Magnesium--essentials for anesthesiologists.


:Magnesium plays a fundamental role in many cellular functions, and thus there is increasing interest in its role in clinical medicine. Although numerous experimental studies indicate positive effects of magnesium in a variety of disease states, large clinical trials often give conflicting results. However, there is clear evidence for magnesium to benefit patients with eclampsia or torsades de pointes arrhythmias. In addition, magnesium seems to have antinociceptive and anesthetic as well as neuroprotective effects, yet well-designed large clinical trials are required to determine its actual efficacy in pain management or in the state of stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The current review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge and available evidence with respect to physiologic aspects of magnesium and proposed indications and recommendations for its use in the clinical setting.






Herroeder S,Schönherr ME,De Hert SG,Hollmann MW




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00












  • Beneficial effects from beta-adrenergic blockade in elderly patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Perioperative beta-blockade has been shown to improve long-term cardiac outcome in noncardiac surgical patients. A possible mechanism for the reduced risk of perioperative myocardial infarction is the attenuation of the excitotoxic effects of catecholamine surges by beta-blockade. It was hypothesized that be...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Zaugg M,Tagliente T,Lucchinetti E,Jacobs E,Krol M,Bodian C,Reich DL,Silverstein JH

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cervical spinal cord, root, and bony spine injuries: a closed claims analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to characterize cervical cord, root, and bony spine claims in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims database to formulate hypotheses regarding mechanisms of injury. METHODS:All general anesthesia claims (1970-2007) in the Closed Claims database were searched to id...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hindman BJ,Palecek JP,Posner KL,Traynelis VC,Lee LA,Sawin PD,Tredway TL,Todd MM,Domino KB

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Propofol-induced Changes in α-β Sensorimotor Cortical Connectivity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Anesthetics are believed to alter functional connectivity across brain regions. However, network-level analyses of anesthesia, particularly in humans, are sparse. The authors hypothesized that propofol-induced loss of consciousness results in functional disconnection of human sensorimotor cortices underlying...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malekmohammadi M,AuYong N,Price CM,Tsolaki E,Hudson AE,Pouratian N

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors on the anesthetic requirement (MAC) for halothane in rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent evidences have documented that several pharmacologic actions of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists are mediated via activation of not only alpha2-adrenoceptors, but also by imidazoline receptors, which are nonadrenergic receptors in the central nervous system. However, the effect of imidazoline receptors on...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kagawa K,Mammoto T,Hayashi Y,Kamibayashi T,Mashimo T,Yoshiya I

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Low-dose propofol-induced amnesia is not due to a failure of encoding: left inferior prefrontal cortex is still active.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. METHODS:Seventeen volunteer participants (12 men; aged 30.4 +/- 6.5 yr) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O positron ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Veselis RA,Pryor KO,Reinsel RA,Mehta M,Pan H,Johnson R Jr

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Basal forebrain histaminergic transmission modulates electroencephalographic activity and emergence from isoflurane anesthesia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons are involved in the sedative component of anesthetic action. The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in the basal forebrain receives dense excitatory innervation from the tuberomammillary nucleus and is recognized as an important site of sleep-wake regulation. Thi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luo T,Leung LS

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dishabituation of mesencephalic reticular neurons by anesthetics.

    abstract::To determine whether neuronal firing is affected by anesthetics, the behavior of neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation in response to repetitive somatosensory stimulation at 2/sec was studied during wakefulness and during nitrous oxide, halothane, and thiopental anesthesia in the cat. With clinical doses of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimoji K,Matsuki M,Shimizu H,Maruyama Y,Aida S

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pronociceptive effects of remifentanil in a mouse model of postsurgical pain: effect of a second surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Remifentanil anesthesia enhances postoperative pain in animals and humans. The authors evaluated the impact of the dose (microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and duration of remifentanil infusion, and the effects of a second surgery on postoperative pain sensitization. METHODS:Mice received different doses of remifen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cabañero D,Campillo A,Célérier E,Romero A,Puig MM

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of intravenous anesthetics on normal and passively sensitized human isolated airway smooth muscle.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:General anesthetics may modify airway responsiveness. The authors investigated the effect of thiopental, propofol, and etomidate on airway smooth muscle. METHODS:Contraction experiments were done in human airway rings that were either normal or passively sensitized with asthmatic serum. The effect of propof...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ouedraogo N,Roux E,Forestier F,Rossetti M,Savineau JP,Marthan R

