The prevalence of opportunistic pathogens associated with intraoral implants.


AIMS:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and proportions of opportunistic pathogens harboured on orthodontic retainers. METHODS AND RESULTS:First, Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. were isolated from the retainer's inner surface and from other mucosal surfaces of the subject's mouth by routine bacterial culture. The prevalence and proportions of these micro-organisms on retainers was compared in different areas of the mouth within a group of retainer wearers, and mucosal carriage was compared to a group of nonretainer wearers. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 50% of the retainers and comprised on average 8·4% of the viable microbiota. Candida spp. comprised 0·13% of the viable microbiota and were recovered from 66·7% of the retainers. Neither genus was isolated from nonretainer wearers. Second, the two most commonly worn retainers manufactured from different materials were sampled; again Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. were recovered; however, no statistical differences were observed between the devices. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunistic, nonoral, pathogenic micro-organisms were recovered from orthodontic retainers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:It is possible that an orthodontic retainer could be a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens and act as a source of cross-, self- and re-infection.


Lett Appl Microbiol


Al Groosh D,Roudsari GB,Moles DR,Ready D,Noar JH,Pratten J




Has Abstract


2011-05-01 00:00:00












  • Upgrading of by-product from beverage industry through solid-state fermentation with Candida utilis and Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::Yellow wine lees (YWL) are the main co-products in yellow wine industry with unbalanced amino acid (AA) profiles. Solid-state fermentation was employed in this study to upgrade the YWL for ruminant animals. A 3 × 3 orthogonal design was conducted to optimize the fermentation condition for optimal crude protein (CP) yi...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao KY,Zhang TZ,Wang HF,Liu JX

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anomalies in species identification of enterococci from veterinary sources using a commercial biochemical identification system.

    abstract:AIMS:A commercial biochemical panel ID kit was used to identify presumptive enterococci isolates of veterinary or agricultural origin obtained during different steps of culture. METHODS AND RESULTS:Fifty isolates identified as enterococci using a genus PCR assay were tested for genus and species identification using t...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hudson CR,Fedorka-Cray PJ,Jackson-Hall MC,Hiott LM

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics.

    abstract:AIMS:To compare the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 chemotyped essential oils (EO) on 65 bacteria with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. METHODS AND RESULTS:Fifty-five bacterial strains were tested with two methods used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity (CLSI recommendations): the agar dilution...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mayaud L,Carricajo A,Zhiri A,Aubert G

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, the causative agent of vibriosis in mariculture fish.

    abstract:AIMS:The purpose of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid, sensitive and simple detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in mariculture fish. METHODS AND RESULTS:LAMP primers were designed by targeting the gyrB gene. With Bst DNA polymerase, the target DNA can be clear...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cai SH,Lu YS,Wu ZH,Jian JC,Wang B,Huang YC

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of three immunological methods for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxins from food.

    abstract:AIMS:Immunologically based assays for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins are numerous. These techniques include radio immunosorbent assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), some of which are available as commercial kits. The purpose of this study was to compare the performances of three commerci...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vernozy-Rozand C,Mazuy-Cruchaudet C,Bavai C,Richard Y

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hydroxyaldimines as potent in vitro anticryptococcal agents.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, contributes to increasing indices of mortality and morbidity. The development of resistance by Cryptococcus spp., the limited number of commercial antifungal drugs and the various side effects of these dru...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magalhães TF,da Silva CM,de Fátima Â,da Silva DL,Modolo LV,Martins CV,Alves RB,Ruiz AL,Longato GB,de Carvalho JE,de Resende-Stoianoff MA

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Novel ecological niche of Cetobacterium somerae, an anaerobic bacterium in the intestinal tracts of freshwater fish.

    abstract:AIMS:This study was conducted to clarify the taxonomic status of Bacteroides type A strains with high vitamin B(12)-producing ability that is widely distributed in the intestinal tracts of freshwater fish. METHODS AND RESULTS:Seventeen strains of Bacteroides type A isolated from five fish species were all rod-shaped a...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsuchiya C,Sakata T,Sugita H

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sows affect their piglets' faecal microbiota until fattening but not their Salmonella enterica shedding status.

    abstract::Recent studies have shown that Salmonella shedding status affects sows' microbiota during gestation and that these modifications are reflected in the faecal microbiota of their piglets at weaning. The aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the persistence, up to the fattening period, of the previously measured link ...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Larivière-Gauthier G,Thibodeau A,Yergeau É,Fravalo P

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • The use of bovine serum albumin to improve the RT-qPCR detection of foodborne viruses rinsed from vegetable surfaces.

