Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries.


:Tetanus is an expected complication when disasters strike in developing countries, where tetanus immunization coverage is often low or nonexistent. Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal disease. Clusters of infections have recently occurred after tsunamis and earthquakes in Indonesia, Kashmir, and Haiti. The emergency response to clusters of tetanus infections in developing countries after a natural disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach in the absence of an intensive care unit, readily available resources, and a functioning cold-chain system. It is essential that injured people receive immediate surgical and medical care of contaminated, open wounds with immunization and immunoglobulin therapy. Successful treatment of tetanus depends on prompt diagnosis of clinical tetanus, treatment to ensure neutralization of circulating toxin and elimination of C. tetani infection, control of spasms and convulsions, maintenance of the airway, and management of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction.


Ann Intern Med


Afshar M,Raju M,Ansell D,Bleck TP




Has Abstract


2011-03-01 00:00:00














  • Intravenous esomeprazole for prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding: a randomized trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Use of proton-pump inhibitors in the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is controversial because discrepant results have been reported in different ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether intravenous esomeprazole prevents recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding better than placebo in a multiethnic patient sa...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Sung JJ,Barkun A,Kuipers EJ,Mössner J,Jensen DM,Stuart R,Lau JY,Ahlbom H,Kilhamn J,Lind T,Peptic Ulcer Bleed Study Group.

    更新日期:2009-04-07 00:00:00

  • Risk reduction for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among intravenous drug users.

    abstract::Intravenous drug users are the second largest risk group for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a bridge to two other groups: children and heterosexual partners. In the absence of effective treatment or vaccines, control of the epidemic among drug users will rely on efforts to reduce needle sharing. How...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Des Jarlais DC,Friedman SR,Hopkins W

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • The changing prognosis of classic hemophilia (factor VIII "deficiency").

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate relative risk of mortality and median life expectancy for patients with classic hemophilia by a life-table analysis, taking into account deaths that may have occurred in infancy or childhood before the onset of symptoms. DESIGN:Retrospective chart review of clinical series. SETTING:Referral-base...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Jones PK,Ratnoff OD

    更新日期:1991-04-15 00:00:00

  • Diuretics, beta-blockers, and the risk for sudden cardiac death in hypertensive patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the use of non-potassium-sparing diuretics and beta-blockers is associated with an excess risk for sudden cardiac death in hypertensive patients. DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PATIENTS:257 case-patients who had died suddenly while receiving drug therapy...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoes AW,Grobbee DE,Lubsen J,Man in 't Veld AJ,van der Does E,Hofman A

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Four-Week Direct-Acting Antiviral Regimens in Noncirrhotic Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection: An Open-Label, Nonrandomized Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for 6 weeks achieves sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 95% in some patients. If effective, shorter therapeutic courses could improve adherence and treatment costs. OBJECTIVE:To determine factors predictive ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kohli A,Kattakuzhy S,Sidharthan S,Nelson A,McLaughlin M,Seamon C,Wilson E,Meissner EG,Sims Z,Silk R,Gross C,Akoth E,Tang L,Price A,Jolley TA,Emmanuel B,Proschan M,Teferi G,Chavez J,Abbott S,Osinusi A,Mo H,Poli

    更新日期:2015-12-15 00:00:00

  • Familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Immunologic and cellular characterization.

    abstract::Chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed in four of five siblings, whose father succumbed to the same disease. The pattern of immune deficiency in the leukemic siblings resembled that found in nonfamilial cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and was correlated with the severity of clinical involvement. In three siblin...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1976-05-01 00:00:00

  • In the clinic. Hypothyroidism.

    abstract::The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic f...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McDermott MT

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Current and future concepts of lung cancer.

    abstract::We discuss here some of the last decade's diagnostic and therapeutic advances in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as current and future research objectives. Roentgenographs from selected patients illustrate the natural history of lung cancer. We present perspectives concerning selection from the growing diagnosti...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1975-07-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin-D-resistant osteomalacia in hemodialysis patients lacking secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    abstract::We describe a sporadic, vitamin-D-resistant osteomalacic syndrome in 19 patients undergoing hemodialysis. The syndrome was found in less than 1.5% of patients from referring dialysis centers. All 19 patients had multiple fractures, severe myopathy, and many developed spontaneous hypercalcemia. Severe osteomalacia with...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hodsman AB,Sherrard DJ,Wong EG,Brickman AS,Lee DB,Alfrey AC,Singer FR,Norman AW,Coburn JW