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathetic ganglionic blockade masks beneficial effect of isoflurane on histologic outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia in the rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Isoflurane-anesthetized rats have better outcome from global cerebral ischemia than rats anesthetized with fentanyl and nitrous oxide. The authors wanted to determine whether circulating catecholamine concentrations depend on the anesthetic agent and whether sympathetic ganglionic blockade affects anesthetic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mackensen GB,Nellgård B,Miura Y,Chu CT,Dexter F,Pearlstein RD,Warner DS

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity and distribution of lidocaine in nonasphyxiated and asphyxiated baboon fetuses.

    abstract::The dosage and blood concentration of lidocaine required to produce central nervous and cardiovascular system toxicity in both nonasphyxiated and asphyxiated fetuses were determined in ten pregnant baboons with fetuses of average gestation of 158 days (term, 185 days). Lidocaine was infused into the fetal jugular vein...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morishima HO,Covino BG

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise produces sensitivity to metocurine.

    abstract::Chronic muscle disuse decreases the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to nondepolarizing relaxants, such as metocurine (MTC). In this study, the authors determined whether chronic conditioning would produce the opposite effect and increase the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to MTC. Five dogs were exercised by daily runni...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gronert GA,White DA,Shafer SL,Matteo RS

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Buprenorphine enhances and prolongs the postoperative analgesic effect of bupivacaine in patients receiving infragluteal sciatic nerve block.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Results from previous studies have shown favorable effects from the addition of buprenorphine to local anesthetics used for interscalene or axillary perivascular brachial plexus blocks. The main objective of the current study was to determine whether addition of buprenorphine could enhance bupivacaine analge...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Candido KD,Hennes J,Gonzalez S,Mikat-Stevens M,Pinzur M,Vasic V,Knezevic NN

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Hypothermic modulation of cerebral ischemic injury during cardiopulmonary bypass in pigs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine whether progressive levels of hypothermia (37, 34, 31, or 28 degrees C) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pigs reduce the physiologic and metabolic consequences of global cerebral ischemia. METHODS:Sagittal sinus and cortical microdialysis catheters were inserted ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conroy BP,Lin CY,Jenkins LW,DeWitt DS,Zornow MH,Uchida T,Johnston WE

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Vecuronium neuromuscular blockade reflects liver function during hepatic autotransplantation in pigs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rapid assessment of hepatic function early after reperfusion of the liver graft is of great importance, because it may allow for prompt detection of incipient hepatic graft failure. The current study was undertaken to determine whether the continuous recording of neuromuscular transmission could be used as a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pittet JF,Morel DR,Mentha G,Schopfer C,Belenger J,Benakis A,Tassonyi E

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of pre- and postischemic administration of thiopental on transmitter amino acid release and histologic outcome in gerbils.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The mechanism by which barbiturates protect neurons against ischemia is unclear, particularly when they are given after ischemia or reperfusion begins. Because an excess release of excitatory neurotransmitters causes postsynaptic membrane depolarization, which triggers neuronal damage in ischemia, the effect...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amakawa K,Adachi N,Liu K,Ikemune K,Fujitani T,Arai T

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Derivation and diagnostic accuracy of the surgical lung injury prediction model.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious postoperative complication with limited treatment options. A preoperative risk-prediction model would assist clinicians and scientists interested in ALI. The objective of this investigation was to develop a surgical lung injury prediction (SLIP) model to predict risk of p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kor DJ,Warner DO,Alsara A,Fernández-Pérez ER,Malinchoc M,Kashyap R,Li G,Gajic O

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative electrocardiograms: patient factors predictive of abnormalities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Age is often the sole criterion for determining the need for preoperative electrocardiograms. However, screening electrocardiograms have not been shown to add value above clinical information. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to target electrocardiograms ordering to patients most l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Correll DJ,Hepner DL,Chang C,Tsen L,Hevelone ND,Bader AM

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of halothane and isoflurane on hyperexcitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons after incision in the rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine whether halothane and isoflurane used during and after surgical injury attenuate subsequent hyperexcitability of spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons by preventing development of central sensitization. METHODS:Activity of a wide-dynamic-range neuron of the SDH was isolated...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawamata M,Narimatsu E,Kozuka Y,Takahashi T,Sugino S,Niiya T,Namiki A

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Monitoring hepatic venous hemoglobin oxygen saturation in patients undergoing liver surgery.