    abstract:AIMS:To demonstrate that produce rinsates used for RT-qPCR detection of foodborne viruses may cause significant PCR inhibition and propose a means to reduce its impact on sensitivity. METHODS AND RESULTS:Here, it is shown that rinsing and concentration from spinach and precut lettuce have the potential to generate RNA...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plante D,Bélanger G,Leblanc D,Ward P,Houde A,Trottier YL

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • RAPD analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    abstract::A total of 87 isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were examined with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) by use of three different primers. Based on the RAPD profiles, the strains could be divided into three major groups: (1) the pathogenic American serotypes, O:8, O:13ab, O:20 and O:21; (2) the pathogenic Europ...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rasmussen HN,Olsen JE,Rasmussen OF

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid Aeromonas hydrophila identification by TaqMan PCR assay: comparison with a phenotypic method.

    abstract:AIMS:Aeromonas hydrophila is recognized as a human pathogen following wound exposure or ingestion of contaminated water and food. For rapid identification of this bacterium, a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay has been developed. METHODS AND RESULTS:Primers and probes that target specific sequences of the 16S rRNA gene...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trakhna F,Harf-Monteil C,Abdelnour A,Maaroufi A,Gadonna-Widehem P

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis strain BY-3, a thermophilic and efficient cellulase-producing bacterium on untreated plant biomass.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Bioconversion of biomass, particularly crop wastes, into biofuels is being developed as an alternative approach in meeting the high energy demand. In this study, a thermophilic bacterial strain BY-3 that exhibits cellulolytic potential was isolated from faecal samples of Tibetan pigs; this strain was identif...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meng F,Ma L,Ji S,Yang W,Cao B

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • The extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans possesses a c-di-GMP signalling pathway that could play a significant role during bioleaching of minerals.

    abstract:AIMS:  The primary goal of this study was to characterize the existence of a functional c-di-GMP pathway in the bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. METHODS AND RESULTS:  A bioinformatic search revealed that the genome sequence of At. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 codes for several proteins involved in the ...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruiz LM,Castro M,Barriga A,Jerez CA,Guiliani N

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of environmental stresses on the sensitivity of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant milk formula to gamma radiation.

    abstract:AIM:To evaluate the effect of starvation, heat, cold, acid, alkaline, chlorine and ethanol stresses on the resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) towards gamma radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Stressed cells of E. sakazakii ATCC 51329 and four other food isolate strains were mixed in...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osaili T,Al-Nabulsi A,Shaker R,Ayyash M,Olaimat A,Abu Al-Hasan A,Kadora K,Holley R

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Protein A insensitive ELISA detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    abstract::A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin B was developed using rat monoclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and as a biotinylated conjugate. This test was sensitive, less than 1 ng/ml of enterotoxin B was detected and interference by protein A was prevented by the use of rat...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rogemond V,Da Costa Castro JM,Delaunay T,Cazaux C,Guinet RM

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of primers for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovars using real-time PCR.

    abstract:AIMS:To evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of PCR primers for the detection of Salmonella enterica in a real-time PCR assay using pure cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS:Unenriched whole cells in sterile water were used as template for each PCR. SYBR Green dye was used for the nonspecific detection of dsDNA. The real...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Csordas AT,Barak JD,Delwiche MJ

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bioconversion of 3 beta-acetoxypregna-5,16-diene-20-one to androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione by mixed bacterial culture.

    abstract:AIMS:To isolate a bacterium capable of degrading 3 beta-acetoxypregna-5,16-diene-20-one (16-DPA) to androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) and to decipher the biodegradation pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS:Isolation on mineral salt agar containing 16-DPA as sole carbon source yielded two bacteria identified as Pseudomonas d...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patil S,Shukla A,Shinde K,Banerjee T

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of gluconate metabolism for pyruvate production in engineered Escherichia coli based on genome-wide transcriptomes.

    abstract::For pyruvate-producing strains, intracellular reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) accumulation is the main reason for the glycolysis inhibition. Comparing with glucose, using sodium gluconate as carbon source brought a decrease in NADH production and an increase in pyruvate production in engineered strain...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang M,Mu T,Zhong W,Olajuyin AM,Xing J

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid identification of Lactobacillus brevis using the polymerase chain reaction.

    abstract:AIMS:Species-specific PCR was applied to identify Lactobacillus brevis and the sensitivity and the specificity of the protocol were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS:Strains of Lact. brevis obtained from foods, particularly dairy products, and various strain collections, were identified by PCR using primers which amplif...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guarneri T,Rossetti L,Giraffa G

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment with chlorous acid to inhibit spores of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in aqueous suspension and on apples.

