The Nrf2-inducible antioxidant defense in astrocytes can be both up- and down-regulated by activated microglia:Involvement of p38 MAPK.


:The effects of microglia-conditioned medium (MCM) on the inducible Nrf2 system in astrocyte-rich cultures were investigated by determination of glutathione (GSH) levels, γglutamylcysteine ligase (γGCL) activity, the protein levels of Nrf2, Keap1, the modulatory subunit of γGCL (γGCL-M) and activated MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK and p38). Microglia were either cultured for 24 h in serum-free culture medium to achieve microglia-conditioned medium from non-activated cells (MCM(0) ), used as control condition, or activated with different concentrations (0.1-1,000 ng mL(-1) ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce MCM(0.1-1,000) . Acute exposure (24 h) to MCM(100) increased GSH, γGCL activity, the protein levels of γGCL-M, Nrf2, and activated JNK and ERK1/2 in astrocyte-rich cultures. In contrast, treatment with MCM(10) for 24 h decreased components of the Nrf2 system in parallel with activation of p38 MAPK. Stimulation of the Nrf2 system by tBHQ was partly intact after 24 h but blocked after 72 h treatment with MCM(10) and MCM(100) . This down-regulation after 72 h correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and lack of ERK1/2 and JNK activation. The negative effects were partly reversed by an inhibitor of p38 which restored tBHQ mediated protection against oxidative stress. In conclusion, the study showed a negative effect of MCM(10) on the inducible anti-oxidant defense in astrocyte-rich cultures at both 24 and 72 h that correlated with activation of p38 and was partly reversed by a p38 inhibitor. A transient protective effect of MCM(100) on astrocyte-rich cultures against H(2)O(2) toxicity was observed at 24 h which coincided with activation of JNK and ERK1/2.






Correa F,Ljunggren E,Mallard C,Nilsson M,Weber SG,Sandberg M




Has Abstract


2011-05-01 00:00:00














  • How microglia sense and regulate neuronal activity.

    abstract::Microglia are innate immune cells of the central nervous system that sense extracellular cues. Brain injuries, inflammation, and pathology evoke dynamic structural responses in microglia, altering their morphology and motility. The dynamic motility of microglia is hypothesized to be a critical first step in sensing lo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Umpierre AD,Wu LJ

    更新日期:2020-12-28 00:00:00

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide-like (ANP-LIR) and ANP prohormone immunoreactive astrocytes and neurons of human cerebral cortex.

    abstract::Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) represents a family of related peptides originally isolated from cardiac atria that have potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant properties. ANP has previously been localized in neurons of the rat brain in regions subserving cardiovascular functions and fluid/electrolyte balance...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKenzie JC,Berman NE,Thomas CR,Young JK,Compton LY,Cothran LN,Liu WL,Klein RM

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • cAMP cascade (PKA, Epac, adenylyl cyclase, Gi, and phosphodiesterases) regulates myelin phagocytosis mediated by complement receptor-3 and scavenger receptor-AI/II in microglia and macrophages.

    abstract::The removal by phagocytosis of degenerated myelin is central for repair in Wallerian degeneration that follows traumatic injury to axons and in autoimmune demyelinating diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis). We tested for roles played by the cAMP cascade in the regulation of myelin phagocytosis mediated by complement re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makranz C,Cohen G,Reichert F,Kodama T,Rotshenker S

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Microglial PHOX and Mac-1 are essential to the enhanced dopaminergic neurodegeneration elicited by A30P and A53T mutant alpha-synuclein.

    abstract::alpha-Synuclein, a gene whose mutations, duplication, and triplication has been linked to autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (fPD), appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD (sPD) as well. Enhancement of neurodegeneration induced by mutant alpha-synuclein has been attributed to dat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang W,Dallas S,Zhang D,Guo JP,Pang H,Wilson B,Miller DS,Chen B,Zhang W,McGeer PL,Hong JS,Zhang J

    更新日期:2007-08-15 00:00:00

  • Capture of extracellular zinc ions by astrocytes.

    abstract::Synaptic zinc ions released during synaptic transmission interact with pre- and postsynaptic neuroreceptors, thus modulating neurotransmission. It is likely that they have to be efficiently cleared from the extracellular milieu to assure subsequent synaptic events. Both neurons and glia are assumed to participate in t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Varea E,Alonso-Llosà G,Molowny A,Lopez-Garcia C,Ponsoda X

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis mediated by p53 protein in glial cells.

    abstract::It is now generally accepted that massive neuronal death due to oxidative stress is a regular feature of brains in neurodegenerative diseases. However, much less attention has been given to the death of glial cells. In this study, we examined p53-sensitive apoptosis of cells by using human glioblastoma A172 cells and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kitamura Y,Ota T,Matsuoka Y,Tooyama I,Kimura H,Shimohama S,Nomura Y,Gebicke-Haerter PJ,Taniguchi T

    更新日期:1999-01-15 00:00:00

  • PPARβ/δ-agonist GW0742 ameliorates dysfunction in fatty acid oxidation in PSEN1ΔE9 astrocytes.

