The Nrf2-inducible antioxidant defense in astrocytes can be both up- and down-regulated by activated microglia:Involvement of p38 MAPK.


:The effects of microglia-conditioned medium (MCM) on the inducible Nrf2 system in astrocyte-rich cultures were investigated by determination of glutathione (GSH) levels, γglutamylcysteine ligase (γGCL) activity, the protein levels of Nrf2, Keap1, the modulatory subunit of γGCL (γGCL-M) and activated MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK and p38). Microglia were either cultured for 24 h in serum-free culture medium to achieve microglia-conditioned medium from non-activated cells (MCM(0) ), used as control condition, or activated with different concentrations (0.1-1,000 ng mL(-1) ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce MCM(0.1-1,000) . Acute exposure (24 h) to MCM(100) increased GSH, γGCL activity, the protein levels of γGCL-M, Nrf2, and activated JNK and ERK1/2 in astrocyte-rich cultures. In contrast, treatment with MCM(10) for 24 h decreased components of the Nrf2 system in parallel with activation of p38 MAPK. Stimulation of the Nrf2 system by tBHQ was partly intact after 24 h but blocked after 72 h treatment with MCM(10) and MCM(100) . This down-regulation after 72 h correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and lack of ERK1/2 and JNK activation. The negative effects were partly reversed by an inhibitor of p38 which restored tBHQ mediated protection against oxidative stress. In conclusion, the study showed a negative effect of MCM(10) on the inducible anti-oxidant defense in astrocyte-rich cultures at both 24 and 72 h that correlated with activation of p38 and was partly reversed by a p38 inhibitor. A transient protective effect of MCM(100) on astrocyte-rich cultures against H(2)O(2) toxicity was observed at 24 h which coincided with activation of JNK and ERK1/2.






Correa F,Ljunggren E,Mallard C,Nilsson M,Weber SG,Sandberg M




Has Abstract


2011-05-01 00:00:00














  • Hypoglycemia, brain energetics, and hypoglycemic neuronal death.

    abstract::Hypoglycemia is a common and serious problem among diabetic patients receiving treatment with insulin or other glucose-lowering drugs. Moderate hypoglycemia impairs neurological function, and severe hypoglycemia leads to death of selectively vulnerable neurons. Recent advances have shed new light on the underlying pro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Suh SW,Hamby AM,Swanson RA

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Histamine and prostanoid receptors on glial cells.

    abstract::Glial cells in vitro express at least two types (H1 and H2) of histamine receptors and three types (EP, FP, and TP) of prostanoid receptors. The receptors expressed by glial cells differ according to the cell type and source in the brain. Furthermore primary astrocytes of same type derived from the same brain region a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Inagaki N,Wada H

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation by the Pax-3 transcription factor.

    abstract::Pax-3 is a paired domain transcription factor that plays many roles during vertebrate development. In the Schwann cell lineage, Pax-3 is expressed at an early stage in Schwann cells precursors of the embryonic nerve, is maintained in the nonmyelinating cells of the adult nerve, and is upregulated in Schwann cells afte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doddrell RD,Dun XP,Moate RM,Jessen KR,Mirsky R,Parkinson DB

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Increase in glial intracellular K+ in drone retina caused by photostimulation but not mediated by an increase in extracellular K+.

    abstract::The predominant glial cells of the drone retina (outer pigment cells) respond to an increase in extracellular [K+] (Ko) by a net uptake of K+; thus, they contribute to bringing Ko back toward its baseline value. The authors report herein that there is also a different mechanism by which light stimulation of the retina...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coles JA,Schneider-Picard G

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Altered immune response to CNS viral infection in mice with a conditional knock-down of macrophage-lineage cells.

    abstract::Neuroadapted Sindbis Virus (NSV) is a neuronotropic virus that causes hindlimb paralysis in susceptible mice and rats. The authors and others have demonstrated that though death of infected motor neurons occurs, bystander death of uninfected neurons also occurs and both contribute to the paralysis that ensues followin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carmen J,Gowing G,Julien JP,Kerr D

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • The origin of remyelinating cells in the adult central nervous system: the role of the mature oligodendrocyte.

    abstract::The sequence of events by which new oligodendrocytes are generated in the adult mammalian central nervous system has not been clearly defined. Here we review old evidence that remyelinating cells can arise from the division of mature oligodendrocytes. In addition, we report the results of a tissue culture study compar...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wood PM,Bunge RP

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system of rats: definition of the differential expression of molecules using standard and novel monoclonal antibodies in normal CNS and in four models of parenchymal reaction.

