of CFTR.

    abstract::Biosynthesis and Degradation of CFTR. Physiol. Rev. 79, Suppl.: S167-S173, 1999. - Many of the mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that cause cystic fibrosis interfere with the folding and biosynthetic processing of nascent CFTR molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutat...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.1999.79.1.S167

    authors: Kopito RR

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • CRISPR Tools for Physiology and Cell State Changes: Potential of Transcriptional Engineering and Epigenome Editing.

    abstract::Given the large amount of genome-wide data that have been collected during the last decades, a good understanding of how and why cells change during development, homeostasis, and disease might be expected. Unfortunately, the opposite is true; triggers that cause cellular state changes remain elusive, and the underlyin...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00034.2019

    authors: Breunig CT,Köferle A,Neuner AM,Wiesbeck MF,Baumann V,Stricker SH

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Roles of Zinc Transporters in Zinc Homeostasis and Metabolism.

    abstract::Zinc is involved in a variety of biological processes, as a structural, catalytic, and intracellular and intercellular signaling component. Thus zinc homeostasis is tightly controlled at the whole body, tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels by a number of proteins, with zinc transporters being particularly importan...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00035.2014

    authors: Kambe T,Tsuji T,Hashimoto A,Itsumura N

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Myelin in the Central Nervous System: Structure, Function, and Pathology.

    abstract::Oligodendrocytes generate multiple layers of myelin membrane around axons of the central nervous system to enable fast and efficient nerve conduction. Until recently, saltatory nerve conduction was considered the only purpose of myelin, but it is now clear that myelin has more functions. In fact, myelinating oligodend...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00031.2018

    authors: Stadelmann C,Timmler S,Barrantes-Freer A,Simons M

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • SIRT6, a Mammalian Deacylase with Multitasking Abilities.

    abstract::Mammalian sirtuins have emerged in recent years as critical modulators of multiple biological processes, regulating cellular metabolism, DNA repair, gene expression, and mitochondrial biology. As such, they evolved to play key roles in organismal homeostasis, and defects in these proteins have been linked to a plethor...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00030.2018

    authors: Chang AR,Ferrer CM,Mostoslavsky R

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • AMPK in Health and Disease.

    abstract::The function and survival of all organisms is dependent on the dynamic control of energy metabolism, when energy demand is matched to energy supply. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alphabetagamma heterotrimer has emerged as an important integrator of signals that control energy balance through the regulation o...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00011.2008

    authors: Steinberg GR,Kemp BE

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms Regulating Neuromuscular Junction Development and Function and Causes of Muscle Wasting.

    abstract::The neuromuscular junction is the chemical synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers. It is designed to reliably convert the action potential from the presynaptic motor neuron into the contraction of the postsynaptic muscle fiber. Diseases that affect the neuromuscular junction may cause failure of this...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00033.2014

    authors: Tintignac LA,Brenner HR,Rüegg MA

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation.

    abstract::Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents interacting via pathways activated by receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, in hormonal...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00044.2003

    authors: Slominski A,Tobin DJ,Shibahara S,Wortsman J

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    abstract::Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of the...

    journal_title:Physiological reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1152/physrev.00005.2010

    authors: Srinivasan MV

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00