    abstract::Astrocytes are the gatekeepers of neuronal energy supply. In neurodegenerative diseases, bioenergetics demand increases and becomes reliant upon fatty acid oxidation as a source of energy. Defective fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial dysfunctions correlate with hippocampal neurodegeneration and memory deficits in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Konttinen H,Gureviciene I,Oksanen M,Grubman A,Loppi S,Huuskonen MT,Korhonen P,Lampinen R,Keuters M,Belaya I,Tanila H,Kanninen KM,Goldsteins G,Landreth G,Koistinaho J,Malm T

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcriptional regulation of homeostatic and disease-associated-microglial genes by IRF1, LXRβ, and CEBPα.

    abstract::Microglia transform from homeostatic to disease-associated-microglia (DAM) profiles in neurodegeneration. Within DAM, we recently identified distinct pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory sub-profiles although transcriptional regulators of homeostatic and distinct DAM profiles remain unclear. Informed by these studie...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao T,Jernigan J,Raza SA,Dammer EB,Xiao H,Seyfried NT,Levey AI,Rangaraju S

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Microglia and sexual differentiation of the developing brain: A focus on extrinsic factors.

    abstract::Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, have recently been removed from the position of mere sentinels and promoted to the role of active sculptors of developing circuits and cells. Alongside their functions in normal brain development, microglia coordinate sexual differentiation of the brain, a set of proces...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: VanRyzin JW,Marquardt AE,Pickett LA,McCarthy MM

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive deficits in mice lacking Nsun5, a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase, with impairment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    abstract::Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a microdeletion disorder with cognitive phenotype. NSUN5 gene, which encodes a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase, is located in WBS deletion locus. To investigate the influence of NSUN5 deletion on cognitive behaviors, we produced single-gene Nsun5 knockout (Nsun5-KO) mice. Here, we re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang T,Chen P,Li W,Sha S,Wang Y,Yuan Z,Shen B,Chen L

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • The enteric glia: identity and functions.

    abstract::Enteric glial cells were first described at the end of the 19th century, but they attracted more interest from researchers only in the last decades of the 20th. Although, they have a different embryological origin, the enteric GLIA share many characteristics with astrocytes, the main glial cell type of the central ner...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Coelho-Aguiar Jde M,Bon-Frauches AC,Gomes AL,Veríssimo CP,Aguiar DP,Matias D,Thomasi BB,Gomes AS,Brito GA,Moura-Neto V

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Terminal complement complexes concomitantly stimulate proliferation and rescue of Schwann cells from apoptosis.

    abstract::The consequences of sublytic terminal complement complex (TCC) assembly on Schwann cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by using purified complement proteins (C5*-9) or antibody-sensitized Schwann cells in the presence of a serum that was depleted of the seventh component of complement (C7dHS) and reconstitu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dashiell SM,Rus H,Koski CL

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Heterosynaptic long-term depression mediated by ATP released from astrocytes.

    abstract::Heterosynaptic long-term depression (hLTD) at untetanized synapses accompanying the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) spatially sharpens the activity-induced synaptic potentiation; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found that hLTD in the hippocampal CA1 region is caused by stimulation-induc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen J,Tan Z,Zeng L,Zhang X,He Y,Gao W,Wu X,Li Y,Bu B,Wang W,Duan S

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells.

    abstract::Interactions between astrocytes and endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in the control of blood-brain barrier permeability and transport. Astrocytes and endothelial cells respond to a variety of stimuli with an increase of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) that is propagated to adjacent cells a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leybaert L,Paemeleire K,Strahonja A,Sanderson MJ

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Voltage-dependent Na(+)-HCO3- cotransporter and Na+/H+ exchanger are involved in intracellular pH regulation of cultured mature rat cerebellar oligodendrocytes.

    abstract::Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured at 37 degrees C in mature rat cerebellar oligodendrocytes dissociated in culture by using the pH-sensitive probe BCECF. Cells were identified by anti-galactocerebroside antibody. The mean steady-state pHi was 7.02 in the absence of CO2/bicarbonate (Hepes-buffered solution) at an ext...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boussouf A,Lambert RC,Gaillard S

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cell therapy for spinal cord injury with olfactory ensheathing glia cells (OECs).

    abstract::The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gómez RM,Sánchez MY,Portela-Lomba M,Ghotme K,Barreto GE,Sierra J,Moreno-Flores MT

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Myelination, oligodendrocytes, and serious mental illness.

    abstract::Historically, the human brain has been conceptually segregated from the periphery and further dichotomized into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) based on the whitish appearance of the exceptionally high lipid content of the myelin sheaths encasing neuronal axons. These simplistic dichotomies were unfortunately e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haroutunian V,Katsel P,Roussos P,Davis KL,Altshuler LL,Bartzokis G

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fish optic nerve oligodendrocytes support axonal regeneration of fish and mammalian retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Segments from adult fish and rat retinae were explanted on myelin-marker expressing oligodendrocytes derived from the regenerating goldfish optic nerve. Fish axons grew in high density and even rat retinal axons regenerated to considerable length on the surface of the fish oligodendrocytes, suggesting that this type o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bastmeyer M,Bähr M,Stuermer CA

