Unique evolution characteristics of the envelope protein of EIAV(LN₄₀), a virulent strain of equine infectious anemia virus.


:The Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) virulent strain EIAV(LN40) is derived from a naturally occurring virus by continuously passing in horses for 16 generations. Its genome sequence is 23% different from that of the American strains or the Japanese strains, and the variation of envelope gp90 surface unit (SU) is as high as 41%. In this study, evolutions of the EIAV(LN40) gp90 gene in four infected horses were analyzed. Results showed that new quasispecies arose in the early stage of infection in all EIAV(LN40)-infected horses. These quasispecies belonged to branches different from EIAV(LN40) in a phylogenetic tree. In contrast, the gp90 sequences of viruses isolated after disease onset remained in the same phylogenetic branch as EIAV(LN40), with some having exactly the same sequences. The glycosylation sites 191NSSN and 237NNTW in the V3 and V4 region present or absent simultaneously in most of the predicted amino acid sequences. Changes in the glycosylation sites within V3, V4, and V5 regions are usually associated with the disease status. Glycosylation sites (191NSSN, 237NNTW, and 280NDTS) within these three regions were present in EIAV(LN40) and most of the quasispecies isolated after, but not before disease onset. These unique evolutionary characteristics of SU have not been reported for EIAV and other lentiviruses. Our results provide a reference for a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the persistent infection and escape from immune surveillance of EIAV.


Virus Genes


Virus genes


Wang X,Wang S,Lin Y,Jiang C,Ma J,Zhao L,Lv X,Wang F,Shen R,Zhou J




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00












  • Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    abstract::Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields a...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park CH,Ju HK,Han JY,Park JS,Kim IH,Seo EY,Kim JK,Hammond J,Lim HS

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • A novel Enterovirus 96 circulating in China causes hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    abstract::Enterovirus 96 (EV-96) is a recently described member of the species Enterovirus C and is associated with paralysis and myelitis. In this study, using metagenomic sequencing, we identified a new enterovirus 96 strain (EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014) as the sole pathogen causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A genomic co...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Y,Sun Y,Ma J,Zhou S,Fang W,Ye J,Tan L,Ji J,Luo D,Li L,Li J,Fang C,Pei N,Shi S,Liu X,Jiang H,Gong S,Xu X

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) genomic segment S3 codes for the major core capsid protein.

    abstract::Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a newly described species of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. Compared with other plant-infecting genus of the family, the function and localization of MRCV and other Fijivirus proteins are poorly understood. Through analysis of viral particle purifications, we positively ident...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Distéfano AJ,Maldonado S,Hopp HE,del Vas M

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of a new Tospovirus infecting soybean.

    abstract::A new, widespread disease was recently observed in soybean in the United States. The disease, named Soybean vein necrosis, is manifested by intraveinal chlorosis and necrosis, and has been found in almost all of the 50 fields visited over a period of 3 years in the midwest and midsouth part of the United States. A vir...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou J,Kantartzi SK,Wen RH,Newman M,Hajimorad MR,Rupe JC,Tzanetakis IE

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nine new RNA viruses associated with the fire ant Solenopsis invicta from its native range.

    abstract::The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) escaped its natural enemies when it was introduced into North America in the 1930s from South America. US efforts have focused on discovery of natural enemies, like viruses, to provide sustainable control of the ant. Nine new virus genomes were sequenced from the invasive...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valles SM,Rivers AR

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Loss and gain of N-linked glycosylation sites in globular head and stem of HA found in A/H3N2 flu fatal and severe cases during 2013 Tunisia flu seasonal survey.

    abstract::Glycosylation on the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza virus acts as an important target for recognition and destruction of virus by innate immune proteins of the collectin family. In the current study, we have characterized the dynamic amino acid changes at N-linked glycosylation sites of f...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El Moussi A,Ben Hadj Kacem MA,Slim A

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a J domain gene of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    abstract::Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) ORF39 (designated as the bjdp gene) is the only J domain gene recorded in baculovirus genomes to date. Computer-assisted analysis revealed that its deduced amino acid sequences possessed a coiled-coil region and a RNA recognition motif (RRM). In vivo the bd...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang L,Yu J,Yin C,Li Z,Hu X,Pang Y

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a newly emerged genetic cluster of H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    abstract::H1 influenza A viruses that were distinct from the classical swine H1 lineage were identified in pigs in Canada in 2003–2004; antigenic and genetic characterization identified the hemagglutinin (HA) as human H1 lineage. The viruses identified in Canadian pigs were human lineage in entirety or double (human–swine) reas...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vincent AL,Ma W,Lager KM,Gramer MR,Richt JA,Janke BH

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Complete genome sequence of goose parvovirus Y strain isolated from Muscovy ducks in China.