    abstract::This report describes the development of a new panel of monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with cultured rat microglial cells. Using these new reagents and previously defined antibodies that bind to microglia or macrophages, the responses of parenchymal microglia, perivascular "microglial" c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flaris NA,Densmore TL,Molleston MC,Hickey WF

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nerve injury-activated microglia engulf myelinated axons in a P2Y12 signaling-dependent manner in the dorsal horn.

    abstract::The mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are poorly understood. However, several studies have implied a role for reactive microglia located in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain. To clarify the roles of activated microglia in neuropathic pain, we investigated the interactions among microglia and other neural compon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maeda M,Tsuda M,Tozaki-Saitoh H,Inoue K,Kiyama H

    更新日期:2010-11-15 00:00:00

  • ERK1/2 signaling is essential for the chemoattraction exerted by human FGF2 and human anosmin-1 on newborn rat and mouse OPCs via FGFR1.

    abstract::Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) is essential for many cellular processes including proliferation and migration, as well as differentiation events such as myelination. Anosmin-1 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that interacts with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1)...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murcia-Belmonte V,Medina-Rodríguez EM,Bribián A,de Castro F,Esteban PF

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transport of L-arginine in cultured glial cells.

    abstract::Uptake of radiolabelled L-arginine was studied in four different kinds of glial cultures, in astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from neonatal rat and mouse brains, in pure murine astrocyte cultures, and in rat glioma cells C6-BU-1. A saturable component of uptake was found in all cases with KM values between 15 a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidlin A,Wiesinger H

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-6 production by brain tissue and cultured astrocytes infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    abstract::Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is known to interact with cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report that, interestingly, it is a potent inductor of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the CNS of infected animals and in pure cultures of astrocytes. Maximal IL-6 gene transcription in glial cells, as ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rubio N,Sierra A

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Microglia release ATP by exocytosis.

    abstract::Microglia survey the brain environment by sensing several types of diffusible molecules, among which extracellular nucleotides released/leaked from damaged cells have central roles. Microglia sense ATP or other nucleotides by multiple P2 receptors, after which they change into several different phenotypes. However, so...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imura Y,Morizawa Y,Komatsu R,Shibata K,Shinozaki Y,Kasai H,Moriishi K,Moriyama Y,Koizumi S

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial endotoxin induces [Ca2+]i transients and changes the organization of actin in microglia.

    abstract::We have employed amoeboid microglia purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat brain to examine the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent activator of immune cells, on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in brain macrophages. In single brain macrophages loaded with indo 1, pulse administ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bader MF,Taupenot L,Ulrich G,Aunis D,Ciesielski-Treska J

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-1 beta regulates proenkephalin gene expression in astrocytes cultured from rat cortex.

    abstract::Glial cells execute essential functions in central nervous system (CNS) development and are also believed to play important roles during gliosis in response to trauma or disease. These developmental and pathological states have also been associated with elevated expression of opioid genes. Because levels of the cytoki...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Negro A,Tavella A,Facci L,Callegaro L,Skaper SD

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beta IV tubulin is selectively expressed by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system.

    abstract::Oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination involve dramatic changes in cell signaling pathways, gene expression patterns, cell shape, and cytoskeletal organization. In a pilot study investigating CNS angiogenesis, oligodendrocytes were intensely labeled by antisera directed against the C-terminal of Tie-2, a 140-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terada N,Kidd GJ,Kinter M,Bjartmar C,Moran-Jones K,Trapp BD

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • How microglia sense and regulate neuronal activity.

    abstract::Microglia are innate immune cells of the central nervous system that sense extracellular cues. Brain injuries, inflammation, and pathology evoke dynamic structural responses in microglia, altering their morphology and motility. The dynamic motility of microglia is hypothesized to be a critical first step in sensing lo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Umpierre AD,Wu LJ

    更新日期:2020-12-28 00:00:00

  • NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration.

    abstract::Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons with age. We previously found that a single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection caused a slow progressive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH+IR) neurons in SN associated ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin L,Liu Y,Hong JS,Crews FT

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Glial cells promote dendrite formation and the reception of synaptic input in Purkinje cells from postnatal mice.

    abstract::Previous studies suggest that glial cells contribute to synaptogenesis in specific neurons from the postnatal CNS. Here, we studied whether this is true for Purkinje cells (PCs), which represent a unique neuronal cell type due to their large size, massive synaptic input, and high vulnerability. Using new glia-free cul...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buard I,Steinmetz CC,Claudepierre T,Pfrieger FW

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • An FGF-responsive astrocyte precursor isolated from the neonatal forebrain.