    abstract::Hepatic venous oxygen saturation (ShvO2) was continuously monitored in 33 consecutive patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy. Fiberoptic pulmonary artery catheters were inserted into the hepatic vein (HV) and in the pulmonary artery through the right internal jugular vein before anesthetic induction. The success rate a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kainuma M,Fujiwara Y,Kimura N,Shitaokoshi A,Nakashima K,Shimada Y

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of 30% nitrous oxide on thermoregulatory responses in humans during hypothermia.

    abstract::Clinical studies have reported that body core temperature decreases during prolonged surgery and anesthesia. Although this finding has been attributed primarily to increased heat loss resulting from exposure of body cavities and infusion of cold solutions, it is generally recognized that anesthesia interferes with the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Passias TC,Mekjavić IB,Eiken O

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Antinociceptive interaction between opioids and medetomidine: systemic additivity and spinal synergy.

    abstract::The antinociceptive interaction on the tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests between opioid analgesics and medetomidine after intravenous (iv) or intrathecal administration were examined by isobolographic analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fixed ratios of medetomidine to morphine, fentanyl, and meperidine ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ossipov MH,Harris S,Lloyd P,Messineo E,Lin BS,Bagley J

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of blood glucose changes and physostigmine on anesthetic requirements of halothane in rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although hyper- and hypoglycemia induce neurophysiologic changes, there have been no reports on the effects of blood glucose changes on anesthetic requirements. This study examined the effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in rats. In addition, based on a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishizawa Y,Ohta S,Shimonaka H,Dohi S

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid volume is the primary determinant of sensory block extent and duration during spinal anesthesia.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:BACKGROUND. Injection of local anesthetic into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produces anesthesia of unpredictable extent and duration. Although many factors have been identified that affect the extent of spinal anesthesia, correlations are relatively poor and the extent of spread remains unpredictable. This stud...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carpenter RL,Hogan QH,Liu SS,Crane B,Moore J

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of edrophonium and neostigmine on the pharmacokinetics and neuromuscular effects of mivacurium.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies demonstrated that both edrophonium and neostigmine affect mivacurium's pharmacokinetics, thereby potentially affecting its recovery profile. However, those studies were not clinically relevant because mivacurium was still infused after the antagonists were given. In the present study, the au...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Szenohradszky J,Fogarty D,Kirkegaard-Nielsen H,Brown R,Sharma ML,Fisher DM

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Acute surgical anemia influences the cardioprotective effects of beta-blockade: a single-center, propensity-matched cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite decreasing cardiac events, perioperative beta-blockade also increases perioperative stroke and mortality. Major bleeding and/or hypotension are independently associated with these outcomes. To investigate the hypothesis that beta-blockade limits the cardiac reserve to compensate for acute surgical an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beattie WS,Wijeysundera DN,Karkouti K,McCluskey S,Tait G,Mitsakakis N,Hare GM

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Noninvasive Tracking of Anesthesia Neurotoxicity in the Developing Rodent Brain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Potential deleterious effect of multiple anesthesia exposures on the developing brain remains a clinical concern. We hypothesized that multiple neonatal anesthesia exposures are more detrimental to brain maturation than an equivalent single exposure, with more pronounced long-term behavioral consequences. We...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makaryus R,Lee H,Robinson J,Enikolopov G,Benveniste H

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with human neuronal potassium currents in relation to clinical concentrations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Neuronal voltage-dependent potassium (K) currents are crucial for various cellular functions, such as the integration of temporal information in the central nervous system. Data for the effects of intravenous anesthetics on human neuronal K currents are limited. It was the authors' aim to evaluate the concen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friederich P,Urban BW

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Intrathecal coadministration of D-APV and morphine is maximally effective in a rat experimental pancreatitis model.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many studies have demonstrated that either glutamate -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists or opioid receptor agonists provide antinociception. Spinal coadministration of an NMDA receptor antagonist and morphine has an additive action for control of various pain states in animal models. The current...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Y,Vera-Portocarrero LP,Westlund KN

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Glycine transporter inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic pain with memory impairment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Impaired excitatory and inhibitory balance in the spinal dorsal horn has a crucial role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. The authors addressed the therapeutic impact of increasing spinal glycine applied exogenously or via blockade of glycine transporter 1 using its selective inhibitors sarcosine and N...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanabe M,Takasu K,Yamaguchi S,Kodama D,Ono H

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00