    更新日期:1981-05-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for Anxiety in Adolescent and Adult Women: A Recommendation From the Women's Preventive Services Initiative.

    abstract:DESCRIPTION:The Women's Preventive Services Initiative (WPSI), a national coalition of women's health professional organizations and patient representatives, developed a recommendation on screening for anxiety in adolescent and adult women to improve detection; achieve earlier diagnosis and treatment; and improve healt...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Gregory KD,Chelmow D,Nelson HD,Van Niel MS,Conry JA,Garcia F,Kendig SM,O'Reilly N,Qaseem A,Ramos D,Salganicoff A,Son S,Wood JK,Zahn C,Women’s Preventive Services Initiative.

    更新日期:2020-07-07 00:00:00

  • Liver biopsy in hemophilia A.

    abstract::Hepatitis is a significant complication of the treatment of hemophilia A with factor VIII concentrates. Chronic liver disease in these patients is infrequently documented in the literature. The results of percutaneous liver biopsy, under the coverage of glycine-precipitated factor VIII, in six patients with hemophilia...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lesesne HR,Morgan JE,Blatt PM,Webster WP,Roberts HR

    更新日期:1977-06-01 00:00:00

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and death from peptic ulcer in elderly persons.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To determine the association between current non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and fatal peptic ulcers or upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. DESIGN:Nested case control study using a linked Medicaid-death certificate database. SETTING:Tennessee Medicaid enrollees aged 60 and g...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Griffin MR,Ray WA,Schaffner W

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Combination therapy with telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in patients with HIV: a randomized trial.

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    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Sulkowski MS,Sherman KE,Dieterich DT,Bsharat M,Mahnke L,Rockstroh JK,Gharakhanian S,McCallister S,Henshaw J,Girard PM,Adiwijaya B,Garg V,Rubin RA,Adda N,Soriano V

    更新日期:2013-07-16 00:00:00

  • A reassessment of the importance of "low-count" bacteriuria in young women with acute urinary symptoms.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether a statistical association exists between "low-count" bacteriuria (> 10(2) to 10(4) colony-forming units/mL) and acute urinary symptoms in young women. DESIGN:Prospective, case-control study. SETTING:Gynecology clinic at a student health center. PATIENTS:Women with or without urinary or...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kunin CM,White LV,Hua TH

    更新日期:1993-09-15 00:00:00

  • Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To review the clinical use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, including its efficacy with acute and chronic forms of respiratory failure, its mechanism of action, and its implementation. DATA SOURCES:Studies were identified through a MEDLINE search using the key words respiratory failure and mechani...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meyer TJ,Hill NS

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Outcome reporting among drug trials registered in

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    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bourgeois FT,Murthy S,Mandl KD

    更新日期:2010-08-03 00:00:00

  • The quality of reporting in published cost-utility analyses, 1976-1997.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Cost-utility analysis is a type of cost-effectiveness analysis in which health effects are measured in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Such analyses have become popular for examining the health and economic consequences of health and medical interventions, and they have been recommended by ...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neumann PJ,Stone PW,Chapman RH,Sandberg EA,Bell CM

    更新日期:2000-06-20 00:00:00

  • Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 2: The Bayes factor.

    abstract::Bayesian inference is usually presented as a method for determining how scientific belief should be modified by data. Although Bayesian methodology has been one of the most active areas of statistical development in the past 20 years, medical researchers have been reluctant to embrace what they perceive as a subjectiv...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodman SN

    更新日期:1999-06-15 00:00:00

  • Residual venous thrombosis as a predictive factor of recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The optimum duration of anticoagulant therapy after an episode of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is controversial. Contributing to the controversy is uncertainty about whether residual venous thrombosis, as assessed by repeated ultrasonography over time, increases the risk for recurrent thromboembolism. OBJEC...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prandoni P,Lensing AW,Prins MH,Bernardi E,Marchiori A,Bagatella P,Frulla M,Mosena L,Tormene D,Piccioli A,Simioni P,Girolami A