    abstract::A goose parvovirus (GPV) Y strain was isolated from Muscovy ducks in Anhui Province of China. By polymerase chain reaction method, its complete genomic sequence was found to be 5,106 bp in length, consisting of 444-bp inverted terminal repeat, 1,844-bp non-structural protein and 2,199-bp capsid protein (VP) regions. T...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu HM,Wang H,Tian XJ,Zhang S,Zhou XH,Qi KZ,Pan L

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Artesunate, an anti-malarial drug, has a potential to inhibit HCV replication.

    abstract::Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health issue. Although the search for HCV treatments has resulted in great achievements, the current treatment methods have limitations, and new methods and drugs for hepatitis C treatment are still required. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai R,Xiao X,Peng F,Li M,Gong G

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of hepatitis B virus isolates in Cambodia.

    abstract::Although it is known that Cambodia is one of the high endemic area of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, molecular characterization of HBV circulating in this country has not been reported. In this study, pre-S gene of HBV from 12 Cambodian patients was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the pre-S gene sequence...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huy TT,Sall AA,Reynes JM,Abe K

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic analysis of the PB1-F2 gene of equine influenza virus.

    abstract::Amino acid and phylogenetic analysis showed that PB1-F2 of H7N7 and H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) evolved into two and nine clades, respectively. The PB1-F2 gene of H7N7 EIV strains isolated after 1973 was identified as being replaced by that of H3N8 EIV circulating simultaneously. All H7N7 EIV strains before 1973...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu G,Guo W,Qi T,Ma J,Zhao S,Tian Z,Pan J,Zhu C,Wang X,Xiang W

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Biophysical and biochemical properties of baculovirus-expressed CaMV P1 protein.

    abstract::Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) gene I encodes a protein (P1) that has been implicated in the control of virus movement in infected plants. To assist in the characterization of the mechanism of action of P1, gene I has been expressed efficiently in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cells using recombinant baculovirus. Contro...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maule AJ,Usmany M,Wilson IG,Boudazin G,Vlak JM

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • A lipase-like gene from Heliothis virescens ascovirus (HvAV-3e) is essential for virus replication and cell cleavage.

    abstract::A unique feature of ascovirus infection is cleavage of host cells into virus containing vesicles. It has been suggested that the virus induces apoptosis, either by expression of a caspase or other means, which is then diverted toward vesicle formation. There is little known about the mechanism of vesicle formation. Re...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smede M,Hussain M,Asgari S

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Capsid protein diversity among Norwalk-like viruses.

    abstract::We have determined the complete capsid gene sequence of 20 Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) collected predominantly from outbreaks in the UK between 1989 and 1996. These comprised nine genogroup I and eleven genogroup II strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these and 15 published sequences suggest seven genomic sub-groups wit...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green J,Vinje J,Gallimore CI,Koopmans M,Hale A,Brown DW,Clegg JC,Chamberlain J

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • A novel explanation for the existence of open reading frames on latency-associated transcripts of alphaherpesviruses.

    abstract::Recent studies indicate that alphaherpesviruses express latency associated transcripts (LATs) from the antisense strand of immediate early (IE) genes of the viral genome. It has been discussed that LATs containing extended open reading frames (ORFs) might be translated into protein products. We found that a salient fe...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boldogköi Z,Murvai J

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Identification and characterization of odv-e25 of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    abstract::Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) odv-e25 is 684 bp long, potentially encoding 227 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.9 kDa. Homology analysis indicated that SpltMNPV ODV-E25 has 35-65% amino acid identity with that of other known baculoviruses. RT-PCR results revealed that...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Z,Pan L,Yu H,Li S,Zhang G,Pang Y

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of a chitinase from EpapGV, a fast killing betabaculovirus.

    abstract::The main function of baculoviral chitinase protein (V-CHIA) is to promote the final liquefaction of infected host larvae, facilitating the dispersion of occlusion bodies (OBs) in the environment. In this study, a v-chiA from Epinotia aporema Granulovirus (EpapGV) was identified and characterized. The 1,713 base pairs ...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salvador R,Ferrelli ML,Sciocco-Cap A,Romanowski V

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic characterization of a rare H12N3 avian influenza virus isolated from a green-winged teal in Japan.

    abstract::This study reports on the genetic characterization of an avian influenza virus, subtype H12N3, isolated from an Eurasian green-winged teal (Anas crecca) in Japan in 2009. The entire genome sequence of the isolate was analyzed, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to characterize the evolutionary history of the iso...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bui VN,Ogawa H,Hussein IT,Hill NJ,Trinh DQ,AboElkhair M,Sultan S,Ma E,Saito K,Watanabe Y,Runstadler JA,Imai K