    abstract::Gliogenesis in the mammalian CNS continues after birth, with astrocytes being generated well into the first two postnatal weeks. In this study, we have isolated an A2B5(+) astrocyte precursor (APC) from the postnatal rat forebrain, which is capable of differentiating into mature astrocytes in serum-free medium without...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin G,Goldman JE

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Inositol-trisphosphate-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in and between astrocytes and endothelial cells.

    abstract::Interactions between astrocytes and endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in the control of blood-brain barrier permeability and transport. Astrocytes and endothelial cells respond to a variety of stimuli with an increase of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) that is propagated to adjacent cells a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leybaert L,Paemeleire K,Strahonja A,Sanderson MJ

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of Golli and myelin basic proteins in human brain during early development.

    abstract::The myelin basic protein gene (Mbp) encodes for the major myelin structural proteins and it is included in the Golli-Mbp gene complex. Previously, we observed MBP-like proteins in the human central nervous system (CNS) at developmental stages preceding myelination. In an effort to distinguish between Golli (HOG5 and H...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tosic M,Rakic S,Matthieu J-,Zecevic N

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Selective upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines in microglia: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    abstract::A role for free radicals has been proposed in infectious brain disease, where resident microglia cells upregulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS), and thus are capable of producing nitric oxide at enhanced rates. Using the constitutively expressed NADPH oxidase, microglial cells can generate superox...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Possel H,Noack H,Putzke J,Wolf G,Sies H

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Neurons and astrocytes influence the development of purified O-2A progenitor cells.

    abstract::To investigate the possible role of neurons and astrocytes for oligodendrocyte development we prepared a pure population of precursor cells positive for the precursor marker GD3 with the help of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Large numbers of highly purified cells were obtained from postnatal day 1 rat br...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dutly F,Schwab ME

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperpolarization-activated ion currents in cultured rat cortical and spinal cord astrocytes.

    abstract::Hyperpolarization-activated currents were recorded from rat brain cortical and spinal cord astrocytes maintained in culture. Spinal cord astrocytes expressed primarily an inward rectifier potassium current characterized by time-dependent inactivation, a strong dependence on extracellular Na+ and insensitivity to intra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guatteo E,Stanness KA,Janigro D

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Capacitative Ca2+ influx in glial cells is inhibited by glycolytic inhibitors.

    abstract::In non-excitable cells, stimulation of phosphoinositide (PI) turnover and inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase are methods commonly used to deplete calcium stores, resulting in a capacitative Ca2+ influx (i.e., Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ influx). Since this Ca2+ influx in glial cells has not been ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu ML,Kao EF,Liu IH,Wang BS,Lin-Shiau SY

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Slow degradation in phagocytic astrocytes can be enhanced by lysosomal acidification.

    abstract::Inefficient lysosomal degradation is central in the development of various brain disorders, but the underlying mechanisms and the involvement of different cell types remains elusive. We have previously shown that astrocytes effectively engulf dead cells, but then store, rather than degrade the ingested material. In th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lööv C,Mitchell CH,Simonsson M,Erlandsson A

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Heterogeneous fate choice of genetically modulated adult neural stem cells in gray and white matter of the central nervous system.

    abstract::Apart from dedicated oligodendroglial progenitor cells, adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can also give rise to new oligodendrocytes in the adult central nervous system (CNS). This process mainly confers myelinating glial cell replacement in pathological situations and can hence contribute to glial heterogeneity. Our pr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beyer F,Jadasz J,Samper Agrelo I,Schira-Heinen J,Groh J,Manousi A,Bütermann C,Estrada V,Reiche L,Cantone M,Vera J,Viganò F,Dimou L,Müller HW,Hartung HP,Küry P

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mutation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated is associated with dysfunctional glutathione homeostasis in cerebellar astroglia.

    abstract::Astroglial dysfunction plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases otherwise attributed to neuronal loss of function. Here we focus on the role of astroglia in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a disease caused by mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. A hallmark of A-T pathology is progressiv...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell A,Bushman J,Munger J,Noble M,Pröschel C,Mayer-Pröschel M

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of carbachol- and histamine-induced inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in a human oligodendroglioma.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Post GR,Dawson G

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Overexpression of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6/Bonzo promotes growth of human schwannomas.

    abstract::Chemokines and their receptors play a decisive role in tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we describe the expression of the CXCL16-CXCR6-system in human schwannomas of different localization and in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. The transmembrane chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6/Bonzo were overe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Held-Feindt J,Rehmke B,Mentlein R,Hattermann K,Knerlich F,Hugo HH,Ludwig A,Mehdorn HM

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00