Germany's decision rule for setting ceiling prices of drugs: a comparative analysis with other decision rules.


:In Germany, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) makes recommendations for ceiling prices of drugs based on an evaluation of the relationship between costs and effectiveness. To set ceiling prices, IQWiG uses the following decision rule: the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a new drug compared with the next effective intervention should not be higher than that of the next effective intervention compared with its comparator. The purpose of this article is to analyse ethical implications of IQWiG's rule and compare them with those of two alternative decision rules, one that is based on an absolute cost-effectiveness threshold and one that falls in between. To this end, constrained optimization problems are defined that yield each decision rule. This article shows that IQWiG's rule accounts for severity of disease and past resource consumption. Potential problems and pitfalls are discussed.


Gandjour A




Has Abstract


2011-03-01 00:00:00














  • Current and future economic burden of osteoporosis in New Zealand.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Osteoporosis is recognized as a serious health condition in developed as well as developing countries. There are no accurate estimates of the extent of the burden of osteoporosis in New Zealand. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of osteoporosis in New Zealand using data from inter...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown P,McNeill R,Leung W,Radwan E,Willingale J

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  • The influence of bonus payments to doctors on hospital revenue: results of a quasi-experimental study.

    abstract::There is wide consensus that the ways in which providers are reimbursed by third parties will affect their behaviour and, hence, the efficient use of limited resources and the performance of health systems. However, there seems to be little evidence on how payment to hospital-based doctors affects hospital performance...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Mills A

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  • The Cost and Outcome Effectiveness of Total Hip Replacement: Technique Choice and Volume-Output Effects Matter.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Total hip replacement (THR) must be managed in a more sustainable manner. More cost-effective surgical techniques and the centralization/regionalization of services are two solutions. The former requires an assessment of newer minimally invasive and muscle-sparing surgical techniques. The latter necessitates...

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    authors: Goldstein JP,Babikian GM,Rana AJ,Mackenzie JA,Millar A

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  • Virtual Touch™ Quantification to Diagnose and Monitor Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.

    abstract::Virtual Touch™ Quantification (VTq) is a software application used with Siemens Acuson ultrasound scanners to assess the stiffness of liver tissue. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Medical Technologies Advisory Committee (MTAC) selected VTq for evaluation and invited the company to submit c...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

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    authors: Summers JA,Radhakrishnan M,Morris E,Chalkidou A,Rua T,Patel A,McMillan V,Douiri A,Wang Y,Ayis S,Higgins J,Keevil S,Lewis C,Peacock J

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Health Insurance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Review of the Methods Used to Evaluate its Impact.

    abstract::We conducted a scoping review with the objective of synthesizing available literature and mapping what designs and methods have been used to evaluate health insurance reforms in sub-Saharan Africa. We systematically searched for scientific and grey literature in English and French published between 1980 and 2017 using...

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    authors: Degroote S,Ridde V,De Allegri M

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  • Cost of Medicare for All: Review of the Estimates.

    abstract::This paper critically evaluates the estimates of the cost of Medicare for All (M4A) in the USA. Six studies that estimate the 1-year total cost of M4A in the USA are reviewed. These studies find that M4A would increase national health spending by as much as 16.9% or decrease it by 20.0%, representing a range of estima...

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    authors: Nyman JA

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

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    authors: Mason AR,Drummond MF,Hunter JA,Towse AK,Cooke J

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    authors: O'Connell S,Dale M,Morgan H,Carter K,Carolan-Rees G

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  • A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) Compared to the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) for Universal Mass Vaccination Implementation in New Zea

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    authors: Varghese L,Talbot L,Govender A,Zhang XH,Mungall BA

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hu S,Zhang Y,He J,Du L,Xu M,Xie C,Peng Y,Wang L

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  • Economic analysis of thrombo inCode, a clinical-genetic function for assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism.

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

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    authors: Rubio-Terrés C,Soria JM,Morange PE,Souto JC,Suchon P,Mateo J,Saut N,Rubio-Rodríguez D,Sala J,Gracia A,Pich S,Salas E

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • The importance of proximity to death in modelling community medication expenditures for older people: evidence from New Zealand.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Concerns about the long-term sustainability of health care expenditures (HCEs), particularly prescribing expenditures, has become an important policy issue in most developed countries. Previous studies suggest that proximity to death (PTD) has a significant effect on total HCEs, with its exclusion leading to...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moore PV,Bennett K,Normand C

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  • Factors Influencing the Cost-Effectiveness Outcomes of HPV Vaccination and Screening Interventions in Low-to-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs): A Systematic Review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer ranks fourth amongst the commonest malignancies worldwide and the second most prevalent cancer afflicting women in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), hence, of great public health importance. LMICs are the most affected regions as evidenced by their high prevalence of the disease. Mortal...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Okeah BO,Ridyard CH

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Kostić M,Djakovic L,Šujić R,Godman B,Janković SM

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Lang HC,Wu JC,Yen SH,Lan CF,Wu SL

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Standaert B,Parez N,Tehard B,Colin X,Detournay B

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    authors: Calciolari S,Torbica A,Tarricone R

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    authors: Shanahan M,Shakeshaft A,Mattick RP

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    authors: Andronis L,Kinghorn P,Qiao S,Whitehurst DG,Durrell S,McLeod H

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    authors: Kaspers S,Ranke MB,Han D,Loftus J,Wollmann H,Lindberg A,Roelants M,Kleintjens J

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  • Cost and Budget Impact Analysis of an Accurate Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Diagnosis for Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Conventional intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer (BC) has limitations in establishing a definitive diagnosis of metastasis intraoperatively, leading to an unnecessary second operation. The one-step nucleic amplification assay (OSNA) provides accurate intraoperative diagnosis and...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

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    authors: Saruta Y,Puig-Junoy J

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeidler J,Mahlich J,Greiner W,Heres S

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanton KR,Acs ZJ

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    abstract::The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and...

    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Golec J,Vernon JA

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

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    authors: Wettstein DJ,Boes S

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carter MJ

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter A,Thieda P,Thaler K,Gartlehner G

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tunis SL

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jarrett J,Mugford M

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Applied health economics and health policy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Campbell JR,Sasitharan T,Marra F

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00