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Diversity and distribution of Maize-associated totivirus strains from Tanzania.

    abstract::Typically associated with fungal species, members of the viral family Totiviridae have recently been shown to be associated with plants, including important crop species, such as Carica papaya (papaya) and Zea mays (maize). Maize-associated totivirus (MATV) was first described in China and more recently in Ecuador, wh...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Read DA,Featherston J,Rees DJG,Thompson GD,Roberts R,Flett BC,Mashingaidze K,Pietersen G,Kiula B,Kullaya A,Mbega ER

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Complete sequence of the RNA genome of pneumonia virus of mice (PVM).

    abstract::Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) is an enveloped RNA-containing virus of Family Paramyxoviridae. Sequences had been determined previously for a number of PVM genes, although these represented cloned cDNAs rather than consensus sequences. Sequences were not available for the 3' -leader and 5' -trailer regions that constit...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krempl CD,Lamirande EW,Collins PL

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic mechanisms of antigenic variation in infectious bursal disease virus: analysis of a naturally occurring variant virus.

    abstract::The major immunogenic protein VP2 from a pathogenic field isolate (variant A virus) of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was cloned and sequenced to examine antigenic variations. The VP2 open reading frame consists of 1509 nucleotides and codes for a 503 amino acid protein. Overall, the VP2 amino acid sequence of...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lana DP,Beisel CE,Silva RF

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Immunization with combined HSV-2 glycoproteins B2 : D2 gene DNAs: protection against lethal intravaginal challenges in mice.

    abstract::The immunity of a combined DNA vaccine of HSV-2 glycoproteins B2 (gB2) and D2 (gD2) genes in comparison to individual vaccines was studied with regard to protecting against the HSV infection. Two recombinant DNA vaccines of the pHS2-gB2 or pHS2-gD2 were constructed and formulated. The neutralizing antibody titers appe...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee HH,Cha SC,Jang DJ,Lee JK,Choo DW,Kim YS,Uh HS,Kim SY

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus.

    abstract::Cap-independent translations of viral RNAs of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, cardioviruses and aphthoviruses, hepatitis A and C viruses (HAV and HCV), and pestivirus are initiated by the direct binding of 40S ribosomal subunits to a cis-acting genetic element termed the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or ribosome...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Le SY,Siddiqui A,Maizel JV Jr

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of the full-length genome of a rabies virus isolate from India.

    abstract::Rabies is an important public health problem in South East Asia, with cases in this part of the world contributing to about 70% of the global burden. A large number of rabies cases occur in India, however, there is no organized system of surveillance and hence there is a lack of reliable data. Moreover, comprehensive ...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagaraja T,Madhusudana S,Desai A

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleotide sequence of the genome segment encoding nonstructural protein NS1 of bluetongue virus serotype 20 from Australia.

    abstract::The nucleotide sequence of the genome segment (S6) encoding the nonstructural protein NS1 of an Australian isolate of bluetongue virus serotype 20 (BTV 20) has been determined from a series of overlapping cDNA clones synthesized using two terminal 15-mer oligonucleotides as primers. The gene consists of 1769 nucleotid...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cowley JA

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence determination and molecular analysis of two strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 that are attenuated for primates.

    abstract::The Kansas/15626/84 (Ka) and Shipping Fever (SF) strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) replicate less efficiently than human PIV3 (HPIV3) in the upper and lower respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys, and BPIV3 Ka is also highly attenuated in humans and is in clinical trials as a candidate vaccine against ...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bailly JE,McAuliffe JM,Skiadopoulos MH,Collins PL,Murphy BR

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The N-terminus of vaccinia virus host range protein C7L is essential for function.

    abstract::Vaccinia virus (VACV), a member of the Poxviridae family of large double-stranded DNA viruses, is being used as a smallpox vaccine as well as an expression vector for immunization against other infectious diseases and cancer. The host range of wild type VACV is very broad among mammalian cells. C7L is a host range gen...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terajima M,Urban SL,Leporati AM

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus originated from cattle in Gansu Province, China.

    abstract::A bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV) GS-4 was isolated in Western China form dairy cattle with respiratory disease. Genomic comparison analysis with the 5' half genome sequence encompassing the coding region of N(pro), capsid, and envelope glycoproteins showed that the GS-4 should be classified into BVDV-1b1, ...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao S,Shao J,Du J,Lin T,Cong G,Zhao F,Chang H,Yin H

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Detection, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from cucurbits in the northwest region of Iran.

    abstract::One hundred and twenty three cucurbit samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, leaf distortion, fruit mosaic, stunting, mottling and yellowing were collected from several locations in the northwest region of Iran. Screening by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with a cucum...

    journal_title:Virus genes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bashir NS,Kalhor MR,Zarghani SN

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00