    abstract:AIM:To test the efficacy of a chemical (chlorous acid) for reducing the numbers of viable Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in laboratory media and on apples. METHODS AND RESULTS:Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in aqueous suspension and on apple surfaces of four different cultivars were treated with 268 ...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SY,Ryu SR,Kang DH

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial activity of Pseudomonas spp. against food poisoning bacteria and moulds.

    abstract::The present study demonstrates the siderophore production of two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and two of Ps. chlororaphis. The antimicrobial activities of these strains were studied against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Aspergillus niger. Despite equal siderop...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laine MH,Karwoski MT,Raaska LB,Mattila-Sandholm TM

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mrr2 mutations and upregulation are associated with increased fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    abstract::Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus, which causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The aim of this study was to evaluate Mrr2 mutation and its expression levels and Candida drug resistance 1 (Cdr1) in C. albicans associated with fluconazole (FCA) resistance. We identified 80 isolates of C. albicans from 155 vag...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feng W,Yang J,Ji Y,Xi Z,Yang L,Zhu X,Ma Y

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of process variables for minimization of byproduct formation during fermentation of blackstrap molasses to ethanol at industrial scale.

    abstract:AIMS:To investigate the effect of molasses concentration, initial pH of molasses medium, and inoculum's size to maximize ethanol and minimize methanol, fusel alcohols, acetic acid and aldehydes in the fermentation mash in industrial fermentors. METHODS AND RESULTS:Initial studies to optimize temperature, nitrogen sour...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arshad M,Khan ZM,Khalil-ur-Rehman,Shah FA,Rajoka MI

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Production of gamma-linolenic acid by disrupted mycelia of Mortierella isabellina.

    abstract:AIMS:To optimize the production of linolenic acid by disrupted mycelia of Mortierella isabellina. METHODS AND RESULTS:Effects of incubation conditions such as incubation time, pH of reaction mixture, concentration of Mg2+ or malate and incubation temperature on production of linolenic acid were studied. The production...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xian M,Nie J,Meng Q,Liu J,Zhou C,Kang Y,Zhen K

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Yeast as an expression system for producing virus-like particles: what factors do we need to consider?

    abstract::The development of various types of virus-like particles (VLPs) has accelerated over the past two decades as the importance of VLPs for generating next-generation vaccines has been appreciated. Yeast has advantages such as scalable fermentation, low risk of contamination by adventitious agents, low production costs an...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim HJ,Kim HJ

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial susceptibility and factors affecting the shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    abstract:AIMS:To examine factors affecting faecal shedding of the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in dairy cattle and evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. METHODS:Faecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein catt...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fitzgerald AC,Edrington TS,Looper ML,Callaway TR,Genovese KJ,Bischoff KM,McReynolds JL,Thomas JD,Anderson RC,Nisbet DJ

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of penicillin G on the electroporation of Rhodococcus rhodochrous CF222.

    abstract::Suitable conditions for the introduction of bacteriophage DNA into cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous CF222 by electroporation were established, and penicillin G was found to enhance the transfection frequency. When conditions optimal for the parental strain were applied to its colony-morphological mutants, different tr...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sunairi M,Iwabuchi N,Murakami K,Watanabe F,Ogawa Y,Murooka H,Nakajima M

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of different DNA extraction procedures for the detection of Salmonella from chicken products by polymerase chain reaction.

    abstract::Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used after a short pre-enrichment culture to detect Salmonella subspecies in chicken fillets. A direct PCR assay performed with chicken meat inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium produced no PCR products. Six different DNA extraction protocols were tested to recover efficiently Sal...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soumet C,Ermel G,Fach P,Colin P

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Technical advance in fungal biotechnology: development of a miniaturized culture method and an automated high-throughput screening.

    abstract:AIMS:The goal of the study was to develop a reliable, reproducible and rapid method of culture in order to screen a large number of fungal transformants. METHODS AND RESULTS:The method is based upon miniaturized cell cultures and automated expression screening in microwell plates. For the method development, 50 recomb...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alberto F,Navarro D,de Vries RP,Asther M,Record E

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence and PCR detection of Campylobacter upsaliensis in dogs and cats.

    abstract::A study was made of the incidence of Campylobacter upsaliensis among dogs and cats suffering from acute or chronic diarrhoea; 225 dogs and cats were examined and 51 strains were identified, 16 (7%) of which were Camp. upsaliensis. When rectal swabs were taken from a control group of 126 dogs and cats without clinical ...

    journal_title:Letters in applied microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steinhauserova I,Fojtikova K,Klimes J

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00