    更新日期:2002-12-17 00:00:00

  • Toxic shock syndrome surveillance in the United States, 1980 to 1981.

    abstract::Between 1 January 1980 and 18 October 1981, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control collected information on 1407 cases of toxic shock syndrome using a nationwide passive surveillance system. Ninety-two percent of the reported cases were associated with menstruation. Information available on the type of men...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reingold AL,Hargrett NT,Shands KN,Dan BB,Schmid GP,Strickland BY,Broome CV

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Simulation exercises as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.

    abstract::Simulation is a versatile technique used in a variety of health care settings for a variety of purposes, but the extent to which simulation may improve patient safety remains unknown. This systematic review examined evidence on the effects of simulation techniques on patient safety outcomes. PubMed and the Cochrane Li...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schmidt E,Goldhaber-Fiebert SN,Ho LA,McDonald KM

    更新日期:2013-03-05 00:00:00

  • Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    abstract::The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During th...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kreiss Y,Merin O,Peleg K,Levy G,Vinker S,Sagi R,Abargel A,Bartal C,Lin G,Bar A,Bar-On E,Schwaber MJ,Ash N

    更新日期:2010-07-06 00:00:00

  • Diffuse esophageal spasm: a reappraisal.

    abstract::With the renewed interest in esophageal motility disorders, diffuse esophageal spasm is being diagnosed more frequently. In many clinical settings, however, the term is used as a synonym for noncardiac chest pain. Our review of the literature and broad clinical experience in studying the motility patterns of healthy s...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter JE,Castell DO

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Menopausal hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Menopausal hormone therapy to prevent chronic conditions is currently not recommended because of its adverse effects. PURPOSE:To update evidence about the effectiveness of hormone therapy in reducing risk for chronic conditions and adverse effects, and to examine whether outcomes vary among women in differe...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nelson HD,Walker M,Zakher B,Mitchell J

    更新日期:2012-07-17 00:00:00

  • Effects of alcohol and fluvastatin on lipid metabolism and hepatic function.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of fluvastatin, a synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, combined with moderate alcohol consumption on lipid profiles and hepatic function in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. DESIGN:Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. S...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Smit JW,Wijnne HJ,Schobben F,Sitsen A,De Bruin TW,Erkelens DW

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Myocardial ischemia during cocaine withdrawal.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of myocardial ischemia in patients with cocaine addiction. DESIGN:Myocardial ischemia in chronic cocaine users was detected by serial 24-hour electrocardiographic ambulatory (Holter) monitoring and exercise treadmill testing in chronic cocaine users. The Holter tapes were co...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nademanee K,Gorelick DA,Josephson MA,Ryan MA,Wilkins JN,Robertson HA,Mody FV,Intarachot V

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • The bioavailability of folic acid added to wine.

    abstract::Folate deficiency is a frequent cause of anemia in alcoholics, but little attention has been paid to its prevention. Folic acid was readily soluble in wines of high ethanol content at concentrations of 10 microgram/ml. Lactobacillus casei folate activity of folic acid added to wines was well maintained during a month'...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kaunitz JD,Lindenbaum J

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: the case for conservative management.

    abstract::The management of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is controversial. Reported benefits from treatment prevention of acute gouty arthritis, chronic tophaceous gout, urolithiasis, or gouty nephropathy. A review of experimental and clinical data suggests that the risks of asymptomatic hyperuricemia are small or unknown and the...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liang MH,Fries JF

    更新日期:1978-05-01 00:00:00

  • Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    abstract::Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavio...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Emanuel EJ,Ubel PA,Kessler JB,Meyer G,Muller RW,Navathe AS,Patel P,Pearl R,Rosenthal MB,Sacks L,Sen AP,Sherman P,Volpp KG

    更新日期:2016-01-19 00:00:00

  • Systematic review: impact of health information technology on quality, efficiency, and costs of medical care.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Experts consider health information technology key to improving efficiency and quality of health care. PURPOSE:To systematically review evidence on the effect of health information technology on quality, efficiency, and costs of health care. DATA SOURCES:The authors systematically searched the English-lang...

    journal_title:Annals of internal medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chaudhry B,Wang J,Wu S,Maglione M,Mojica W,Roth E,Morton SC,Shekelle PG

    更新日期:2006-05-16 00:00:00