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation by the Pax-3 transcription factor.

    abstract::Pax-3 is a paired domain transcription factor that plays many roles during vertebrate development. In the Schwann cell lineage, Pax-3 is expressed at an early stage in Schwann cells precursors of the embryonic nerve, is maintained in the nonmyelinating cells of the adult nerve, and is upregulated in Schwann cells afte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doddrell RD,Dun XP,Moate RM,Jessen KR,Mirsky R,Parkinson DB

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Depression of parallel and climbing fiber transmission to Bergmann glia is input specific and correlates with increased precision of synaptic transmission.

    abstract::In the cerebellar cortex, Bergmann glia enclose the synapses of both parallel and climbing fiber inputs to the Purkinje neuron. The glia express Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors, and the GLAST and GLT-1 classes of glutamate transporter, which are activated by glutamate released during synaptic transmission. We have pre...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balakrishnan S,Bellamy TC

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transcriptional regulation of scar gene expression in primary astrocytes.

    abstract::The failure of the adult injured spinal cord to support axonal regeneration is in part attributed to the glial scar. Reactive astrocytes constitute a major cellular component of the glial scar and are heterogeneous with respect to the extracellular matrix proteins that they secrete. Astrocytes may produce antiregenera...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gris P,Tighe A,Levin D,Sharma R,Brown A

    更新日期:2007-08-15 00:00:00

  • Bcl-2-expressing oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system leading to selective destruction of myelin sheaths and/or oligodendrocytes. The immunological mechanisms responsible for myelin destruction and the primary target of the immune response have not yet been identified. Prior studies h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuhlmann T,Lucchinetti C,Zettl UK,Bitsch A,Lassmann H,Brück W

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inflammatory mediators increase the expression of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in rat astrocytes in culture.

    abstract::In the central nervous system, glial cells play an important role in inflammatory and immune responses, and opioid peptides have been identified as essential mediators between the nervous and the immune systems. We report the profound upregulation of the opioid-related nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) by inflammatory me...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buzas B,Rosenberger J,Kim KW,Cox BM

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differential cell proliferation in the cortex of the APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    abstract::Plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to decrease proliferation in neurogenic niches in AD mouse models, but the effects on cell proliferation and differentiation in other brain areas have not been studied in detail. We analyzed cell proliferation in the cortex of wild type (WT) and APPswePS1dE9 trans...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamphuis W,Orre M,Kooijman L,Dahmen M,Hol EM

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Co-localization of Nkx6.2 and Nkx2.2 homeodomain proteins in differentiated myelinating oligodendrocytes.

    abstract::Recent studies have suggested that Nkx6.2/Gtx and Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factors are involved in the regulation of oligodendrocyte maturation and/or myelination which occur predominantly in postnatal stages. However, their cellular specificity in postnatal central nervous system has not been characterized an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cai J,Zhu Q,Zheng K,Li H,Qi Y,Cao Q,Qiu M

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Oligodendrocyte precursor cells generate pituicytes in vivo during neurohypophysis development.

    abstract::In the vertebrate brain, much remains to be understood concerning the origin of glial cell diversity and the potential lineage relationships between the various types of glia. Besides astrocytes and myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, other macroglial cell populations are found in discrete areas of the central nervous sy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Virard I,Coquillat D,Bancila M,Kaing S,Durbec P

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • The function of RhoGTPases in axon ensheathment and myelination.

    abstract::RhoGTPases are molecular switches that integrate extracellular signals to perform diverse cellular responses. This ability relies on the network of proteins regulating RhoGTPases activity and localization, and on the interaction of RhoGTPases with many different cellular effectors. Myelination is an ideal place for Rh...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Feltri ML,Suter U,Relvas JB

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Nerve injury-activated microglia engulf myelinated axons in a P2Y12 signaling-dependent manner in the dorsal horn.

    abstract::The mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are poorly understood. However, several studies have implied a role for reactive microglia located in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain. To clarify the roles of activated microglia in neuropathic pain, we investigated the interactions among microglia and other neural compon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maeda M,Tsuda M,Tozaki-Saitoh H,Inoue K,Kiyama H

    更新日期:2010-11-15 00:00:00

  • Lesion-induced changes of electrophysiological properties in astrocytes of the rat dentate gyrus.

    abstract::Reorganization of the adult dentate gyrus following unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL) is a well-established model for studying mechanisms of trauma-induced neuronal plasticity. The lesion induces deafferentiation of the outer molecular layer, which is accompanied by a strong astroglial reaction. This glial res...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schröder W,Hager G,Kouprijanova E,Weber M,Schmitt AB,Seifert G,Steinhäuser C

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cell death in the oligodendrocyte lineage: a molecular perspective of life/death decisions in development and disease.

    abstract::Cell death in the oligodendrocyte lineage occurs during development and in pathological conditions as the result of a balance between opposing molecular signals. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of activation of signal transduction pathways affecting life/death decisions in progenitor cells and in matur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casaccia-Bonnefil P

    更新日期:2000-01-15 00:00:00